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Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the outcome of this process—a concept that acts as a common noun for all subordinate concepts, connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category. Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular subjectively valued purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball selects only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, but not eliminating, the other phenomenal and cognitive characteristics of that particular ball. In a type–token distinction, a type is more abstract than its tokens. Abstraction in its secondary use is a material process, discussed in the themes below. Thinking in abstractions is considered by anthropologists and sociologists to be one of the key traits in modern human behaviour, believed to have developed between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago.

Its development is to have been connected with the development of human language, which appears to both involve and facilitate abstract thinking. Abstraction involves induction of ideas or the synthesis of particular facts into one general theory about something, it is the opposite of specification, the analysis or breaking-down of a general idea or abstraction into concrete facts. Abstraction can be illustrated with Francis Bacon's Novum Organum, a book of modern scientific philosophy written in the late Jacobean era of England to encourage modern thinkers to collect specific facts before making any generalizations. Bacon used and promoted induction as an abstraction tool, it countered the ancient deductive-thinking approach that had dominated the intellectual world since the times of Greek philosophers like Thales and Aristotle. Thales believed that everything in the universe comes from water, he deduced or specified from a general idea, "everything is water", to the specific forms of water such as ice, snow and rivers.

Modern scientists can use the opposite approach of abstraction, or going from particular facts collected into one general idea, such as the motion of the planets. When determining that the sun is the center of our solar system, scientists had to utilize thousands of measurements to conclude that Mars moves in an elliptical orbit about the sun, or to assemble multiple specific facts into the law of falling bodies. An abstraction can be seen as a compression process, mapping multiple different pieces of constituent data to a single piece of abstract data; this conceptual scheme emphasizes the inherent equality of both constituent and abstract data, thus avoiding problems arising from the distinction between "abstract" and "concrete". In this sense the process of abstraction entails the identification of similarities between objects, the process of associating these objects with an abstraction. For example, picture 1 below illustrates the concrete relationship "Cat sits on Mat". Chains of abstractions can be construed, moving from neural impulses arising from sensory perception to basic abstractions such as color or shape, to experiential abstractions such as a specific cat, to semantic abstractions such as the "idea" of a CAT, to classes of objects such as "mammals" and categories such as "object" as opposed to "action".

For example, graph 1 below expresses the abstraction "agent sits on location". This conceptual scheme entails no specific hierarchical taxonomy, only a progressive exclusion of detail. Non-existent things in any particular place and time are seen as abstract. By contrast, instances, or members, of such an abstract thing might exist in many different places and times; those abstract things are said to be multiply instantiated, in the sense of picture 1, picture 2, etc. shown below. It is not sufficient, however, to define abstract ideas as those that can be instantiated and to define abstraction as the movement in the opposite direction to instantiation. Doing so would make the concepts "cat" and "telephone" abstract ideas since despite their varying appearances, a particular cat or a particular telephone is an instance of the concept "cat" or the concept "telephone". Although the concepts "cat" and "telephone" are abstractions, they are not abstract in the sense of the objects in graph 1 below.

We might look at other graphs, in a progression from cat to mammal to animal, see that animal is more abstract than mammal. Confusingly, some philosophies refer to tropes as abstract particulars—e.g. The particular redness of a particular apple is an abstract particular; this is similar to qualia and sumbebekos. Still retaining the primary meaning of'abstrere' or'to draw away from', the abstraction of money, for example, works by drawing away from the particular value of things allowing incommensurate objects to be compared. Karl Marx's writing on the commodity abstraction recognizes a parallel process; the state as both concept a

Robert Jerry

Robert "Bob" H. Jerry, II is the former dean of the University of Florida's Levin College of Law, serving from 2003 to 2014, he succeeded Jon Mills, who returned to the University of Florida's law faculty. Jerry became Dean of the College in July 2003. Jerry earned a B. S. magna cum laude from Indiana State University in 1974. Jerry graduated cum laude from the University of Michigan Law School, where he was a member of the Michigan Law Review. In 1977. Jerry served as a law clerk for Judge George E. MacKinnon of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit from 1977 to 1978. Before Jerry became the dean of the Levin College of Law in 2003, he held the Floyd R. Gibson Missouri Endowed Professorship at the University of Missouri School of Law in Columbia, Missouri. From 1994 to 1998, he was the Herbert Herff Chair of Excellence at the Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law at the University of Memphis, he served as the dean of the University of Kansas School of Law from 1989 to 1994, where he was a member of the faculty from 1981 to 1994.

He practiced law with the firm of Barnes, Pantzer & Boyd in Indianapolis, Indiana from 1978 to 1981. In August 2013, Jerry announced he would be stepping down as Dean at the end of the'13-'14 school year in, he remained on the faculty. Jerry teaches a course on insurance law and is the author of Understanding Insurance Law, published by LexisNexis. Dean Jerry's Official Bio Robert Jerry's CV Robert Jerry announced as new Dean in 2003

In Extremo

In Extremo is a German medieval metal band originating from Berlin. The band's musical style combines metal with medieval traditional songs, blending the sound of the standard rock/metal instruments with historical instruments. Versions of well-known traditional/medieval ballads make up the main part of their repertoire, but the band has written an increasing share of original material in recent years, their own material is written in German, whilst the traditional songs are in a variety of languages, including Gaelic, English, Swedish, French, Galician, Latin, Occitan, Old High German and Middle High German. In Extremo began as two projects: a nameless, purely medieval band, a rock band, they became known at that time through frequent appearances at medieval market meetings, at which they performed their acoustic pieces and sold CDs of their renditions of traditional songs. During the recording for the 1995 season, Michael Rhein found the project name "In Extremo," Latin for "At The Edge." Most of the band members perform under stage names.

The initial members of the medieval band were Das letzte Einhorn, Flex der Biegsame, Dr. Pymonte, Conny Fuchs and Sen Pusterbalg; the rock band consisted of Thomas der Münzer, Der Morgenstern, Die Lutter. Der Münzer subsequently left the band and; as noted below all of the band members play multiple instruments. The increasing number of visitors, success of their CDs, the popular interest, as well as cross-pollination from groups such as Corvus Corax and Bathory, encouraged In Extremo in 1995 to attempt to start a band combining bagpipes and other traditional instruments with rock guitars; the result was the current incarnation of In Extremo, a rock group that integrates modern instruments like the drum set, electric bass and guitar with the acoustic elements used for the medieval songs, which plays both types of music as well as a hybrid of the two. In August 1996, they began work on the first In Extremo album, which contained two tracks of the new rock project; because the album had no official name, it became known as In Extremo Gold because of the golden covers.

In February 1997, like the single Der Galgen, it sold out in Medieval markets. In Extremo played separately as a medieval and a rock band, until on March 29, 1997, when they played their first live rock concert. Since that time, they have given this date as their date of establishment; the two projects were merged on January 11, 1998. April 1998 saw the first "high occupancy" In Extremo concert in the Rabenstein castle in Brandenburg. Over the years, their music became more heavy metal based, while at the same time becoming commercially successful; the classical instruments, however – bagpipes and lutes – still play a large role. The band is noted for their conspicuous stage costumes and known for using pyrotechnics in their concerts, including Der Morgenstern playing cymbals which have been set on fire. On 26 February 2010 In Extremo announced that Der Morgenstern left the band because of musical differences via their homepage. On June 11, Florian "Specki T. D." Speckardt was announced as his replacement on drums.

Besides the electric guitar and drum set, In Extremo defines itself by unconventional instruments of medieval origin. They include hurdy-gurdy, Uilleann Pipes, nyckelharpa, cittern, tromba marina, hammered dulcimer and various types of drums and percussion. Bagpipes are the most conspicuous of these instruments, as Dr. Pymonte, Yellow Pfeiffer, Flex der Biegsame all play bagpipes, sometimes all three at once. All of the band members play multiple instruments, rotate instruments between songs, their bagpipes were made by Dr. Pymonte, but are partially built by a well-known pipe builder; the band uses a custom-built frame drum covered in zebra skin, called Das Pferd. Most of the other acoustic instruments, such as their shawms, are only made by a few other instrument builders; some lyrics are not written by the band, but some – like the instruments – from traditional songs written during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Many of the lyrics to the band's repertoire of medieval songs come from church writings, Benedictine writings, or are "trad. arr.", meaning traditional songs with unknown authors, rearranged by the band.

The band frequently uses songs from the Carmina Burana, a medieval collection of songs, as well as lyrics written as poetry by the 15th-century French poet François Villon. The band uses poems from writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Ludwig Uhland, who wrote Des Sängers Fluch – which In Extremo changed to be called Spielmannsfluch. For

Ed Kenna

Edward Benninghaus Kenna, nicknamed "The Pitching Poet", was an American Major League Baseball pitcher, college football coach and newspapers editor. He played for the Philadelphia Athletics during the 1902 season. Kenna played football as Georgetown University as a fullback in 1898, he served as the head football coach at the University of Richmond in 1900 and West Virginia Wesleyan College in 1902. Kenna was an editor of the Charleston Gazette, he died on March 1912, in Grant, Florida. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Ed Kenna at Find a Grave

Rainer M. Schröder

Rainer Maria Schröder, is a German author of adventure fiction for juveniles, mystery thrillers and historical novels for adults. He writes under the pseudonym Ashley Carrington and Raymond M. Sheridan, his books sold more than 6 million copies to date. Rainer Maria Schröder received the Friedrich-Gerstäcker-Preis for his historical novel Abby Lynn - Verbannt ans Ende der Welt in 1988. In 1998 the Federal Agency for Civic Education voted his novel Unter dem Jacarandabaum one of the 100 novels most worth reading of 20th century world literature; the same year he was awarded the 3rd International Eifel-Literaturpreis for Das Geheimnis der weißen Mönche. In 2003 the novel Das Geheimnis des Kartenmachers received both the Literature Award of the Youth Book Jury Moers as well as the distincion "Book of the Month" by the Youth Book committee Göttingen. In 2005 he received the renowned youth book award Buxtehude Bull for the novel Die Lagune der Galeeren; the works of Rainer Maria Schröder have been translated into more than a dozen languages, among them French, Spanish, Polish, Czech, Latvian, Dutch and Russian.

Rainer Maria Schröder grew up in East Berlin. Shortly before the construction of the Berlin Wall he fled to West Germany with his family, where they lived in a camp for the first year, they moved to Dortmund and Düsseldorf, where Schröder completed his Abitur and studied opera singing. Schröder played the guitar in the rock band Union Jack. At the request of his father, a former head physician at the Berlin Charité, he aimed for an academic career. After completing a two-year officer training in the German Air Force he worked as a trainee for the newspaper Rheinische Post. In 1974 he took up Law Studies at the University of Cologne, he read German Philology, Theatre studies, Film- and Television Studies and wrote texts and articles for different newspapers and the broadcasting station WDR. After the publishing house Franz Schneider Verlag bought his first juvenile novel In die Falle gelaufen in 1975, Schröder dropped out of University. Subsequently, his novels were published by Franz Schneider Verlag and Heyne Verlag.

He debuted as a playwright in 1977. Schröder worked as an editor for nine month. In 1980 he and his wife Helga took up residence at a farm in the south of Virginia at Smith Mountain Lake. Rainer M. Schröder is the author of several non-fiction books on music, such as the biography on the band The Scorpions published by Heyne in 1980. Schröder, friends with the band, accompanied them on tours in France and California and spent several weeks in the recording studio with them. Schröder likes to collect information for his adventure novels. Today he lives in the Bergisches Land in Germany, his novels are set in the period between 1100 and 1900. An exception are his novels set around World War II, such as Die lange Reise des Jakob Stern. With the two-part Science-Fiction novel Liberty 9 Schröder deviated from his usual genres for the first time. Schröder is the author of the Kommissar Klicker-series, published as a juvenile book-series and as an audibook-series. 1984 Silbernes Schneider- Buch vom Franz-Schneider Verlag 1988 Friedrich-Gerstäcker-Preis for Abby-Lynn - Verbannt ans Ende der Welt 1993 Goldenes Schneider- Buch from the Franz-Schneider Verlag 1998 3.

International Eifel- Literaturpreis for Das Geheimnis der weißen Mönche 1998 Book of the Month - Prize for Mein Feuer brennt im Land der fallenden Wasser from the Deutschen Akademie für Kinder- und Jugendbücher 1999 JuBu Buch des Monats for Felix Faber - übers Meer und durch die Wildnis 2003 Moerser Jugendbuchpreis for Das Geheimnis des Kartenmachers 2003 Book of the Month - Prize for Das Geheimnis des Kartenmachers from the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Jugendbuch Göttingen 2004 Buxtehuder Bulle for Die Lagune der Galeeren 2016 Spandauer Jugendliteraturpreis für Himmel ohne Sterne Abby Lynn. Verbannt ans Ende der Welt, Der Hörverlag, ISBN 978-3-89940-232-2 Abby Lynn. Verraten und verfolgt, Der Hörverlag, ISBN 978-3-89940-536-1 Abby Lynn. Verschollen in der Wildnis, Der Hörverlag, ISBN 978-3-89940-326-8 Das Geheimnis der weißen Mönche, Der Hörverlag, ISBN 978-3-89940-095-3 Das Geheimnis des Kartenmachers, Der Hörverlag, ISBN 978-3-89940-412-8 Das Vermächtnis des alten Pilgers, Der Hörverlag, ISBN 978-3-89940-020-5 Die Bruderschaft vom Heiligen Gral.

Das Amulett der Wüstenkrieger, Goya libre, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8337-1778-9 Die Bruderschaft vom Heiligen Gral. Das Labyrinth der schwarzen Abtei, Goya libre, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8337-2125-0 Die Bruderschaft vom Heiligen Gral. Der Fall von Akkon, Goya libre, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-8337-1685-0 Die Judaspapiere, Der Hörverlag, ISBN 978-3-86717-361-2 Die Lagune der Galeeren, Goya libre, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8337-2002-4 Die Medici-Chroniken 1. Hüter der Macht, Goya libre, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8337-2592-0 Die Medici-Chroniken 2. Der Pate von Florenz, Goya libre, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8337-2610-1 Tage der Finsternis, Goya libre, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-8337-2479-4 Rainer M. Schröder in the German National Library catalogue Official homepage of the author Author page on the website of his agency AVA international

Kirsten Owen

Kirsten Owen is a Canadian-born English fashion model. After being scouted in Toronto, Owen began modelling at the age of 16. In 1987 she appeared on the cover of Elle in three different countries. After this amazing breakthrough, Owen did not launch herself into modelling. In fact, it was two more years before she got another big break, appearing on the cover of the French version of Marie Claire magazine in July and October 1989 and on the cover of i-D magazine in 1990; that year she got work walking in a show in Milan for Jill Sander while in early 1991, she was once again featured in Elle, this time in an editorial. After this it would be another five years; when Owen once again began working it was in a show in Milan for Prada in February 1996. After this, things began to pick up as she became the face of Helmut Lang and was again featured in an Elle editorial in January 1997. A month Kirsten found herself in demand as she walked in shows in Paris and New York for Chloe, Dries van Noten, Yohji Yamamoto, Calvin Klein, Helmut Lang.

That same year Owen was featured in an editorial of Vogue Italia and appears on the cover of the same magazine two months later. In 1999 she continued this success by becoming the face of Fendi. Kirsten Owen was on the catwalk in Milan and Paris of September that year for Dolce & Gabbana, Yves Saint Laurent, Louis Vuitton, she signed a contract to become the face of Emanuel Ungaro, was in a print advertisement for Donna Karan, was in a French Vogue editorial. Her career continued to rise as over the next three years she walked for the likes of Givenchy, Jean Paul Gaultier, Donna Karan, Marc Jacobs, Moschino and Burberry all in the early months of 2001. In 2001, Owen pulled back from modelling, only doing a couple of jobs in 2002 and 2003. Three years in May 2006, she returned to the catwalk to close the Paris show for Kenzo. While Owen had retired, she made a comeback in 2008 and returned to modelling as a primary face for Givenchy, she replaced Victoria Beckham to become the new face of Marc Jacobs and signed on with Calvin Klein to work on his new fragrance campaign "one."

Owen made an appearance on the runway at New York Fashion Week and featured in an editorial for i-D. In 2010, she appeared again on the runway during Toronto Fashion Week for Joe Fresh