Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Samuel Adams was an American statesman, political philosopher, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a politician in colonial Massachusetts, a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States, he was a second cousin to President John Adams. Adams was born in Boston, brought up in a politically active family. A graduate of Harvard College, he was an unsuccessful businessman and tax collector before concentrating on politics, he was an influential official of the Massachusetts House of Representatives and the Boston Town Meeting in the 1760s, he became a part of a movement opposed to the British Parliament's efforts to tax the British American colonies without their consent. His 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers resulting in the Boston Massacre of 1770. Adams and his colleagues devised a committee of correspondence system in 1772 to help coordinate resistance to what he saw as the British government's attempts to violate the British Constitution at the expense of the colonies, which linked like-minded Patriots throughout the Thirteen Colonies.
Continued resistance to British policy resulted in the 1773 Boston Tea Party and the coming of the American Revolution. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774, at which time Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, convened to coordinate a colonial response, he helped guide Congress towards issuing the Continental Association in 1774 and the Declaration of Independence in 1776, he helped draft the Articles of Confederation and the Massachusetts Constitution. Adams returned to Massachusetts after the American Revolution, where he served in the state senate and was elected governor. Samuel Adams became a controversial figure in American history. Accounts written in the 19th century praised him as someone, steering his fellow colonists towards independence long before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War; this view gave way to negative assessments of Adams in the first half of the 20th century, in which he was portrayed as a master of propaganda who provoked mob violence to achieve his goals.
Both of these interpretations have been challenged by some modern scholars, who argue that these traditional depictions of Adams are myths contradicted by the historical record. Samuel Adams was born in Boston in the British colony of Massachusetts on September 16, 1722, an Old Style date, sometimes converted to the New Style date of September 27. Adams was one of twelve children born to Samuel Adams, Sr. and Mary Adams in an age of high infant mortality. Adams's parents were devout members of the Old South Congregational Church; the family lived on Purchase Street in Boston. Adams was proud of his Puritan heritage, emphasized Puritan values in his political career virtue. Samuel Adams, Sr. was a prosperous church deacon. Deacon Adams became a leading figure in Boston politics through an organization that became known as the Boston Caucus, which promoted candidates who supported popular causes; the Boston Caucus helped shape the agenda of the Boston Town Meeting. A New England town meeting is a form of local government with elected officials, not just a gathering of citizens.
Deacon Adams rose through the political ranks, becoming a justice of the peace, a selectman, a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He worked with Elisha Cooke, Jr. the leader of the "popular party", a faction that resisted any encroachment by royal officials on the colonial rights embodied in the Massachusetts Charter of 1691. In the coming years, members of the "popular party" became known as Patriots; the younger Samuel Adams attended Boston Latin School and entered Harvard College in 1736. His parents hoped that his schooling would prepare him for the ministry, but Adams shifted his interest to politics. After graduating in 1740, Adams continued his studies, earning a master's degree in 1743. In his thesis, he argued that it was "lawful to resist the Supreme Magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved", which indicated that his political views, like his father's, were oriented towards colonial rights. Adams's life was affected by his father's involvement in a banking controversy.
In 1739, Massachusetts was facing a serious currency shortage, Deacon Adams and the Boston Caucus created a "land bank" which issued paper money to borrowers who mortgaged their land as security. The land bank was supported by the citizenry and the popular party, which dominated the House of Representatives, the lower branch of the General Court. Opposition to the land bank came from the more aristocratic "court party", who were supporters of the royal governor and controlled the Governor's Council, the upper chamber of the General Court; the court party used its influence to have the British Parliament dissolve the land bank in 1741. Directors of the land bank, including Deacon Adams, became liable for the currency still in circulation, payable in silver and gold. Lawsuits over the bank persisted for years after Deacon Adams's death, the younger Samuel Adams had to defend the family estate from seizure by the government. For Adams, these lawsuits "served as a constant personal reminder that Britain's power over the colonies c
Richard Stockton (Continental Congressman)
Richard Stockton was an American lawyer, legislator, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Richard was a son of John Stockton the wealthy Princeton landowner who donated land and helped bring what is now Princeton University to Princeton, New Jersey. Richard was born at the Stockton family home now known as Morven in the Stony Brook neighborhood of Princeton, New Jersey, attended Samuel Finley's academy at Nottingham, which became West Nottingham Academy, the College of New Jersey located in Newark, graduating in 1748, he studied law with David Ogden, of Newark, at that time the head of the legal profession in the province. Stockton soon rose to great distinction. In 1763 he received the degree of sergeant at the highest degree of law at that time, he was a longtime friend of George Washington. His wife was sister of New Jersey statesman Elias Boudinot; the Stocktons had six children. Their son Richard Stockton became an eminent lawyer and prominent Federalist leader. Elias Boudinot was married to Stockton's sister Hannah Stockton.
Stockton showed little interest in politics. He once wrote, "The public is unthankful, I never will become a Servant of it, till I am convinced that by neglecting my own affairs I am doing more acceptable Service to God and Man." Stockton did, take an active role as a trustee of the College of New Jersey. Stockton served the College, afterwards known as Princeton University, as a trustee 26 years. In 1766 and 1767, he gave up his law practice for the purpose of visiting England and Ireland, his fame preceded him and he was received by the most eminent men of the kingdom. Stockton had the honor of presenting to King George III an address of the trustees of the College of New Jersey, acknowledging the repeal of the Stamp Act, his address was favorably received by the king, he was consulted on the state of American affairs by such notable men as the Marquess of Rockingham with whom he spent a week at his country estate. He met with Edmund Burke, the Earl of Chatham, many other distinguished members of Parliament who were friendly to the American colonies.
In Scotland, his personal efforts resulted in the acceptance of the presidency of the College by the Reverend John Witherspoon. Witherspoon's wife had opposed her husband's taking the position but her objections were overcome with the aid of his future son-in-law Benjamin Rush, a medical student in Edinburgh; this was an exceedingly important event in the history of higher education in America. One night in Edinburgh, Stockton was attacked by a robber and he defended himself skillfully with a small sword. Stockton returned to America in August 1767. In 1768, Stockton had his first taste of government service when he was elevated to a seat in the New Jersey Provincial Council, he first took a moderate stance in the troubles between Great Britain. In 1774 he drafted and sent to Lord Dartmouth "a plan of self-government for America, independent of Parliament, without renouncing the Crown." This Commonwealth approach was not acceptable to the King. When Parliament resolved to raise revenue in the colonies in 1775, Stockton declared the colonies "must each of them send one or two of their most ingenious fellows, enable them to get into the House of Commons, maintain them there till they can maintain themselves, or else we shall be fleeced to some purpose."
In 1776, Stockton was elected to the Second Continental Congress, where he took a active role. That August, when elections were held for the state governments of the new nation and William Livingston each received the same number of votes to be the Governor of New Jersey on the first ballot. Although Livingston won the election by one vote, Stockton was unanimously elected to serve as the Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, but he turned down that position to remain in the Congress. Stockton was the first person from New Jersey to sign the Declaration of Independence. Stockton was sent by Congress, along with fellow signer George Clymer, on an exhausting two-month journey to Fort Ticonderoga and Albany, New York to assist the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. On his return to Princeton, he traveled 30 miles east to the home of a friend, John Covenhoven, to evacuate his family to safety, away from the path of the British army. While there, on November 30, 1776, he and Covenhoven were captured in the middle of the night, dragged from their beds by loyalists, stripped of their property and marched to Perth Amboy and turned over to the British.
The day Stockton was captured, General William Howe had written a Proclamation offering protection papers and a full and free pardon to those willing to remain in peaceable obedience to the King. Although many took the pardon, Stockton never did, was marched to Perth Amboy where he was put in irons, brutally treated as a common criminal, he was moved to Provost Prison in New York, where he was intentionally starved and subjected to freezing cold weather. After nearly five weeks of brutal treatment, Stockton was released on his health ruined. Over 12,000 prisoners died in the prison ships and prisons in New York compared to 4,435 soldiers that died in combat over the six years of war, his estate, Morven, in Princeton was occupied by General Cornwallis during Stockton's imprisonme
John Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain, served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and corresponded with many important figures in early American history including his wife and adviser and his letters and other papers are an important source of historical information about the era. A lawyer and political activist prior to the revolution, Adams was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence, he defied anti-British sentiment and defended British soldiers against murder charges arising from the Boston Massacre. Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution, he assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was its foremost advocate in Congress.
As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain and secured vital governmental loans. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which influenced the United States' own constitution, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government. Adams was elected to two terms as vice president under President George Washington and was elected as the United States' second president in 1796. During his single term, Adams encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans and from some in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts and built up the Army and Navy in the undeclared "Quasi-War" with France; the main accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of this conflict in the face of public anger and Hamilton's opposition. During his term, he became the first president to reside in the executive mansion now known as the White House. In his bid for reelection, opposition from Federalists and accusations of despotism from Republicans led to Adams's loss to his former friend Thomas Jefferson, he retired to Massachusetts.
He resumed his friendship with Jefferson by initiating a correspondence that lasted fourteen years. He and his wife generated a family of politicians and historians now referred to as the Adams political family, which includes their son John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. John Adams died on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, hours after Jefferson's death. Surveys of historians and scholars have favorably ranked his administration. John Adams was born on October 1735 to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. He had two younger brothers and Elihu. Adams was born on the family farm in Massachusetts, his mother was from a leading medical family of Massachusetts. His father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, a lieutenant in the militia. John Sr. supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams praised his father and recalled their close relationship. Adams's great-grandfather Henry Adams emigrated to Massachusetts from Braintree, England around 1638.
Though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt pressured to live up to his heritage. His was a family of Puritans, who profoundly affected their region's culture and traditions. By the time of John Adams's birth, Puritan tenets such as predestination had waned and many of their severe practices moderated, but Adams still "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." Adams recalled that his parents "held every Species of Libertinage in... Contempt and horror," and detailed "pictures of disgrace, or baseness and of Ruin" resulting from any debauchery. Adams noted that "As a child I enjoyed the greatest of blessings that can be bestowed upon men – that of a mother, anxious and capable to form the characters of her children."Adams, as the eldest child, was compelled to obtain a formal education. This began at age six at a dame school for boys and girls, conducted at a teacher's home, was centred upon The New England Primer. Shortly thereafter, Adams attended Braintree Latin School under Joseph Cleverly, where studies included Latin, rhetoric and arithmetic.
Adams's early education included incidents of truancy, a dislike for his master, a desire to become a farmer. All discussion on the matter ended with his father's command that he remain in school: "You shall comply with my desires." Deacon Adams hired a new schoolmaster named Joseph Marsh, his son responded positively. At age sixteen, Adams entered Harvard College in 1751; as an adult, Adams was a keen scholar, studying the works of ancient writers such as Thucydides, Plato and Tacitus in their original languages. Though his father expected him to be a minister, after his 1755 graduation with an A. B. degree, he taught school while pondering his permanent vocation. In the next four years, he began to seek prestige, craving "Honour or Reputation" and "more defference from fellows", was determined to be "a great Man." He decided to become a lawyer to further those ends, writing his father that he found among lawyers "noble and gallant achievements" but, among the clergy, the "pretended sanctity of some absolute dunces."
His aspirations conflicted with his Puritanism, prompting reservations about his self-described "trumpery" and failure to share the "happiness of fellow men."As the French and Indian War began in 1754, Ada
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
John Hart (New Jersey politician)
John Hart was a public official and politician in colonial New Jersey who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence. Sources disagree as to the place of Hart's birth, he was born in 1706 in Stonington, Connecticut, or in 1713 in Hopewell Township, Burlington County, New Jersey. Hart was baptized at the Maidenhead Meetinghouse on December 31, 1713, he was the son of Captain Edward Hart, a farmer, public assessor, Justice of the Peace, leader of a local militia unit during the French and Indian War, grandson of John Hart, a carpenter who came to Hopewell from Newtown, Long Island. In 1741, John Hart married Deborah Scudder; the couple would have thirteen children: Sarah, Martha, John, Mary, Edward, Scudder, an infant daughter and Deborah, of whom only Daniel and Deborah were still minor children at the time of John Hart's death in 1779. Deborah Hart predeceased her husband, dying October 28, 1776. In 1747 he donated a piece of land in his front meadow to local Baptists, seeking a place to build a church.
The location was known for some time thereafter as the Old Baptist Meeting House. John Hart is buried there. Hart was elected to the Hunterdon County Board of Chosen Freeholders in 1750, he was first elected to the New Jersey colonial Assembly in 1761 and served there until 1771. He was appointed to the local Committee of Safety and the Committee of Correspondence, became a judge on the Court of Common Pleas, he was called "Honest John." When New Jersey formed a revolutionary assembly in 1776, he was elected to it and served as its Vice President. Prior to June 1776, the New Jersey delegation in the First Continental Congress was opposed to independence; as a result, the entire delegation was replaced, Hart was one of those selected for the Second Continental Congress. He joined in time to sign the Declaration of Independence, he served until August of that year was elected Speaker of the newly formed New Jersey General Assembly. He would take on additional duties as Treasurer of the Council of Safety, President of the Joint Meetings of the New Jersey Congress, Commissioner of the State Loan Office.
In December 1776, the British advance into New Jersey reached Hunterdon County. A marked man due to his status as Speaker of the Assembly, Hart was obliged to escape and hide for a short time in the nearby Sourland Mountains, his farm was raided by Hessian troops, who damaged but did not destroy the property. The Continentals' capture of Trenton on December 26 allowed Hart to return home. Prior to the Battle of Monmouth, Hart invited Gen. George Washington and the Continental Army to make camp on his farm, his offer was accepted. From June 22–24, 1778, 12,000 men occupied his fields, on at least one occasion Gen. Washington dined with their host. On November 7, 1778, John Hart returned to Hopewell from the Assembly in Trenton. Two days he indicated that he was too ill with "gravel" to return, he continued to suffer from the painful affliction for more than six months until his death on May 11, 1779, at the age of 65. The following obituary for John Hart appeared on May 19, 1779: On Tuesday the 11th instant, departed this life at his seat in Hopewell, JOHN HART, Esq. the Representative in General Assembly for the county of Hunterdon, late Speaker of that House.
He had served in the Assembly for many years under the former government, taken an early and active part in the present revolution, continued to the day he was seized with his last illness to discharge the duties of a faithful and upright patriot in the service of his country in general and the county he represented in particular. The universal approbation of his character and conduct among all ranks of people, is the best testimony of his worth, as it must make his death regretted and lamented, will ensure lasting respect to his memory. Hart Boulevard in Flemington, New Jersey Great-great-great grandfather of Congressman John Hart Brewer Hart Avenue in Hopewell, New Jersey Hart Lane in Ringoes, New Jersey Signing of the United States Declaration of Independence – List of Signers of the US Declaration of Independence Hammond, Cleon E. John Hart: The Biography of a Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Newfane, VT: Pioneer Press, 1977. John Hart at Find a Grave
2nd United States Congress
The Second United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, from March 4, 1791, to March 4, 1793, during the third and fourth years of George Washington's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the provisions of Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution. Additional House seats were assigned to the two new states of Kentucky. Both chambers had a Pro-Administration majority. April 5, 1792: President Washington used the veto for the first time, vetoing a bill designed to apportion representatives among U. S. states. April–May, 1792: the House conducted the government's first investigative hearings, examining Gen. Arthur St. Clair's Defeat in the Battle of the Wabash. October 13, 1792: Foundation of Washington, D. C.: The cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion, now known as the White House, was laid. February 20, 1792: Postal Service Act, Sess.
1, ch. 7, 1 Stat. 232, established the U. S. Post Office March 1, 1792: Act relative to the Election of a President and Vice President of the United States, to Presidential Succession, Sess. 1, ch. 8, 1 Stat. 239, stated the process for electors and Congress to follow when electing a president and vice president, established which federal officer would act as president if both the offices of president and vice president became vacant. April 2, 1792: Coinage Act of 1792, Sess. 1, ch. 16, 1 Stat. 246, established the United States Mint and regulated coinage April 14, 1792: Apportionment Act of 1792, Sess. 1, ch. 23 1 Stat. 253, increased the size of the House of Representatives from 69 seats in the 2nd Congress to 105 in the 3rd and apportioned those seats among the several states according to the 1790 Census May 2, 1792: First Militia Act of 1792, Sess. 1, ch. 28, 1 Stat. 264, empowered the president to call out the militias of the various states in the event of an invasion or rebellion. May 8, 1792: Second Militia Act of 1792, Sess.
1, ch. 33, 1 Stat. 271, required that every free able-bodied white male citizen of the various states, between the ages of 18 and 45, enroll in the militia of the state in which they reside. February 12, 1793: Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, Sess. 2, ch. 7, 1 Stat. 302 March 2, 1793: Judiciary Act of 1793, Sess. 2, ch. 22, 1 Stat. 333 March 4, 1791: Vermont was admitted as the 14th state, 1 Stat. 191 June 1, 1792: Kentucky was admitted as the 15th state, 1 Stat. 189 December 15, 1791: The first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution, collectively known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution. There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record. Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. During this congress, two new Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Vermont and Kentucky.
During this congress, two new House seats were added for each of the new states of Vermont and Kentucky. President: John Adams President pro tempore: Richard Henry Lee John Langdon, elected November 5, 1792 Speaker: Jonathan Trumbull, Jr; this list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by Class, Representatives are listed by district. Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1796; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their districts. There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record. Vermont and Kentucky are first represented in this Congress. There were three resignations, one contested election, four new seats of admitted states, resulting in a four-seat net gain of the Anti-Administration Senators.
There were 3 resignations, 1 vacancy of a member-elect, 1 contested election, 2 late elections, 4 new seats of admitted states, resulting in a 3-seat net gain of the Anti-Administration members and a 1-seat net gain of the Pro-Administration members. Lists of committees and their party leaders. Whole Elections Rules Whole Enrolled Bills Secretary: Samuel A. Otis of Massachusetts Doorkeeper: James Mathers of New York Chaplain: William White Clerk: John Beckley of Virginia Sergeant at Arms: Joseph Wheaton of Rhode Island Doorkeeper: Gifford Dalley Chaplain: Samuel Blair (Presbyterian, elected October 24, 1791 Ashbel Green, elected November 5, 1792 Reading Clerks: United States elections, 1790 United States Senate elections, 1790 and 1791 United States House of Representatives elections, 1790 United States elections, 1792 United States presidential election, 1792 United States Senate elections, 1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections, 1792 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at