Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Cardwell is a tropical coastal town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Cardwell had a population of 1,309 people; the Bruce Highway National Highway 1 and the North Coast railway line are the dominant transport routes. Cardwell suffered significant damage from Cyclone Yasi, a category 5 cyclone, in February 2011. West of Cardwell the rugged topography of the Cardwell Range intercepts the trade winds resulting in high rainfall; the coastal escarpment is covered in rainforest which transitions to the west to eucalypt woodland and tropical savanna. Cardwell Range biodiversity has been protected by the introduction of Forestry Reserves, National Parks and Queensland World Heritage Wet Tropics Areas. Seaward lies the Coral Sea, the Great Barrier Reef and Lagoon, Rockingham Bay and Hinchinbrook Channel. Islands are visible from Cardwell including protected areas i.e. Hinchinbrook Island, Goold Island and the Brook Islands Group. Oyster Point is one kilometre south of Cardwell.
This location experienced one of Australia's important conservation battles. With the establishment of Port Hinchinbrook, the Marina Public Boat Ramp provides year round access to the protected marine environments of Hinchinbrook Channel, Estuaries and Great Barrier Reef; the Cardwell Jetty is an important infrastructure asset, where visitors can socialize and view the coastal scenery. The Aboriginal heritage is defined by Language Groups; the first Europeans settled in the area in January 1864 in order to create a port called "Port Hinchinbrook". Subsequently, the town was renamed after 1st Viscount Cardwell. Cardwell was the first port settlement on the Queensland coast north of Port Denison; the first party of non-indigenous people to settle at Rockingham Bay arrived in January 1864 and was led by George Elphinstone Dalrymple. They were 20 in number including James Morrill, William Alcock Tully, Arthur Jervoise Scott, Lieut. Marlow of the Native Police and his troopers Norman and Warbragen. Dalrymple brought his "black boy" servant, an Aboriginal man from Stradbroke Island that he called "Cockey".
They came from Bowen on the small schooner Policeman, under the command of ex-Native Police officer Captain Walter Powell, with the 3 ton cutter Heather Bell in tow. Dalrymple's main purpose in establishing a settlement in Rockingham Bay was to create a port as close as possible to the Valley of Lagoons Station of which he was part owner. Soon after disembarking from the Policeman, he endeavoured to create a road from the coast to the Valley of Lagoons by expanding existing native paths. A few miles inland from the landing site was a beautiful aboriginal village and bora ground surrounded by native banana plantations that reminded Dalrymple of villages in Ceylon; the Warrgamay people in the area and on nearby Hinchinbrook Island were described as numerous and having some of the largest spears and wooden swords recorded in Australia. Having told the local people through his interpreter that he had come to take possession of their lands, Dalrymple bizarrely expressed frustration at the supposed inability of the aboriginals to understand the concept of "Thou shalt not steal".
James Morrill was more factual in his account of the founding of Cardwell writing that "I said to that they must clear out..as we wished to occupy the land and would shoot any who approached, that we were strong and that another party would soon follow", he described how a group of Aboriginals "were set upon by Dalrymple's men and rather cut up."Cardwell Post Office opened on 10 July 1864. In March 1865, Lieutenant Blakeney and seven troopers of the Native Police spent two days clearing the area around Cardwell of Aboriginal presence by "burning camps and dispersing the natives."In the late 1860s and early 1870s, Cardwell became a transport hub for prospectors heading to the Etheridge Shire goldfields 200 km inland from the town. Captain John Moresby visited Cardwell in 1871 and wrote that "various tribes of aborigines roam about the vicinity, not unnaturally regard the white men, who are dispossessing them of their homes, as mortal enemies. They..suffer terrible retaliation at the hands of our countrymen, who employ native troopers, commanded by white men to hunt down and destroy the offenders when the opportunity offers".
In January 1872, two British dugong fishermen named Henry Smith and Charles Clements were killed at nearby Goold Island by resident Aboriginals. Wet weather prevented an immediate punitive expedition of four boats of armed local white men who were eager that "the blacks" be "taught that what they do is punishable by death". However, within the same month the Native Police forces of Sub-Inspectors Crompton and Johnstone completed a punitive mission and returned to Cardwell with three young Aboriginal children from the island; the eldest of the children was ten and "they were given away in Cardwell to domesticate them."The Cardwell Library opened in 2008. Cardwell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Valley of Lagoons Road, Damper Creek: Stone Bridge, Dalrymple Gap Track 51 Victoria Street: Cardwell Divisional Board Hall 53 Victoria Street: Cardwell Post Office Cardwell has a granite monument erected in memory of Walter Jervoise Scott, a pioneer of the Valley of Lagoons; the monument was sent from Great Britain by his brothers intended for his grave at Valley of Lagoons.
On arrival at Cardwell, it was found to b
State Library of Queensland
The State Library of Queensland is the main reference and research library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the state government. Its legislative basis is provided by the Queensland Libraries Act 1988, it contains a significant portion of Queensland's documentary heritage, major reference and research collections, is an advocate of and partner with public libraries across Queensland. The library is at Kurilpa Point, within the Queensland Cultural Centre on the Brisbane River at South Bank; the Brisbane Public Library was established by the government of the Colony of Queensland in 1896, was renamed the Public Library of Queensland in 1898. The library was opened to the public in 1902. In 1934, the Oxley Memorial Library, named for the explorer John Oxley, opened as a centre for research and study relating to Queensland; the Libraries Act of 1943 established the Library Board of Queensland to manage the Public Library of Queensland. In March 1947, James L. Stapleton was appointed Queensland's first State Librarian.
Stapleton advocated for a new building for the library and that library services should be free to the public. He remains the longest-serving CEO, has been followed by five others: Sydney Lawrence Ryan from 1970 to 1988, Des Stephens from 1988 to 2001, Lea Giles-Peters from 2001 to 2011, Janette Wright, from 2012-2015 and from 2016, Vicki McDonald. In 1971, the "Public Library" became the "State Library." The following year, the Public Library Service was established to liaise with Queensland local authorities regarding their public libraries. A few years the Country Lending Service was established to provide book exchange and other services to public libraries in Queensland's smaller local government areas. Under the new name of Rural Libraries Queensland, the service is still going strong today, administered by the State Library's Public and Indigenous Library Services program. In 2003, the State Library began a new mission of establishing Indigenous Knowledge Centres in the Cape York and Torres Strait areas.
There is now a network of 22 IKCs in remote and regional communities: across Cape York, the islands of the Torres Strait, Central Queensland and at Cherbourg in South East Queensland. The State Library's current strategic vision is to enrich the lives of Queenslanders through creatively engaging people with information and community. In early 2011, the library donated 50,000 pictures to Wikimedia Commons; the library holds general collections, including books and magazines, audiovisual items, family history, music, ephemera and electronic resources. There are research collections and services – including the John Oxley Library and the Australian Library of Art, which includes the James Hardie Library of Australian Fine Arts; the library is home to two UNESCO Memory of the World significant collections, Labour Party Manifesto and the Margaret Lawrie collection of Torres Strait Islands material. The library holds a collection of Queensland election-related material, including websites, posters and how-to-vote cards.
Access to collections, including access to 50,000 Copyright-free Queensland images through Wikimedia Commons Provides books and other resource material to public libraries throughout Queensland. Specialist services to public libraries in a number of areas, including services to young people and multicultural communities. Public programs and exhibitions, including exhibition loans to schools and other community organisations. Outreach programs in reference, information literacy, Internet training and digitisation throughout Queensland for public library staff and the general community. Library services to Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders including the establishment of Indigenous Knowledge Centres in Cape York and Torres Strait regions and increasing the employment and training opportunities for Indigenous peoples in the library industry. A digital culture centre called The Edge, for young people. A free coworking space, the Business Studio, supports startups and small business; the library has hosted a number of prominent exhibitions, including Plantation Voices Home: A Suburban Obsession Islands: hidden histories from Queensland Islands Hot Modernism Free guided tours of the building are available.
In 2010, a total of 3730 school students participated in a tour. Rural Libraries Queensland is a collaboration between the State Library of Queensland and 30 of the local government councils to provide library libraries to rural communities; the Brisbane Public Library moved into the Old State Library Building in William Street, Brisbane in 1899. This building had been occupied by the Queensland Museum; the Library shared accommodation in the building with an art gallery. In the late 1950s, an extension, with a distinctive tiled mural on the exterior, was built onto the building to provide more space; the mural was the winning design in a national competition held in 1958. In 1988, the State Library of Queensland moved to a new home within the Queensland Cultural Centre at South Bank, near the Queensland Museum and the original Queensland Art Gallery. In 2004, work began on the Millennium Library Project - a major redevelopment of the existing State Library building. After three years of extensive redevelopment, the South Bank building
Anglican Church of Australia
The Anglican Church of Australia is a Christian church in Australia and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is the second largest church in Australia, after the Roman Catholic Church. According to the 2016 census, 3.1 million Australians identify as Anglicans. For much of Australian history, the Church of England was the largest religious denomination, it remains today one of the largest providers of social welfare services in Australia. When the First Fleet was sent to New South Wales in 1787, Richard Johnson of the Church of England was licensed as chaplain to the fleet and the settlement. In 1825 Thomas Scott was appointed Archdeacon of Australia under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Calcutta. William Grant Broughton, who succeeded Scott in 1829, was consecrated the first "Bishop of Australia" in 1836. In early Colonial times, the Church of England clergy worked with the governors. Richard Johnson, a chaplain, was charged by the governor, Arthur Phillip, with improving "public morality" in the colony, but he was heavily involved in health and education.
Samuel Marsden had magisterial duties, so was equated with the authorities by the convicts. He became known as the "flogging parson" for the severity of his punishments; some of the Irish convicts had been transported to Australia for political crimes or social rebellion in Ireland, so the authorities were suspicious of Roman Catholicism for the first three decades of settlement and Roman Catholic convicts were compelled to attend Church of England services and their children and orphans were raised by the authorities as Anglicans. The Church of England lost its legal privileges in the Colony of New South Wales by the Church Act of 1836. Drafted by the reformist attorney-general John Plunkett, the act established legal equality for Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Presbyterians and was extended to Methodists. A mission to the Aborigines was established in the Wellington Valley in New South Wales by the Church Missionary Society in 1832, but it ended in failure and indigenous people in the 19th century demonstrated a reluctance to convert to the religion of the colonists who were seizing their lands.
In 1842 the Diocese of Tasmania was created. In 1847 the rest of the Diocese of Australia was divided into the four separate dioceses of Sydney, Adelaide and Melbourne. Over the following 80 years the number of dioceses increased to 25. Sectarianism in Australia tended to reflect the political inheritance of Ireland; until 1945, the vast majority of Roman Catholics in Australia were of Irish descent, causing the Anglo-Protestant majority to question their loyalty to the British Empire. The Australian Constitution of 1901 provided for freedom of religion. Australian society was predominantly Anglo-Celtic, with 40% of the population being Anglican, it remained the largest Christian denomination until the 1986 census. After World War II, the ethnic and cultural mix of Australia diversified and Anglicanism gave way to Roman Catholicism as the largest denomination; the number of Anglicans attending regular worship began to decline in 1959 and figures for occasional services started to decline after 1966.
In recent times, the Anglican and other Christian churches of Australia have been active in ecumenical activity. The Australian Committee for the World Council of Churches was established in 1946 by the Anglican and mainline Protestant churches; the movement evolved and expanded with Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches joining and by 1994 the Roman Catholic Church was a member of the national ecumenical body, the National Council of Churches in Australia. Since 1 January 1962 the Australian church has headed by its own primate. On 24 August 1981 the church changed its name from the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania to the Anglican Church of Australia. Although the Book of Common Prayer remains the official standard for Anglican belief and worship in Australia, An Australian Prayer Book was published in 1978 after a prolonged revision of liturgy. Another alternative service book, A Prayer Book for Australia, was published in 1995. In 1985 the general synod of the Australian church passed a canon to allow the ordination of women as deacons.
In 1992 the general synod approved legislation allowing dioceses to ordain women to the priesthood. Dioceses could choose to adopt the legislation. In 1992, 90 women were ordained in the Anglican Church of Australia and two others, ordained overseas were recognised. After decades of debate the issue of women's ordination as bishops, continues to divide traditionalists and reformers within the church; as of November 2013 five dioceses had not ordained women as priests and two had not ordained women as deacons. The most recent diocese to vote in favour of ordaining women as priests was the Ballarat diocese in October 2013. In 2008, Kay Goldsworthy was ordained as an assistant bishop for the Diocese of Perth, thus becoming the first woman consecrated as a bishop of the Anglican Church of Australia. Sarah Macneil was elected in 2013 to be the first female diocesan bishop in Australia. In 2014 she was installed as the first female diocesan bishop in Australia; the church remains a major provider of welfare services in Australia.
It provides chaplains to the Australian Defence Force, schools and prisons. Senior clergy such as Peter Jensen, former Archbishop of Sydney, have a high profile in discussions on a diverse range of social issues in contemporary national debates. In recent times the church has encouraged its leaders to talk on such issues as
Kuranda is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in the Shire of Mareeba, Far North Queensland, Australia. The town of Myola is located within the locality of Kuranda, it is 25 kilometres via the Kuranda Range road. It is surrounded by tropical rainforest and adjacent to the Wet Tropics World Heritage listed Barron Gorge National Park, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. Kuranda is positioned on the eastern edge of the Atherton Tableland where the Barron River begins a steep descent to its coastal floodplain; the area is an important wildlife corridor between the Daintree/Carbine Tableland area in the north and Lamb Range/Atherton Tableland in the south, two centres of biodiversity. Parts of Kuranda along its eastern edge, are protected within the Kuranda National Park and Barron Gorge National Park. Both national parks belong to the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Barron Gorge Forest Reserve and Formatine Forest Reserve have been established in the south of Kuranda.
Closer to the centre of the town is Jumrum Creek Conservation Park where a near threatened, endemic frog species is protected. An elongated dam created by a weir built for a power station was constructed in 1935 and is used to today for recreation; the rainforest around Kuranda has been home to the Djabugay people for over 10,000 years. Europeans began to explore the area throughout the nineteenth century, it is believed a massacre of indigenous people took place at the location in Kuranda known as Skeleton Creek. Kuranda was first settled in 1885 and surveyed by Thomas Behan in 1888. Construction of the railway from Cairns to Myola began in 1887 and the line reached Kuranda in 1891; the current railway station was built in 1915. Kuranda Post Office opened on 25 June 1891. Between 1912 and 1913 Eric Mjöberg lead an expedition to Queensland in which the Kuranda Aboriginal people were observed. Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated at the commencement of 2007 to create Kuranda District State College.
Although coffee was grown around Kuranda in the early twentieth century, timber was the town's primary industry for a number of years. Kuranda has been known as a tourist destination since the early 1900s, it was both the local Aboriginals which attracted people to the area. Today Kuranda is a'village in the rainforest' with tourism being the current backbone of the local economy. The'village in the rainforest' concept promoted from the 1970s onwards served two purposes, it attracted those seeking a bohemian enclave in which to reside as well as a being a tourist promotional strategy. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Kuranda was popular with alternative lifestylers, a theme that still runs through the local community today; the Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station was built nearby in the 1960s. Kuranda Library opened in 1996 and underwent a major refurbishment in 2015. At the 2011 census, the locality Kuranda had a population of 2,966. Kuranda has a number of heritage-listed sites: Cairns-to-Kuranda railway line including the Kuranda railway station.
The town receives thousands of tourists each week who arrive from Cairns either on the Kuranda Scenic Railway, the Skyrail Rainforest cableway, coach or by public bus via the Kuranda Range Road, a 40-minute drive from Cairns. The town is surrounded by tropical rainforest, abundant with wildlife and popular amongst birdwatchers. There are several short walks around the village including the Jum Rum Creek Environmental Park which includes The River Walk. Walking to the Barron Gorge National Park to visit Barron Falls is popular. Another 1 kilometre each way on to Wright's Lookout. There is a shuttle service that provides an alternative to walking with a half-hourly service out to the Barron Gorge National Park; this service includes a visit to Wright's Lookout. Attractions in Kuranda include a bird aviary, butterfly sanctuary, wildlife rescue/rehabilitation centre, reptile park and koala sanctuary. There is a fossil and gemstone museum and candy making displays. Cruises are available aboard'Kuranda Riverboat' on the Barron River.
Kuranda provides the visitor with many shopping opportunities, all within easy walking distance around the CBD, including the markets which consist of a range of stalls with locally made arts and produce. Kuranda has numerous art galleries and specialty shops offering a wide selection of locally made and designed art and handicrafts as well as a variety of sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Kuranda is a major centre for opals and didgeridoos, it was the first home of the Tjapukai Indigenous Dance Theatre, established by former New Yorkers Judy and Don Freeman, together with indigenous dancer and actor, David Hudson. The theatre is now located adjacent the Skyrail Terminal at Smithfield. Mareeba Shire Council operate a public library in Kuranda at 18-22 Arara Street; the Kuranda Historical Society was established in 2017 and seeks to collect and display items of historical interest relating to the Kuranda area. The Kuranda Media Association publish a monthly newspaper called "The Kuranda Paper"; the Kuranda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Barang Street and Thongon Street.
Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated in 2007 to form Kuranda District State College. The nocturnal frog species Litoria myola is only found in the vicinity of a few creeks near Kuranda; the area boasts a rich diversity of invertebrate fauna including Australi
Atherton is a rural town and locality on the Atherton Tablelands within the Tablelands Region, Far North Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census, Atherton had a population of 7,287; the town was named after John Atherton, a pioneer pastoralist who settled at Mareeba in 1875. The area was known as Priors Pocket or Priors Creek. William John Bock was an early pioneer in Atherton, he made an audio recording discussing the early town, prior to his death on 19 February 1953. Atherton Pioneer Cemetery opened in 1897 and closed in 1927 when the Rockley Road Cemetery was opened. Atherton Post Office opened by 1903; the Atherton War Memorial commemorates local residents who died in World War I. It was dedicated on 1 May 1924 by Frederick Grau, it is the only war memorial in Queensland of a digger in an animated pose. The Atherton Courthouse was used as a wartime hospital for officers during World War II and has air raid bunkers beneath the building; the Atherton Public Library was opened in 1978. Atherton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Herberton Road: Chinatown Herberton Road: Atherton Chinese Temple Kennedy Highway: Atherton War Memorial corner of Kennedy Highway and Rockley Road: Atherton War Cemetery 42 Mable Street: Atherton State School Head Teacher's Residence 53 Main Street: Barron Valley Hotel Mazlin Street: Merriland Hall 6 Silo Street: Atherton Performing Arts Theatre Atherton has a humid subtropical climate that differs from the surrounding tropical savannah climate due to the town's elevation 752 metres ASL high on the Atherton Plateau.
Temperature extremes have ranged from 36.7 °C to –0.6 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1,379.8 mm Atherton is joined by the Gillies Highway to Yungaburra, the Kennedy Highway north to Mareeba and south to Ravenshoe and Mount Garnet, the Malanda Road to Malanda and the Herberton Road to Herberton. Trans North offers a number of return services during a seven-day week between Atherton, Walkamin, Mareeba and Cairns including drop-offs to airport, railway station and bus depots. There are connections available between Ravenshoe and Herberton and along the Wheelbarrow Way to Chillagoe. There is an Atherton taxi service. Due to its moderate climate and less humid than the tropical coast, its booming agricultural industries, Atherton has a busy and prosperous community, a vibrant social and cultural life. Atherton is attractive to retirees and "tree changers" due to the cool climate, fertile garden soils, housing prices lower than the nearby coastal city of Cairns, the vibrant cultural life; the land around Atherton is used to grow a variety of crops, including sugar cane, mangoes, potatoes, blueberries, blackberries and macadamia nuts.
Dairy and beef cattle are reared in the area. Each year towards the end of August, Atherton celebrates the Maize festival, which features a parade with decorated floats, the Maize Queen pageant, children's amusement rides and activities including tug of war and wood chopping. There are shop window displays and artwork competitions, as well as a prize given to the best float; the annual Atherton Agricultural Show is held in the second week of July at Atherton Show grounds including Heritage Listed Merriland Hall. The Atherton Roosters field teams in the Cairns District Rugby League. Atherton has two primary schools, one secondary school, one independent Prep - Grade 12 school and a technical and further education campus. There are two day care centres in the town. Atherton's schools and other places of education include: Atherton State High School The School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, a virtual campus of Atherton State High School. Atherton State School Jubilee Christian College St Joseph’s Catholic Primary School Tropical North Institute of TAFEAtherton State School opened on 2 March 1891 and celebrated its centenary in 1984.
The Tablelands Regional Council operates the Atherton Library on Atherton. The library facility opened in 1978, with a major refurbishment in 2012; the Atherton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Jack Street and Arnott Lane. Atherton Hospital is in the Tablelands Health District, it hospital provides obstetric, surgical, operating theatre and emergency services. Peter Beattie, who served as the 36th Premier of Queensland from 1998 to 2007 Ron Grainer, best known for composing the Doctor Who theme music Rod Jensen, former North Queensland Cowboys and Huddersfield Giants player Dallas Johnson, North Queensland Cowboys lock forward and former Melbourne Storm player and Queensland State of Origin representative Elizabeth O'Conner, author Ren Pedersen, children's brain cancer research advocate Alexander Prokhorov, Soviet/Russian physicist and Nobel Prize winner Historical weather of Atherton University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Atherton
Pormpuraaw is an Aboriginal community situated on the west coast of Cape York Peninsula halfway between Karumba and Weipa on the Edward River. It is 650 kilometres by road from Cairns. Pormpuraaw has a 4-man police station. According to the 2006 census, the population of the community was 600, with 536 of them being indigenous persons. Known as Edward River Aboriginal Mission, Pormpuraaw was an Anglican mission established in 1938; the people included Thaayorre, Wik and Yir Yoront. This was the third mission to be set up in the southwestern Cape York region. In 1967 control was passed from the church to the Queensland Department of Aboriginal and Islander Affairs; the community received DOGIT status, is governed by a community council. Pormpuraaw has been successful in developing a commercial crocodile farm, a cattle operation and some tourism. Pormpuraaw was known as Edward River Mission and is situated on the west coast of Cape York Peninsula between the Chapman River and Mungkan Creek; the community is home to 2 groups of people, the Thaayorre people and the Mungkan people, includes 16 outstations.
European settlement on Cape York began with the establishment of Somerset in 1865. The settlement was formed at the tip of Cape York Peninsula after a recommendation from the Queensland Governor Sir George Bowen that it would be a favourable location for a harbour of refuge and a well-positioned international trading port. Frank and Alexander Jardine overlanded a herd of cattle to establish a pastoral station near Somerset to supply the settlement with meat; the Jardine brothers had several skirmishes with Aboriginal people on their journey to Cape York that culminated in what the Jardine brothers named the "Battle of the Mitchell". On arriving at the Mitchell River:"Whilst the cattle halted … they came on to a number of blacks fishing, these crossed to the other side, but on their return, swam across again in numbers, armed with large bundles of spears and some nullahs and met them... The natives at first stood up courageously, but either by accident or through fear, despair or stupidity, they got huddled in a heap, in, at the margin of the water, when ten carbines poured volley after volley into them from all directions and wounding with every shot with little return… About thirty being killed.’"After this fatal encounter, the Jardine brothers continued north, crossing the Coleman and Edward rivers and on to Somerset.
Gold mining brought further European settlement to Cape York, after William Hann’s expedition found gold on the Palmer River in 1872. In 1876, Robert Sefton found gold while prospecting at the Coen River, his return to Cooktown with 140 ounces in 1878 prompted a subsequent gold rush in Coen. The town of Normanton was established by 1868, a Native Police detachment was stationed there shortly afterwards. Native Police camps were established at Highbury in 1885 and in Coen in 1888, which helped European settlement advance further into Cape York. In 1874, the Mitchell River was considered as a potential location for a port to service the Palmer River goldfield; the river was surveyed again in 1886, with a view to establishing a town to service the formed pastoral stations. However, neither of these surveys amounted to anything. In 1896, it was argued that, as the land from Albatross Bay down to the Gilbert River was not needed for European settlement, there was no need to establish a mission in the area.
In 1900, the Church of England created the Diocese of Carpentaria, based on Thursday Island. Securing a grant from the Queensland Government, Gilbert White, turned to Ernest Gribble for help in establishing a mission at Mitchell River. Gribble had considerable experience running the Yarrabah Mission near Cairns; the land was gazetted as an Aboriginal reserve on 10 January 1903. In 1905, Bishop White and their staff established a permanent mission at Mitchell River. In 1923, the Mitchell River Mission superintendent, Joseph Chapman, began to visit the large, semi-permanent Aboriginal camp at the mouth of the Edward River. In 1924, The Queenslander reported that:"On the Edward River 50 miles north of the Mitchell River station, there are about 150 Aboriginals, who have had little association with whites, they live close to the sea, behind them is a stretch of desert country, so that their habitation is more or less permanent. They have shown a decided tendency in the direction of agriculture, any seeds given them have been cared for and planted.
A Mission station has been started for the care and instruction of these people". Chapman continued to visit the site during the 1920s, but the establishment of a permanent mission station was stalled because the Diocese of Carpentaria was unable to find the necessary funds. Chapman was keen to extend the missionary influence to the Edward River, to block attempts to have the area thrown open to pastoral selection. Anglican missionary, Walter Daniels, attempted to establish a mission station at Coleman River during 1932, but this attempt failed. In 1939, Joseph Chapman returned to the Edward River to establish a permanent mission station. By the late 1940s, the mission had a population of 301; the mission was self-sufficient with palm leaf houses and a farm that grew bananas, sweet potatoes, sugar cane and kitchen vegetables. The Aboriginal residents built fish canoes that were used to supply the mission with fish. In 1950, cattle were introduced for meat. Under the Aboriginal Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act 1897, which granted the Home Secretary the power "to cause Aboriginals within any district to be removed to and kept within