Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States. Lincoln led the nation through its greatest moral and political crisis in the American Civil War, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Lincoln was born in poverty in a log cabin and was raised on the frontier in Indiana, he was self-educated and became a lawyer, Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator, U. S. Congressman from Illinois. In 1849 he returned to his law practice but became vexed by the opening of additional lands to slavery as a result of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, he reentered politics in 1854, becoming a leader in the new Republican Party and he reached a national audience in the 1858 debates against Stephen Douglas. Lincoln ran for President in 1860. Pro-slavery elements in the South equated his success with the North's rejection of their right to practice slavery, southern states began seceding from the union.
To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, a U. S. fort in the South, Lincoln called up forces to suppress the rebellion and restore the Union. As the leader of moderate Republicans, Lincoln found his political opposition was manifold, included Radical Republicans, War Democrats and irreconcilable secessionists, he managed the various factions by pitting them against each other, by exploiting political patronage, by appealing to the American people. His Gettysburg Address became a historic clarion call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln scrutinized the strategy and tactics in the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade of the South's trade, he suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. He engineered the end to slavery with his Emancipation Proclamation and his order that the Army protect escaped slaves, he encouraged border states to outlaw slavery, promoted the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which outlawed slavery across the country.
Lincoln managed his own successful re-election campaign. He sought to reconcile the war-torn nation by exonerating the secessionists. On April 14, 1865, just days after the war's end at Appomattox, he was enjoying a night at the theatre with his wife Mary when he was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln's marriage had produced four sons, two of whom preceded him in death, with severe emotional impact upon him and Mary. Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero and he is ranked both by scholars and the public as the greatest U. S. president. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, the second child of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake, Massachusetts, in 1638. The family migrated west, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County and was killed in an Indian raid in 1786.
His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack. Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee before the family settled in Hardin County, Kentucky in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother Nancy is assumed, absent documentation, to have been the daughter of Lucey Hanks. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they had three children: Sarah and Thomas who died in infancy. Thomas Lincoln bought or leased farms in Kentucky before losing all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana where the land titles were more reliable. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County, Indiana. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin. Ten years on January 20, 1828, Sarah died while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred to as "Mother". Lincoln disliked the hard labor associated with farm life, he was called lazy for all his "reading, writing, writing Poetry, etc.". His stepmother acknowledged he loved to read. Lincoln was self-educated, with intermittent formal schooling from travelling teachers of less than 12 months aggregate.
Senior management, executive management, upper management, or a management team is a team of individuals at the highest level of management of an organization who have the day-to-day tasks of managing that organization—sometimes a company or a corporation. Executive managers hold executive powers delegated to them with and by authority of a board of directors and/or the shareholders. Higher levels of responsibility exist, such as a board of directors and those who own the company, but they focus on managing the senior or executive management instead of on the day-to-day activities of the business; the executive management consists of the heads of a firm's product and/or geographic units and of functional executives such as the chief financial officer, the chief operating officer, the chief strategy officer. In project management, senior management authorises the funding of projects. Senior management are sometimes referred to, within corporations, as executive management, top management, upper management, higher management, or seniors.
A top management team is a specific form of team which consists of some of the top managers in a firm. However, there is no clear definition, it is put together by the chief executive officer to work on a specific task. In working on this task, the team has a much higher responsibility and considerable autonomy than other types of teams. Possible tasks include ensuring the organization is effective and successful by taking on responsibility for the implementation of an appropriate strategy that the organization can adapt to managing the demands of stakeholders, giving clear definitions of what constitutes effectiveness and success, ensuring the implementation of the strategy and the targeting of resources towards success reviewing if their actions are relevant to the organization's overall goals; the way TMTs are put together and work together as a team can differ from other teams. This is based on the fact that top managers have succeeded as individuals which leads to a focus on functional team objectives rather than to working interdependently on a shared goal.
TMTs consist of top managers from different functional areas of the firm, so they have different areas of expertise. Diversity and heterogeneity in teams can have a positive effect on teamwork. There are negative effects which have to be overcome as a team like not valuing different opinions and perspectives. A CEO that models valuing behavior and ensures the team has both a clear purpose and clear objectives can do just that; this reduces social categorization effects because it leads to team members focusing more on their shared goals than on their differences. The exchange of information during the working process is as important for TMTs as it is for all other kinds of teams. In order to work the team needs to understand how to communicate, share information, set goals, give feedback, manage conflict, engage in joint planning and task coordination and solve problems collaboratively; the CEO plays a key role in enabling the team to do so. He or she must take on the responsibility to reflect on their work.
In their research in 2005, Simsek and colleagues found that a CEO's collectivistic orientation has a positive influence on team work behavior. Collectivistic orientation means that the CEO subordinates his or her personal to the group interests and goals, emphasizes sharing and cooperation within the team and enhances task-relevant processes of team work like gathering and interpreting strategic information; this in turn enhances a process called behavioral integration, developed by Hambrick. It describes the degree to which a group, here the top management team, engages in mutual and collective interaction. Hambrick divided this concept into three parts: the level of collaborative behavior within the team, the quantity and quality of exchanged information and the emphasis on joint decision making. TMTs can face multiple difficulties which derive from their individualistic views and strong opinions, it is therefore of great importance that the team works through these conflicts, creating a climate of safety, keeping their vision and mission in mind and build an appropriate work environment for themselves and the organization.
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The 2015 IS Open de Tênis was a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It was resumed after not being held in 2014, being the third edition of the tournament, part of the 2015 ATP Challenger Tour, it took place in São Paulo, Brazil, on 22–28 October 2015. 1 Rankings as of 5 October 2015 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Thiago Monteiro Orlando Luz Pedro Sakamoto Marcelo ZormannThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Joris De Loore João Menezes André Miele Carlos Eduardo SeverinoThe following players entered as lucky losers: Ricardo Hocevar João Pedro Sorgi 1 Rankings as of 13 October 2015 The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Igor Marcondes / João Menezes Thiago Monteiro / Pedro Sakamoto Felipe Carvalho / Rodrigo CarvalhoThe following pairs entered as an alternate: Carlos Eduardo Severino / João Pedro SorgiThe following pairs entered using a protected ranking: Gastão Elias / Pedro Sousa Carlos Berlocq def.