A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial with the attendant observances. Funerary customs comprise the complex of beliefs and practices used by a culture to remember and respect the dead, from interment, to various monuments and rituals undertaken in their honor. Customs vary between religious groups. Common secular motivations for funerals include mourning the deceased, celebrating their life, offering support and sympathy to the bereaved; the funeral includes a ritual through which the corpse receives a final dispositon. Depending on culture and religion, these can involve either the destruction of the body or its preservation. Differing beliefs about cleanliness and the relationship between body and soul are reflected in funerary practices. A memorial service or celebration of life is a funerary ceremony, performed without the remains of the deceased person; the word funeral comes from the Latin funus, which had a variety of meanings, including the corpse and the funerary rites themselves.
Funerary art is art produced in connection with burials, including many kinds of tombs, objects specially made for burial like flowers with a corpse. Funeral rites are as old as human culture itself, pre-dating modern Homo sapiens and dated to at least 300,000 years ago. For example, in the Shanidar Cave in Iraq, in Pontnewydd Cave in Wales and at other sites across Europe and the Near East, archaeologists have discovered Neanderthal skeletons with a characteristic layer of flower pollen; this deliberate burial and reverence given to the dead has been interpreted as suggesting that Neanderthals had religious beliefs, although the evidence is not unequivocal – while the dead were buried deliberately, burrowing rodents could have introduced the flowers. Substantial cross-cultural and historical research document funeral customs as a predictable, stable force in communities. Funeral customs tend to be characterized by five "anchors": significant symbols, gathered community, ritual action, cultural heritage, transition of the dead body.
Funerals in the Bahá'í Faith are characterized by not embalming, a prohibition against cremation, using a chrysolite or hardwood casket, wrapping the body in silk or cotton, burial not farther than an hour from the place of death, placing a ring on the deceased's finger stating, "I came forth from God, return unto Him, detached from all save Him, holding fast to His Name, the Merciful, the Compassionate." The Bahá'í funeral service contains the only prayer that's permitted to be read as a group - congregational prayer, although most of the prayer is read by one person in the gathering. The Bahá'í decedent controls some aspects of the Bahá'í funeral service, since leaving a will and testament is a requirement for Bahá'ís. Since there is no Bahá'í clergy, services are conducted under the guise, or with the assistance of, a Local Spiritual Assembly. A Buddhist funeral marks the transition from one life to the next for the deceased, it reminds the living of their own mortality. Christian burials occur on consecrated ground.
Burial, rather than a destructive process such as cremation, was the traditional practice amongst Christians, because of the belief in the resurrection of the body. Cremations came into widespread use, although some denominations forbid them; the US Conference of Catholic Bishops said "The Church earnestly recommends that the pious custom of burying the bodies of the deceased be observed. Congregations of varied denominations perform different ceremonies, but most involve offering prayers, scripture reading from the Bible, a sermon, homily, or eulogy, music. One issue of concern as the 21st century began was with the use of secular music at Christian funerals, a custom forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church. Antyesti "last rites or last sacrifice", refers to the rite-of-passage rituals associated with a funeral in Hinduism, it is sometimes referred to as Antya-kriya, Anvarohanyya, or Vahni Sanskara. A dead adult Hindu is cremated, while a dead child is buried; the rite of passage is said to be performed in harmony with the sacred premise that the microcosm of all living beings is a reflection of a macrocosm of the universe.
The soul is believed to be the immortal essence, released at the Antyeshti ritual, but both the body and the universe are vehicles and transitory in various schools of Hinduism. They consist of five elements: air, fire and space; the last rite of passage returns the body to the five origins. The roots of this belief are found in the Vedas, for example in the hymns of Rigveda in section 10.16, as follows, The final rites of a burial, in case of untimely death of a child, is rooted in Rig Veda's section 10.18, where the hymns mourn the death of the child, praying to deity Mrityu to "neither harm our girls nor our boys", pleads the earth to cover, protect the deceased child as a soft wool. Among Hindus, the dead body is cremated within a day of death; the body is washed, wrapped in white cloth for a man or a widow, red for a married woman, the two toes tied together with a string, a Tilak placed on the forehead. The dead adult's body is carried to the cremation ground near a river or water, by family and friends, placed on a pyr
Hollow log coffin
A hollow log coffin is a type of coffin used by the Yolngu people of Arnhem Land, Australia. It consists of a tree trunk hollowed out by termites and painted by a clan member of the deceased, with the bones placed inside. Hollow log coffins are known as dupun, djalumbu, mudukundja and larajeje in Aboriginal languages. Treetrunk coffin Media related to Aboriginal Memorial at Wikimedia Commons
Neva Enfilade of the Winter Palace
The Neva Enfilade of the Winter Palace, St Petersburg, is a series of three large halls arranged in an enfilade along the palace's massive facade facing the River Neva. Designed as a series of five state rooms by the architect Francesco Rastrelli in 1753, they were transformed into an enfilade of three vast halls in 1790 by Giacomo Quarenghi. Following a fire in 1837 they were rebuilt under the direction of Vasily Stasov. Used as the palace ballrooms, they formed a processional route, were the focus of the imperial court. In 1915, the last Tsar, Nicholas II, had the enfilade transformed into a military hospital. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the enfilade, along with the remainder of the building, has been used as a series of exhibition halls of the State Hermitage Museum; the Palace was built in 1732, as an official residence for the Tsaritsa Anna I of Russia and designed by the architect Francesco Rastrelli. The Tsaritsa found the small Winter palace of Peter the Great insufficiently grand, had taken over the neighbouring, grander, palace of Admiral General Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin, this she had rebuilt to form her own Winter Palace.
During the reign of Anna's successor, Rastrelli, still working to his original plan, devised an new scheme in 1753, on a colossal scale—the present Baroque Winter Palace. The expedited completion of the palace became a matter of national honour to the Empress, to pay for it taxes were increased on salt and alcohol to fund the extra costs, although the Russian people were burdened by taxes to pay for Russia's wars; the final cost was 2,500,000 rubles. By 1759, shortly before Elizabeth's death, an imperial Palace worthy of the name was nearing completion. Work continued during the short reign of Elizabeth's nephew Peter III and on into the reign of Peter's widow Catherine the Great. During Catherine the Great's reign, Neoclassicism came into vogue, the new Tsaritsa was a great admirer. Rastrelli was dismissed and new architects working in the new fashions were employed. During this period, the original ornate rococo decoration of the palace was replaced with the more simple and stark neoclassicism, a hallmark of the Palace today.
The Neva enfilade was redesigned between 1790–93 by the architect Giacomo Quarenghi. Taking in the floor above, he transformed the original five rooms into three vast halls: the Concert Hall, the Great Hall and the Great Ante-Room, they were decorated in classical style with faux marbre and columns supporting life size statues. Following a disastrous fire which destroyed most of the Winter Palace's interiors in 1837, the halls were recreated in similar style by the architect Vasily Stasov; until 1905, during the winter months, the Tsar and Tsaritsa were traditionally resident in the palace. The remainder of the year the imperial couple resided elsewhere, the palace housed the staff and the officials of the monarchy, who occupied the ground and second floors; the halls of the enfilade were designed to form an important part in the ceremonial life of the court, not just as ballrooms for festivities but for processional use. From the entrance to the private apartments at the western end of the Concert Hall, Imperial processions would proceed in state through the enfilade to the Jordan Staircase or turn and continue through the eastern state rooms.
Before 1917, during ceremonies and functions, access to the various hall of the enfilade was dictated by rank. Those who were most important were positioned closest to the beginning of an imperial procession in the Concert Hall, the lesser exalted in the Nicholas Hall and the least important in the Great Ante-Room; the imperial court was conscious of rank. This was obvious amongst the ladies attached to the court. Etiquette dictated that all these ladies, regardless of age, wore white silk dresses with a low decolletage and a red or olive green velvet train with gold embroidery. On their heads they wore green kokoshniks studded with jewels. While other women present were allowed coloured dresses, the train and kokoshnik was mandatory court dress. Further classification was given to the women's ranks by indication of whether they were "Dames a Portrait" or "Demoiselles d'Honneur." The former, higher ranking class wore the Tsaritsa's portrait mounted in diamonds on their left breast, while the latter wore the Tsaritsa's monogram surrounded by diamonds.
In between these two ranks were the "Dames du Palais" who like the "Dames a portrait" wore olive green, the lower ranking "Demoiselles d'Honneur" wore red. While red and green were the colours of the Tsar and Tsaritsa, further colour was added by the women attached to the numerous Grand Duchesses; each Grand Duchess had her own colour, all the ladies attached to the suite would wear it. Queen Victoria's foreign secretary, writing to her in 1894 of a state procession through the enfilade, recorded of the Grand Duchesses' colours that one "is a hideous shade of orange." The Foreign Secretary went on to describe the "8,000 to 10,000" people present in the Winter palace's "interminable halls", a particular "Demoiselle d'Honneur", "so old that she was propped up against a wall." Overall, the splendour and size of the Winter Palace and its colourful and bejewelled ladies failed to impress the Foreign Secretary for he reported to the Queen that the Grand Church "was not large" and that the assembled imperial court had "an absence of beauty as compared
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead. The term encompasses a wide variety of forms, including cenotaphs, tomb-like monuments which do not contain human remains, communal memorials to the dead, such as war memorials, which may or may not contain remains, a range of prehistoric megalithic constructs. Funerary art may serve many cultural functions, it can play a role in burial rites, serve as an article for use by the dead in the afterlife, celebrate the life and accomplishments of the dead, whether as part of kinship-centred practices of ancestor veneration or as a publicly directed dynastic display. It can function as a reminder of the mortality of humankind, as an expression of cultural values and roles, help to propitiate the spirits of the dead, maintaining their benevolence and preventing their unwelcome intrusion into the lives of the living; the deposit of objects with an apparent aesthetic intention is found in all cultures—Hindu culture, which has little, is a notable exception.
Many of the best-known artistic creations of past cultures—from the Egyptian pyramids and the Tutankhamun treasure, to the Terracotta Army surrounding the tomb of the Qin Emperor, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Sutton Hoo ship burial and the Taj Mahal—are tombs or objects found in and around them. In most instances, specialized funeral art was produced for the powerful and wealthy, although the burials of ordinary people might include simple monuments and grave goods from their possessions. An important factor in the development of traditions of funerary art is the division between what was intended to be visible to visitors or the public after completion of the funeral ceremonies; the treasure of the 18th dynasty Pharaoh Tutankhamun, for example, though exceptionally lavish, was never intended to be seen again after it was deposited, while the exterior of the pyramids was a permanent and effective demonstration of the power of their creators. A similar division can be seen in grand East Asian tombs.
In other cultures, nearly all the art connected with the burial, except for limited grave goods, was intended for viewing by the public or at least those admitted by the custodians. In these cultures, traditions such as the sculpted sarcophagus and tomb monument of the Greek and Roman empires, the Christian world, have flourished; the mausoleum intended for visiting was the grandest type of tomb in the classical world, common in Islamic culture. Tomb is a general term for any repository for human remains, while grave goods are other objects which have been placed within the tomb; such objects may include the personal possessions of the deceased, objects specially created for the burial, or miniature versions of things believed to be needed in an afterlife. Knowledge of many non-literate cultures is drawn from these sources. A tumulus, kurgan, or long barrow covered important burials in many cultures, the body may be placed in a sarcophagus of stone, or a coffin of wood. A mausoleum is a building erected as a tomb, taking its name from the Mausoleum of Mausolus at Halicarnassus.
Stele is a term for erect stones that are what are now called gravestones. Ship burials are found in coastal Europe, while chariot burials are found across Eurasia. Catacombs, of which the most famous examples are those in Rome and Alexandria, are underground cemeteries connected by tunnelled passages. A large group of burials with traces remaining above ground can be called a necropolis. A cenotaph is a memorial without a burial; the word "funerary" means "of or pertaining to a funeral or burial", but there is a long tradition in English of applying it not only to the practices and artefacts directly associated with funeral rites, but to a wider range of more permanent memorials to the dead. Influential in this regard was John Weever's Ancient Funerall Monuments, the first full-length book to be dedicated to the subject of tomb memorials and epitaphs. More some scholars have challenged the usage: Phillip Lindley, for example, makes a point of referring to "tomb monuments", saying "I have avoided using the term'funeral monuments' because funeral effigies were, in the Middle Ages, temporary products, made as substitutes for the encoffined corpse for use during the funeral ceremonies".
Others, have found this distinction "rather pedantic". Related genres of commemorative art for the dead take many forms, such as the moai figures of Easter Island a type of sculpted ancestor portrait, though hardly individualized; these are common in cultures as diverse as Ancient Rome and China, in both of which they are kept in the houses of the descendants, rather than being buried. Many cultures have psychopomp figures, such as the Greek Hermes and Etruscan Charun, who help conduct the spirits of the dead into the afterlife. Most of humanity's oldest known archaeological constructions are tombs. Megalithic, the earliest instances date to within a few centuries of each other, yet show a wide diversity of form and purpose. Tombs in the Iberian peninsula have been dated through thermoluminescence to c. 4510 BCE, some burials at the Carnac stones in Brittany date back to the fifth millennium BCE. The commemorative value of such burial sites are indicated by the fact that, at some stage, they became elevated, that the constructs from the earliest, sought to be monumental.
This effect was achieved by encapsulating a single corpse in a basic pit, surrounded by an elaborate ditch and drain. Over-ground commemoration is thought to be tied to the concept of collective memory, the
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea, it is the location of the Sydney Opera Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement and colony on the Australian mainland, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself the Sydney New Year's Eve celebrations and the starting point of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race; the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks and picnic areas; the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west to the present Darling Harbour.
The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal; the Eora occupied west to Parramatta. The first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson, one of the Lord Commissioners of the British Admiralty, Judge Advocate of the Fleet; as the Endeavour sailed past the entrance at Sydney Heads, Cook wrote in his journal "at noon we were...about 2 or 3 miles from the land and abrest of a bay or harbour within there appeared to be a safe anchorage which I called Port Jackson." No-one on the ship recorded seeing any of the Harbour's many islands. This would have been because their line of sight was blocked by the high promontories of South Head and Bradleys Head that shape its dog-leg entrance. However, these islands were known to Captain Arthur Phillip, the First Fleet commander, before he departed England in 1787. Cook had seen the main body of the Harbour in 1770 and, on returning home, he had reported his important discovery to the Admiralty.
An explanation of Cook's discovery was first proposed in the book Lying for the Admiralty. While the Endeavour was anchored in Botany Bay, Cook may have followed one of the ancient Aboriginal tracks that connect Botany Bay to Port Jackson, a distance of some ten kilometres; the Admiralty had ordered Cook to conceal strategically valuable discoveries, so he omitted the main Harbour from his journal and chart. Eighteen years on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to sound the entrance and examine Cook's Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove and Manly Cove before returning to Botany Bay on the afternoon of 24 January. Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia to become the city of Sydney. In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that:...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security...
The Great White Fleet, the United States Navy battle fleet, arrived in Port Jackson in August 1908 by order of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, making this Sydney's first international airport. In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed, it spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the other side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges. A second midget submarine came to grief in the two crew committing suicide; the third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour. In November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydney's Northern Beaches; the anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green Point, Watsons Bay.
Today, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the midget submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island, Sydney. Fort Denison is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour. There are fortifications at elsewhere, some of which are now heritage listed; the earliest date from the 1830s, were designed to defend Sydney from seaborn attack or convict uprisings. There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, they are: the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex; the forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines and trenches.
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river v
National Museum of Australia
The National Museum of Australia, in the national capital Canberra and interprets Australia's social history, exploring the key issues and events that have shaped the nation. It was formally established by the National Museum of Australia Act 1980; the museum did not have a permanent home until 11 March 2001, when a purpose-built museum building was opened. The museum profiles 50,000 years of Indigenous heritage, settlement since 1788 and key events including Federation and the Sydney 2000 Olympics; the museum holds the world's largest collection of Aboriginal bark paintings and stone tools, the heart of champion racehorse Phar Lap and the Holden prototype No. 1 car. The museum develops and travels exhibitions on subjects ranging from bushrangers to surf lifesaving; the National Museum of Australia Press publishes a wide range of books and journals. The museum's Research Centre takes a cross-disciplinary approach to history, ensuring the museum is a lively forum for ideas and debate about Australia's past and future.
The museum's innovative use of new technologies has been central to its growing international reputation in outreach programming with regional communities. From 2003 to 2008, the museum hosted a student political forum; the museum is located on Acton Peninsula in the suburb of Acton, next to the Australian National University. The peninsula on Lake Burley Griffin was the home of the Royal Canberra Hospital, demolished in tragic circumstances on 13 July 1997; as designed by architect Howard Raggatt, the museum building is based on a theme of knotted ropes, symbolically bringing together the stories of Australians. The architects stated: "We liked to think that the story of Australia was not one, but many tangled together. Not an authorized version but a puzzling confluence; the building is meant to be the centre of a knot, with trailing ropes or strips extending from the building. The most obvious of these extensions forms a large loop before becoming a walkway which extends past the neighbouring AIATSIS building ending in a large curl, as if a huge ribbon has haphazardly unrolled itself along the ground.
Known as the "Uluru Axis" because it aligns with the central Australian natural landmark, the ribbon symbolically integrates the site with the Canberra city plan by Walter Burley Griffin and the spiritual heart of indigenous Australia. The shape of the main entrance hall continues this theme: it is as though the otherwise rectangular building has been built encasing a complex knot which does not quite fit inside the building, the knot taken away; the non-symmetrical complex is designed to not look like a museum, with startling colours and angles, unusual spaces and unpredictable projections and textures. Though hard to categorise, the building can be seen as an example of Charles Jenck's "new paradigm"; some characteristics of Deconstructivism can be identified. The organising concept of the scheme using the idea of a "tangled vision" incorporates a variety of references including: Bea Maddock's "Philosophy Tape" Jackson Pollock's "Blue Poles" boolean string, a knot, Ariadne's thread the Aboriginal Dreamtime story of the Rainbow Serpent making the land.
The building's architecture is thus meant to imply that the story of Australia is not one story, but many stories tangled together. The building refers to or quotes other buildings: a Burley-Griffin designed cloister at Newman College in Melbourne the Sydney Opera House – both the parts designed by Jørn Utzon, sections designed by the other architects the shell curves of Félix Candela the Hall is evocative of Eero Saarinen's terminal at the J F Kennedy Airport in New York the arc is like a piece of work by Richard Serra the Garden of Australian Dreams is meant to evoke a range of different cartographies the walls use selected fragments of the word Eternity – evoking the story of Arthur Stace who for thirty years chalked this single word on the pavements of Sydney the most controversial quotation is a reference to the Daniel Libeskind's Jewish Museum Berlin, Germany which opened in 1999 The plan of the National Museum of Australia incorporates an exact copy of the lightning-flash zigzag that Libeskind created for the Berlin Museum by breaking a star of David.
The Bulletin magazine first publicly raised allegations of plagiarism in June 2000. Libeskind was reported to be angry with the copying. Raggatt's defence against plagiarism was; the director of the museum, Dawn Casey, claimed in the press that she and her council were not aware of this symbolism when they approved the plan. The exterior of the building is covered in anodised aluminium panels. Many of the panels include words written in braille and other decorative devices. Among the messages are "mate" and "she'll be right". Included were such controversial words and phrases as "sorry" and "forgive us our genocide"; these more controversial messages have been obscured with silver discs being attached to the surface making the braille illegible. Among the phrases in braille are the words "Resurrection city"; the phrase may refer to the clearing of the former Canberra Hospital to make way for the museum or it could be a reference to reconciliation between Indigenous Australians and European settlers.
The phrase is used as a label in tiles on another of Raggett's buildings, the Storey Hall in Melbourne. Raggett says of that message: "I guess that tries to be some big sort of theme for this building as well and its sort of set of memories."It was built by Bovis Lend Lease and completed in 2001. A severe thunderstorm hit Canberra on the afternoon of