The abolition of monarchy involves the ending of monarchical elements in government hereditary. Abolition has been carried out in various ways, including via abdication leading to the extinction of the monarchy, legislative reform, coup d'état, decolonisation. Abolition became more frequent in the 20th century, with the number of monarchies in Europe falling from 22 to 12 between 1914 and 2015, the number of republics rising from 4 to 34. Decolonisation and independence have resulted in an abolition of monarchies in a number of former colonies such as those created by the United Kingdom. Motivations for abolition include egalitarianism and anti-class views, opposition to undemocratic and hereditary institutions, perception of monarchy as anachronistic or outdated, opposition to a particular monarch or dynasty. In many colonies and former colonies, abolishing the influence of the monarchy of a colonising state is considered part of decolonisation. In many Commonwealth realms, the monarchy may be viewed as a foreign institution running counter to the national identity or national sovereignty.
In the 21st century, some countries that are monarchies have significant republican movements, such as Spain and Australia. Since the beginning of the 20th century, restorations of monarchies have been comparatively rare. Examples are the monarchy of Spain, which since 1947 had been a regency with a vacant throne but was restored in 1975. Under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, in 1649, King Charles I was tried for high treason and executed; this marked the conclusion of the English Civil War which resulted in the Parliament of England overthrowing the English monarchy, initiating a period of an English republic. After eleven years, in 1660, a limited monarchy was restored but moderated by an independent Parliament. Organized anti-monarchism in what is now the United States developed out of a gradual revolution that began in 1765, as colonists resisted a stamp tax through boycott and condemnation of tax officials. While they were subject to the authority of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the North American citizens enjoyed a level of autonomy that clashed with the Parliament that did not provide seats for parliamentary representatives.
With the Declaration of Independence in 1776, anti-monarchical propaganda resulted in violent protests that systematically removed symbols of monarchy. For instance, an equestrian statue of George III in New York City was toppled. Parliamentary loyalists were affected by partisan attacks, with tens of thousands leaving for Canada. Property that remained was confiscated by each of thirteen newly created States through newly passed laws. Artifacts from the colonial period depicting the British monarchy are found in the United States. However, not all sentiment equated to anti-monarchism. A normality of a monarchy at the head of a polity remained, that some Americans saw a presidency in monarchical terms, a Caesar of the republic, was an early debate in the new republic. One of the most significant abolitions of monarchy in history – along with the Dutch Republic of 1581–1795 – involved the French monarchy in 1792 in the French Revolution; the French monarchy was restored several times with differing levels of authority.
Napoleon a hero of the Republican revolution, crowned himself emperor in 1804, only to be replaced by the Bourbon Restoration in 1815, which in turn was replaced by the more liberal July Monarchy in 1830. The 1848 Revolution was a clearer anti-monarchic uprising that replaced the succession of royal leaders with the short-lived Second French Republic. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte established the Second French Empire, retaining republican aspects while placing himself in the center of the state until the losses in the Franco-Prussian War led to his fall, resulting in the French Third Republic and the definitive end of the monarchy in France. Madagascar The monarchy of Madagascar, known as the Merina Kingdom, came to an end in 1897 when France made it a colony and overthrew Queen Ranavalona III. Mexico The First Mexican Empire existed from the September 1821 Declaration of Independence until the emperor's abdication in March 1823; the Provisional Government took power and the First Mexican Republic was proclaimed in 1824.
Due to French intervention under Napoleon III, the Second Mexican Empire lasted from 1864 to 1867, when it collapsed and its Emperor, Maximilian I of Mexico, was executed. Brazil In Brazil, the monarchy was abolished in 1889, when Emperor Pedro II was overthrown by a republican military coup. Burma The monarchy of Burma was abolished in 1885 when the last king, Thibaw Min, lost his throne and the country was annexed by Britain. South Asia In 1858 the Mughal Empire came to an end after losing a war against Britain, its Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, lost his throne. Italy Between 1859 and 1861, four monarchies in Southern Europe ceased to exist when they all became part of the new Kingdom of Italy. Spain In Spain monarchy was abolished from 1873 to 1874 by the First Spanish Republic, but restored until 1931. Hawaii In 1893 foreign business leaders overthrew Queen Liliʻuokalani of the Kingdom of Hawaii, they established a republic, annexed by the United States in 1898. Tahiti The monarchy of Tahiti came to an end in 1880 when France made it a colony and overthrew K
The Ben Davis is an apple cultivar. During the 19th century and early 20th century it was a popular commercial apple due to the ruggedness and keeping qualities of the fruit, but as packing and transportation techniques improved the cultivar fell out of favor, replaced by others considered to have better flavor, it was known to fruit growers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a "mortgage lifter" because it was a reliable producer and the fruit would not drop from the trees until late in the season. By mid-twentieth century it was used as a process apple rather than a table apple, orchards were replacing it with more popular varieties; the cultivar is now rare to nonexistent in the commercial trade. It is still grown in parts of Maine; the Ben Davis was crossbred with the'McIntosh' to create the Cortland, a successful pie apple. Similar cultivars known as Gano or Black Ben Davis appeared in parts of the American South in the 1880s, they are said to be either seedlings of, or identical to the original Ben Davis, but the exact relationship is unknown.
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HMS Boomerang was an Sharpshooter-class torpedo gunboat of the Royal Navy named HMS Whiting, built by Armstrong Whitworth, Elswick and Wear and launched on 24 July 1889. Renamed Boomerang on 2 April 1890, she formed part of the Auxiliary Squadron of the Australia Station. Boomerang arrived in Sydney with the squadron on 5 September 1891. Lieutenant and commander Edward Matthew Hale was appointed in command on 15 February 1900, she left the Australia Station on 22 August 1904. She was sold for £1900 in July 1905 at Portsmouth. Bastock, Ships on the Australia Station, Child & Associates Publishing Pty Ltd. ISBN 0-86777-348-0 Winfield, R.. The Sail and Steam Navy List: All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815–1889. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-032-6
Elizabeth Myers is an American musician, composer and singer. She co-wrote the Eddie Money song "Shakin'", but is best known for her collaborations with her husband, John Trivers on the music for several award-winning commercials and films, their music company Trivers Myers Music, established in 1984, has composed or arranged music for many clients, received multiple Clio Awards. They have arranged and produced the music for several commercials for United Airlines, one of which, "A Life", is a part of the permanent collection at the Museum of Modern Art. In 2011, the theme for the CBS Evening News that Myers co-wrote with Trivers and Alan Pasqua was relaunched for the broadcasts that feature Scott Pelley as news anchor. Myers earned a bachelor's degree in Composition from the University of North Carolina School of the Arts, a master's degree in Music from UNC Chapel Hill, she studied composition with Nadia Boulanger at the "Ecole d'arts americains" and privately with Jacques Rouvier in Paris.
On returning to the States, she was hired as the Musical Director of the Broadway show "Grease" in New York, where she met her future husband, John Trivers. They formed a music company, Trivers/Myers Music, which has composed scores for many major commercials. In 2004, they arranged a version of George Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue" for an animated commercial for United Airlines, "A Life"; the ad became so popular, it was broadcast during the Academy Awards, displayed in art museums. The couple continued to arrange and produce music for several other United Commercials, such as "The Night", when a jet-lagged business traveler ventures out from his hotel to be taken on a whirlwind tour by a moped driver; the music was selected by SHOOT magazine as one of the Top 10 music tracks of the summer. She has conducted members of the Los Angeles Philharmonic in original scores for films and other compositions, co-wrote the song "Shakin'" with Eddie Money, for which she received a "Millionair" award from BMI for one million air-plays.
Her original score for David Rabe's "The Orphan" was published by Samuel French and her orchestration of Agnes de Mille's ballet "Texas Fourth" has been performed by the State Street Ballet Company. As of 2017, Myers is teaching a "Composition for Commercials" extension course through the UCLA "Certificate of Film Scoring" program. 2000, solo CD and book entitled "Le Rendez-Vous", published by Beautiful Babe Music and Books In 2006 Myers received a Clio Award together with Trivers for their arrangement of Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue" for a United Airlines commercial entitled "Interview." They have had numerous other commercial music scores receive awards, such as Golden Lions at Cannes, AICP Finalists, Communication Arts awards. 1998, composer of Best Western International ad "Manhattan". Clio Award certificate, Television/Cinema 1996, arranger/composer of Blue Cross / Blue Shield ad "The Delivery". Clio Award, TV/Cinema 2005, music for United Airlines "Interview". Clio Award, Television/Cinema, Bronze 1996, music for Glendale Federal Bank, "Building", "Trap Door", "Flower Pot".
Clio Award, TV & Cinema, Silver 1995, music for Auto CD / Pioneer "Bridge". Clio Award, TV & Cinema, Gold 1995, music for Miller Lite "Elmer Bruker". Clio Award, TV & Cinema, Certificate Official website Le Rendez-Vous album information and reviews Le Rendez-Vous credits and track listing Elizabeth Myers at AllMusic "United Airlines commercial'A Life'". 2004. Retrieved July 6, 2011 – via YouTube
The Cuinarana Marine Extractive Reserve is a coastal marine extractive reserve in the state of Pará, Brazil. The Cuinarana Marine Extractive Reserve is in the municipality of Magalhães Barata, Pará, it has an area of 11,037 hectares. The reserve protects the mangroves between the east bank of the Marapanim River and the west bank of the Cuinarana River; the Mestre Lucindo Marine Extractive Reserve lies to the west and the Maracanã Marine Extractive Reserve lies to the east. The Cuinarana Marine Extractive Reserve was created by federal decree on 10 October 2014; the reserve is one of three created by president Dilma Rousseff thirteen days before the 2014 presidential elections. The other two are the Mocapajuba and Mestre Lucindo marine extractive reserves, both in Pará; the Araí-Peroba Marine Extractive Reserve was expanded by 50,500 hectares. The reserve is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation, it is classed as IUCN protected area category VI. The objective is to conserve the biodiversity of the ecosystems of mangroves, salt marshes, wetlands, rivers and islands.
Rodrigo Marques de Santana, known as Rodrigo Santana, is a Brazilian football manager and former player who played as an attacking midfielder. He is in charge of Avaí. Born in Santos, São Paulo, Santana played as a midfielder and retired in 2010, aged 28, after suffering a hand injury while representing Confiança, he started his career as Camboriú's assistant. In 2011, Santana was named manager of Pinheiros' under-20 manager, being in charge of the first team afterwards, he left the club in November, being appointed Nenê Belarmino's assistant at Uberaba. On 14 February 2012, Santana was named Portuguesa Santista manager. Late in the year, he was in charge of União Suzano during a trip in Bolivia. In 2013, Santana was Grêmio Barueri's assistant during the Campeonato Paulista Série A2. On 5 November of that year, he was presented as manager of the under-20 squad of São Carlos for the ensuing Copa São Paulo de Futebol Júnior. On 10 June 2014, Santana was appointed manager of Juventus the following day.
He was sacked on 11 March 2016, after achieving promotion to the second division of Paulistão the previous year. On 15 April 2016, Santana was named manager of the main squad. On 26 October, he was named at the helm of URT. On 20 July 2018, Santana signed for Atlético Mineiro as a coordinator of the youth division. On 4 October 2018, he was named manager of the under-20s. On 12 April 2019, he was appointed interim first team manager after the dismissal of Levir Culpi, on 24 June, he was named permanent manager. On 13 October 2019, Santana was sacked after a defeat to Grêmio. On 16 February 2020, he took over Avaí in the place of sacked Augusto Inácio; as of 13 October 2019 Rodrigo Santana coach profile at Soccerway