SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Abolitionism

Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. This term can be used both formally and informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain known as Emperor Charles V, was following the example of Louis X of France, who had abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315, he passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, it was not enforced as a result. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church condemned the slave trade in response to a plea by Lourenço da Silva de Mendouça, it was vehemently condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839; the abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality. James Oglethorpe was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, banning it in the Province of Georgia on humanitarian grounds, arguing against it in Parliament, encouraging his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause.

Soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More united with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. The Somersett Case in 1772, in which a fugitive slave was freed with the judgement that slavery did not exist under English common law, helped launch the British movement to abolish slavery. Though anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, the colonies and emerging nations that used slave labor continued to do so: Dutch, British and Portuguese territories in the West Indies, South America, the Southern United States. After the American Revolution established the United States, northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution. Vermont, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans and African Americans.

During the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. In 1787 the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed in London. Revolutionary France abolished slavery throughout its empire in 1794, although it was restored in 1802 by Napoleon as part of a program to ensure sovereignty over its colonies. Haiti formally declared independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory; the northern states in the U. S. all abolished slavery by 1804. The United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. Britain abolished slavery throughout its empire by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies re-abolished it in 1848 and the U. S. abolished slavery in 1865 with the 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia, to emancipate the serfs in Russia.

Slavery was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Mauritania was the last country to abolish slavery, with a presidential decree in 1981. Today and adult slavery and forced labour are illegal in all countries, as well as being against international law, but a high rate of human trafficking for labour and for sexual bondage continues to affect tens of millions of adults and children. In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed; this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Some cases of African slaves freed by setting foot on the French soil were recorded such as this example of a Norman slave merchant who tried to sell slaves in Bordeaux in 1571, he was arrested and his slaves were freed according to a declaration of the Parlement of Guyenne which stated that slavery was intolerable in France. Born into slavery in Saint Domingue, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became free when his father brought him to France in 1776.

As in other New World colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labour for their sugar cane plantations in their Caribbean colonies. In addition, French colonists in Louisiane in North America held slaves in the South around New Orleans, where they established sugarcane plantations. Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated the slave institution in the colonies, it gave unparalleled rights to slaves. It included the right to gather publicly, or take Sundays off. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions, it forbade slave owners to torture them or to separate families, it demanded enslaved Africans receive instruction in the Catholic faith, implying that Africans were human beings endowed with a soul, a fact French law did not admit until then. It resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free in 1830, they were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and slaves.

Other free people of colour, such as Julien Raimond, spoke out agai

Aw Boon Haw

Aw Boon-Haw, OBE, was a Burmese Chinese entrepreneur and philanthropist best known as founder of Tiger Balm. He was a son of Hakka herbalist Aw Chu-Kin, with his ancestral home in Yongding County, Fujian Province, China. In 1926, Aw migrated to present day Malaysia, where he cofounded the Tiger Red Balm business with his brother, Aw Boon-Par. Aw founded several newspapers, including Sin Chew Jit Poh in Singapore and Sin Pin Jit Poh in Penang. Aw moved to Hong Kong during the Japanese occupation of Singapore and managed the business from there, while his brother stayed in Singapore until he closed down the factory and went to Rangoon. One of his sons was killed during the Japanese occupation of Singapore. Aw re-established his business. In 1954, at the age of 72, Aw died from a heart attack following a major operation in Honolulu while on a trip to Hong Kong from Boston, US, he is remembered through his work with Haw Par Villas throughout Asia, with locations in Singapore, Hong Kong, the Fujian province of China.

His sons took over his businesses after Aw's death. Aw's adopted daughter is the Hong Kong businesswoman and former Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference member Sally Aw. Sally Aw was on the brink of bankruptcy. Tiger Balm Gardens and the Aw Boon-Haw Gardens in Hong Kong were sold to the territory's billionaire, Li Ka-Shing, for US$13 million in 1998; the daughter of Aw Boon-Haw and his fourth wife, Aw Seng, resides in Singapore and has set up a company under her father's name, Aw Boon Haw Pte Ltd, to continue the heritage and legacy of her father. Aw Boon-Haw's fourth wife died on 10 April 2012 in Vancouver aged 100. 胡文虎 胡文虎父女的汕頭緣 Sin Yee Theng and Nicolai Volland, "Aw Boon Haw, the Tiger from Nanyang: Social Entrepreneurship, Transregional Journalism, Public Culture," chapter 5 in Christopher Rea and Nicolai Volland, eds. "The Business of Culture: Cultural Entrepreneurs in China and Southeast Asia". Cochran, Sherman. Chinese Medicine Men: Consumer Culture in China and Southeast Asia.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006

Operation Shed Light

Operation Shed Light was a crash development project in aerial warfare, initiated in 1966 by the United States Air Force to increase the ability to strike at night or in adverse weather. During the 1960s the United States military worked hard to interdict the movement of men and materiel along the Ho Chi Minh trail; the North Vietnamese were experts in the use of weather and darkness to conceal their movement, understanding the superiority of American air power put their skills to good use. US forces seeking to impede the steady flow of supplies attempted to locate static targets during the day with poor results; the United States Air Force, focused toward nuclear weapons and delivery of such munitions against static strategic targets had spent little effort in expanding its tactical capabilities since the end of World War II. Operation Shed Light sought to rectify this by bringing together improved tactics and technology; the programs were subsequently centered on improved communication and navigation aids for all-weather and night flying, sensor equipment for seeing through clouds and darkness, improved equipment and methods for target marking and battlefield illumination, aircraft and tactics to utilize these developments.

In the end, few of the programs would yield applicable results and most of the aircraft developed under its umbrella would fall into obscurity. The most applicable developments were those that could be mainstreamed such as the work done on navigation and communication and sensor equipment; the United States Air Force had redirected its efforts to the matter of strategic deterrence in the period between the Korean War and deployment to southeast Asia. As a result, it had few serious capabilities for the plethora of conventional missions that became apparent with the expanding US commitment to southeast Asia. Dedicated attack aircraft were nonexistent, with the exception of the Korean War era A-1 Skyraider; the US Navy was still using the type at the time, the US Air Force had itself been long interested in the type, with this further reinforced as a result of its advisory role in South Vietnam. The US supported Republic of Vietnam Air Force was in fact using it as their primary aircraft by 1965.

These aircraft had directly replaced aging F8F Bearcats in 1962 and the decision was made in 1964 to transition to the type from the standard T-28 Trojans. As a result of the orientation toward nuclear war, tactical air strikes were flown exclusively by the US Air Force between 1964 and 1966 using a variety of fighter bombers intended for the delivery of small strategic and tactical nuclear weapons; these types included the F-100 Super Sabre, F-4 Phantom II, the F-104 Starfighter. The F-100 had two fighter bomber variants in service at the time, the F-100C and F-100D, both of which were capable of carrying a nuclear store, only the latter of, for use as a strike aircraft and not a fighter; the F-100C had been passed to the United States Air National Guard and by 1965 less than two hundred of the aircraft were capable of using cluster bombs or the standard AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile. The F-104C, a fighter bomber version of another fighter, though capable of utilizing conventional air-to-ground stores, was intended as a nuclear weapon delivery platform.

Only the F-4C and F-4D were available as a true multirole aircraft, the F-4C had still been used firstly as a fighter when deployed to the theater. The only other major non-fighter type in use early on in the conflict was the B-57 Canberra. Strikes in Laos were conducted for a time using the F-102 Delta Dagger, modified with infrared sensors, using its internal rocket armament; these strikes proved fruitless and were discontinued. Realizing the need for more dedicated attack aircraft the Air Force combed its inventory and looked to invest in new types, it found itself with an odd selection of obsolete and experimental aircraft, grasped for immediate solutions. To try and coordinate this effort, a task force was established by Lt. General James Ferguson Deputy Chief of Staff for Research and Development. Dubbed Operation Shed Light, it began on 7 February 1966 as a means of coordinating a wide variety of technological and other projects and programs that were being pursued in order to improve the United States Air Force's night fighting capabilities.

Outlined in the Task Force's charter as of April were the following: Identify current equipment and procedures being used by the USAF in Southeast Asia. Identify planned modifications and new equipment being developed for Southeast Asia. Survey exploratory, advanced development, operational support projects having a potential application to the problem, indicating current programs or schedules. Identify voids in our efforts. Recommend courses of action to improve and/or provide new attack capability in 1966, 1967, the longer term. In all, the Shed Light Task Force identified nine new weapon systems and seventy-seven research and development "tasks" in the first five months of operation. Over the next 5–10 years it hoped to have a functional "self-contained night attack aircraft," a single type that would meet the operational need and would be functionally useful in other similar situations. Shed Light's initial programs were broken down into a number of categories, the most important being communication and navigation systems and illumination and target marking equipment.

Detailed were proposed aircraft modifications and tactics. Issues of communication and navigation were identified under Shed Light; that air strikes could not be called in and/or guided to the target reduced the effectiveness of ai