Bundi is a town in the Hadoti region of Rajasthan state in northwest India. In the 2011 Indian census, Bundi had a population of 1,03,286. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Bundi has an average literacy rate of 67%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 2,00,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state. Beny, Roland. Rajasthan – Land of Kings. London: Frederick Muller. P. 200 pages. ISBN 0-584-95061-6. Crump, Vivien. Rajasthan. London: Everyman Guides. P. 400 pages. ISBN 1-85715-887-3. Martinelli, Antonio; the Palaces of Rajasthan. London: Frances Lincoln. P. 271 pages. ISBN 978-0-7112-2505-3. Sodhi, Jiwan. A Study of Bundi School of Painting. India: Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-347-7. Official website of Bundi collectorate
Mirza Abu Talib, better known as Shaista Khan was a subahdar and a general in the Mughal army. A maternal uncle to Emperor Aurangzeb, he served as the Mughal governor of Bengal from 1664 to 1688, was a key figure during the rule of his nephew. Under Shaista Khan's authority, the city of Dhaka and Mughal power in the province attained its greatest heights. One of this notable achievements was the Mughal conquest of Chittagong. In the year 1660, he was sent to participate in the struggle against the Maratha king Shivaji. However, he lost one of his sons, he left Pune and shifted his camp to Aurangabad. Shaista Khan was of Persian origin, his grandfather Mirza Ghiyas Beg and father Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan were the wazirs of the Mughal Emperors Jahangir and Shah Jahan, respectively. Emperor Jahangir awarded the title of Shaista Khan to Mirza in recognition of his family's service and position in the Mughal court, he is said as being the brother of Shahjahan's wife though it is not clear if he was real.
Shaista Khan trained and served with the Mughal army and court, winning multiple promotions and being appointed governor of various provinces. He developed a reputation as a successful military commander and grew close to the prince Aurangzeb when the duo fought against the kingdom of Golconda. After Aurangzeb's accession to the throne and the dramatic death of Afzal Khan at Shivaji's hand, Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan as viceroy of the Deccan with a large army to defeat Shivaji. In January 1660 Shaista Khan arrived at Aurangabad and advanced, seizing Pune, the centre of Shivaji's realm, he captured the fort of Chakan and Kalyan and north Konkan after heavy fighting with the Maratha. The Maratha were banned from entering the city of Pune and Mughal distance from the locals turned out to be an error. On the evening of 5 April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for holding a procession. Shivaji and many of his nearly 400 men disguised as the bridegroom's procession members entered Pune.
Others entered in small parties dressed as labourers and soldiers of Maratha generals serving under Shaista Khan. After midnight, they raided the Nawab's compound and entered the palace in an attempt to assassinate Shaista Khan. Shaista Khan was unaware and unprepared; the Marathas slaughtered the palace guards. Shaista Khan lost three fingers in a skirmish with Shivaji, while his son was killed in an encounter with the Marathas in the palace courtyard. Taking advantage of the confusion and darkness, the Marathas escaped the palace and Pune, despite the widespread camping of Mughal forces. Shocked by the sudden and bold attack in Pune, Aurangzeb angrily transferred Shaista Khan to Bengal refusing to give him an interview at the time of transfer as was the custom. Shaista Khan was appointed the Subahdar of Bengal upon the death of Mir Jumla II in 1663; as governor, he encouraged trade with Southeast Asia and other parts of India. He consolidated his power by signing trade agreements with European powers.
Despite his powerful position he remained loyal to Aurangzeb mediating trade disputes and rivalries. He banned the British East India Company from Bengal, sparking Child's War in 1686. Shaista Khan encouraged the construction of modern townships and public works in Dhaka, leading to a massive urban and economic expansion, he was a patron of the arts and encouraged the construction of majestic monuments across the province, including mosques and palaces that represented the finest in Indo-Sarcenic and Mughal architecture. Khan expanded Lalbagh Fort, Chowk Bazaar Mosque, Saat Masjid and Choto Katra, he supervised the construction of the mausoleum for his daughter Bibi Pari. Upon his arrival in Bengal, Shaista Khan was faced with putting down the Arakan pirates, he began by rebuilding the Mughal navy, increasing its Bengal fleet to 300 battle-ready ships within a year. He made strenuous diplomatic efforts to win the support of the Dutch East India Company as well as Portugal, supporting Arakan with resources and troops.
With active Dutch military support, Shaista Khan led Mughal forces on an assault on the island of Sandwip, which lay in Arakanese control. Mughal forces succeeded in capturing the island in November 1665. Shaista Khan gained a considerable advantage when a conflict erupted between the Arakanese and the Portuguese. By promptly offering protection and support, Khan secured the aid of the Portuguese against the Arakanese. In December 1665 Shaista Khan launched a major military campaign against Chittagong, the mainstay of the Arakenese kingdom; the imperial fleet consisted of 288 vessels of their own and about 40 vessels of the Ferinigis as auxiliaries. Ibn Hussain, Shaista Khan's admiral, was asked to lead the navy, while the subahdar himself took up the responsibility of supplying provisions for the campaign; the overall command was given to a son of Shaista Khan. The Mughals and the Portuguese held sway in the following naval battle; the conquered territory to the western bank of Kashyapnadi was placed under direct imperial administration.
The name of Chittagong was changed to Islamabad and it became the headquarters of a Mughal faujdar. Khan re-asserted Mughal control over Cooch Behar and Kamarupa. Upon his victory against the Arakanese, he ordered the release of thousands of Bengali peasants being held captive by the Arakanese forces. In his late years, Shaista Khan returned to Delhi, his legacy was the expansion of Dhaka into a regional centre of trade and culture. The Shaista Khan Mosque is a massive standing monument
Qazvin is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. Qazvin was a medieval capital of the Safavid dynasty for over forty years and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran, it is famous for its Baghlava, carpet patterns, political newspaper and Pahlavi influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598. Located in 150 km northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m above sea level; the climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz range called KTS Atabakiya. The city was a capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids in 1548–1598, it is a provincial capital today, an important cultural center throughout history. Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages; the city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur, when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions.
Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at major moments of Iranian history. It was destroyed by Hulagu Khan. After the Ottoman capture of Tabriz, Shah Tahmasp made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire, a status that Qazvin retained for half a century until Shah Abbas I moved the capital to Isfahan. In 1210 the city was damaged by the forces of Kingdom of Georgia sent by Tamar the Great, as per the retribution for destroying Georgian-controlled Ani by the Muslim forces that left 12,000 Christians dead. In the 19th century Qazin flourished as a center of trade because the only all-year accessible road from the Caspian Sea to the Highland started here and with enhanced traffic on the Caspian Sea the trade volume grew, its bazaars were enlarged. In the middle of the century the Babi movement had one of its centers here and the first massacre of Babis occurred in Qazvin in 1847. In the second half of the 19th century Qazvin was one of the centers of Russian presence in northern Iran. A detachment of the Persian Cossack Brigade under Russian officers was stationed here.
From 1893 this was the headquarters of the Russian Company for Road construction in Persia which connected Qazvin by roads to Tehran and Hamadan. The company built the St. Nicolas Church. In 1920 Qazvin was used as a base for the British Norperforce; the 1921 Persian coup d'état that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty was launched from Qazvin. Qazvin has been one of the main pivots on which Persia’s history has revolved and this is where its reputation as an impenetrable fortress originates. During the fall of the Safavids, Qazvin was the centre of Persians reunion for the liberation of Persian territories invaded by Ottoman and Afghan forces in the west and east, respectively; the deployed swordsmen from Qazvin not only retrieved Safavid boundaries, but contributed to their expansion up to China, after occupying India by Nader Shah The Great and Baghdad. Qazvin hosted the base of Assassins and was the training centre of the Nehzat-e Jangal revolutionaries. Qazvin became a state in 1996. In Autumn 2015 portions of Qazvin were struck by a meteorite.
The majority of the people of the city of Qazvin are Persians. The majority language is Persian with a Qazvini accent. Azerbaijanis and Tats Persians are the other largest ethnic groups of the city of Qazvin, they speak Tati. Qazvin is a multicultural city and has hosted Armenian, Romanian and Kurdish minorities which have fled to Qazvin for saving their lives from Ottomans invaders. Qazvin has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. In the middle of the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area. Qazvin contains several buildings from the Safavid era, dating to the period in which it was capital of Persia; the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Chehel sotoun, today a museum in central Qazvin. After Islam, the popularity of mystics, as well as the prominence of tradition, religious jurisprudence, philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools, they include: Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin Heydarieh mosque Masjed Al-nabi: With an area of 14000 m2, this mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the Safavieh's monarchy era.
Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran. Its present-day form is attributed to the Seljukian era. Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period. Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription. Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the coming of Christ, are buried. Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648. Salehieh Madrasa and Mosque: Founded in 1817 by Mulla Muhammad Salih Baraghani. Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903. Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period. Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians. Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar ابو الفتح جلال الدين محمد اكبر, popularly known as Akbar I as Akbar the Great, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605. Akbar succeeded his father, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river, his power and influence, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strove to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through an Indo-Persian culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.
Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of culture, he was fond of literature, created a library of over 24,000 volumes written in Sanskrit, Persian, Latin and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, artists, scribes and readers. He did much of the cataloging himself through three main groupings. Akbar established the library of Fatehpur Sikri for women, he decreed that schools for the education of both Muslims and Hindus should be established throughout the realm, he encouraged bookbinding to become a high art. Holy men of many faiths, poets and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbar's courts at Delhi and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts and learning. Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterized by Mughal style arts and architecture. Disillusioned with orthodox Islam and hoping to bring about religious unity within his empire, Akbar promulgated Din-i-Ilahi, a syncretic creed derived from Islam and Hinduism as well as some parts of Zoroastrianism and Christianity.
A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centered on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema and orthodox Muslims. Many of his courtiers followed Din-i-Ilahi as their religion as well, as many believed that Akbar was a prophet. One famous courtier who followed this blended religion was Birbal. Akbar's reign influenced the course of Indian history. During his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in wealth, he instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the sectarian tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust and loyalty of the native subjects, he had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in native festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation and good-will of his subjects. Thus, the foundations for a multicultural empire under Mughal rule were laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Prince Salim known as Jahangir. Defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539 to 1540 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri, Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh.
There he met and married the 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humayun's younger brother Hindal Mirza. Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the next year on 15 October 1542 at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh, where his parents had been given refuge by the local Hindu ruler Rana Prasad. During the extended period of Humayun's exile, Akbar was brought up in Kabul by the extended family of his paternal uncles, Kamran Mirza and Askari Mirza, his aunts, in particular Kamran Mirza's wife, he spent his youth learning to hunt and fight, making him a daring and brave warrior, but he never learned to read or write. This, did not hinder his search for knowledge as it is said always when he retired in the evening he would have someone read. On 20 November 1551, Humayun's youngest brother, Hindal Mirza, died fighting in a battle against Kamran Mirza's forces. Upon hearing the news of his brother's death, Humayun was overwhelmed with grief. Out of affection for the memory of his brother, Humayun betrothed Hindal's nine-year-old daughter, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, to his son Akbar.
Their betrothal took place in Kabul, shortly after Akbar's first appointment as a viceroy in the province of Ghazni. Humayun conferred on the imperial couple all the wealth and adherents of Hindal and Ghazni. One of Hindal's jagir was given to his nephew, appointed as its viceroy and was given the command of his uncle's army. Akbar's marriage with Ruqaiya was solemnized in Jalandhar, when both of them were 14-years-old, she was his first chief consort. Following the chaos over the succession of Sher Shah Suri's son Islam Shah, Humayun reconquered Delhi in 1555, leading an army provided by his Persian ally Tahmasp I. A few months Humayun died. Akbar's guardian, Bairam Khan concealed the death. Akbar succeeded Humayun on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah to reclaim
Lahore is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab. Lahore is the country's second-most populous city after Karachi, is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion as of 2015. Lahore is the largest city, historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, one of Pakistan's most liberal and cosmopolitan cities. Lahore's origins reach into antiquity; the city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids and Delhi Sultanate by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, served as its capital city for a number of years; the city was captured by the forces of the Afsharid ruler Nader Shah in 1739, fell into a period of decay while being contested between the Afghans and the Sikhs. Lahore became capital of the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, regained much of its lost grandeur. Lahore was annexed to the British Empire, made capital of British Punjab.
Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Lahore experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence. Following independence in 1947, Lahore was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province. Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore is a major centre for Pakistan's publishing industry, remains the foremost centre of Pakistan's literary scene; the city is a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is home to Pakistan's film industry, is a major centre of Qawwali music; the city hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry, with major attractions including the Walled City, the famous Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques and Sikh shrines. Lahore is home to the Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The origins of Lahore's name are unclear. Lahore's name had been recorded by early Muslim historians as Lōhar, Lōhār, Rahwar. Al-Biruni referred to the city as Lohāwar in his 11th century work, while the poet Amir Khusrow, who lived during the Delhi Sultanate, recorded the city's name as Lāhanūr. Medieval Rajput sources recorded the city's name as Lavkot. One theory suggests that Lahore's name is a corruption of the word Ravāwar, as R to L shifts are common in languages derived from Sanskrit. Ravāwar is the simplified pronunciation of the name Iravatyāwar - a name derived from the Ravi River, known as the Iravati River in the Vedas. Another theory suggests the city's name may derive from the word Lohar, meaning "blacksmith."According to Hindu legend, Lahore's name derives from Lavpur or Lavapuri, is said to have been founded by Prince Lava, the son of Sita and Rama. The same account attributes the founding of nearby Kasur by his twin brother Prince Kusha, Historic record shows, that Kasur was founded by Pashtun migrants in 1525.
No definitive records exist to elucidate Lahore's earliest history, Lahore's ambiguous early history have given rise to various theories about its establishment and history. Hindu mythology states that Keneksen, the founder of the mythological Suryavansha dynasty, is believed to have migrated out from the city. Early records of Lahore are scant, but Alexander the Great's historians make no mention of any city near Lahore's location during his invasion in 326 BCE, suggesting the city had not been founded by that point, or was unimportant. Ptolemy mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated near the Chenab and Ravi River which may have been in reference to ancient Lahore, or an abandoned predecessor of the city. Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang gave a vivid description of a large and prosperous unnamed city when he visited the region in 630 CE, identified as Lahore; the first document that mentions Lahore by name is the Hudud al-'Alam, written in 982 C. E. in which Lahore is mentioned as a town which had "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards."Few other references to Lahore remain from before its capture by the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century.
Lahore appears to have served as the capital of Punjab during this time under Anandapala of the Kabul Shahi empire, who had moved the capital there from Waihind. The capital would be moved to Sialkot following Ghaznavid incursions. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni captured Lahore on an uncertain date, but under Ghaznavid rule, Lahore emerged as the empire's second capital. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the Throne of Lahore—a governorship of the Ghaznavid Empire; the city was captured by Nialtigin, the rebellious Governor of Multan, in 1034, although his forces were expelled by Malik Ayaz in 1036. With the support of Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi, Malik Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city, devastated after the Ghaznavid invasion. Ayaz erected city walls and a masonry fort built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one, demolished during the Ghaznavid invasion. A confederation of Hindu princes unsuccessfully laid siege to Lahore in 1043-44 during Ayaz' rule; the city became a academic centre, renowned for poetry under Malik Ayaz' reign.
Lahore was formally made the eastern capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1152, under the reign of Khusrau Shah. The city became the sole capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1163 after the fall of Ghazni; the entire city of Lahore during the medieval Ghaznavid era was probably
D. Fairchild Ruggles
Dede Fairchild Ruggles is a historian of Islamic art and architecture, a professor of landscape architecture at the University of Illinois. She is known for her books on Islamic gardens and landscapes, for which she has won the J. B. Jackson Book Prize and the Allen G. Noble Book Award. D. Fairchild Ruggles gained her bachelor's degree cum laude in Visual and Environmental Studies at Harvard University, she gained her master's doctorate in History of Art at the University of Pennsylvania. She studies the landscapes of medieval Islamic Spain and of South Asia, as well as the relationships between Islamic culture and other religions. In 2009, the Foundation for Landscape Studies awarded Ruggles the J. B. Jackson Book Prize for her Islamic Gardens and Landscapes. In 2009, the International Society for Landscape, Place, & Material Culture awarded Ruggles and her co-author Dianne Harris the Allen G. Noble Book Award for their Sites Unseen: Landscape and Vision. Margaret Morris, reviewing Islamic Gardens and Landscapes for Muslim Heritage, states that it "looks thematically at Islamic gardens and cultivated landscapes, placing them on a continuous spectrum with the city and architecture at one end and nature and wilderness at the other."
She calls it "a book of impressive scope." Gardens and Vision in the Palaces of Islamic Spain Islamic Gardens and Landscapes Women and Self-Representation in Islamic Societies Sites Unseen: Landscape and Vision Cultural Heritage and Human Rights Intangible Heritage Embodied Islamic Art and Visual Culture: An Anthology of Sources On Location Woman's Eye, Woman's Hand: Making Art and Architecture in Modern India Sound and Scent in the Garden Home page The Great Mosque of Cordoba. Islamic Art Symposium, Doha
Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim, known by his imperial name Jahangir, was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627. His imperial name, means'conqueror of the world','world-conqueror' or'world-seizer'; the tale of his relationship with the Mughal courtesan, has been adapted into the literature and cinema of India. Prince Salim Jahangir, was born on 31 August 1569, in Fatehpur Sikri, to Akbar and one of his wives Mariam-uz-Zamani. Akbar's previous children had died in infancy and he had sought the help of holy men to produce a son. Salim was named for Shaikh Salim, though Akbar always called him Shekhu Baba. Prince Salim succeeded to the throne on Thursday, 3 November 1605, eight days after his father's death. Salim ascended to the throne with the title of Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Badshah Ghazi and thus began his 22-year reign at the age of 36. Jahangir soon after had to fend off his own son, Prince Khusrau Mirza, when the latter attempted to claim the throne based on Akbar's will to become his next heirs.
Khusrau Mirza was confined in the fort of Agra. As punishment Khusrau Mirza was handed over to his younger brother and was blinded and killed. Jahangir considered his third son his favourite. In 1622, Khurram murdered his blinded elder brother Khusrau Mirza in order to smooth his own path to the throne. In 1622, Jahangir sent his son Prince Khurram against the combined forces of Ahmednagar and Golconda. After his victory Khurram made a bid for power; as with the insurrection of his eldest son Khusrau Mirza, Jahangir was able to defeat the challenge from within his family and retain power. In 1623, the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, sent his Tahwildar, Khan Alam, to Safavid Persia, accompanied by 800 Sepoys and scholars along with ten Howdahs well decorated in gold and silver, in order to negotiate peace with Abbas I of Persia after a brief conflict in the region around Kandahar. Khan Alam soon returned with valuable gifts and groups of Mir Shikar from both Safavid Persia and the Khanates of Central Asia.
In 1626, Jahangir began to contemplate an alliance between the Ottomans and Uzbeks against the Safavids, who had defeated the Mughals at Kandahar. He wrote a letter to the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV. Jahangir's ambition did not materialise, due to his death in 1627. Salim was made a Mansabdar of ten thousand, the highest military rank of the empire, after the emperor, he independently commanded a regiment in the Kabul campaign of 1581, when he was twelve. His Mansab was raised to Twelve Thousand, in 1585, at the time of his betrothal to his cousin Rajkumari Man Bai, daughter of Bhagwant Das of Amer. Bhagwant Das, was the son of Raja Bhar Mal and the brother of Akbar's Hindu wife and Salim's mother – Mariam-uz-Zamani; the marriage with Man Bai took place on 13 February 1585. Jahangir named her Shah Begum, gave birth to Khusrau Mirza. Thereafter, Salim married, in quick succession, a number of accomplished girls from the aristocratic Mughal and Rajput families. One of his early favourite wives was Jagat Gosain Begum.
Jahangir named her Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani and she gave birth to Prince Khurram, the future Shah Jahan, Jahangir's successor to the throne. On 7 July 1586 he married a daughter of Maharaja of Bikaner. In July 1586, he married Malika Shikar Begum, daughter of Sultan Abu Said Khan Jagatai, Sultan of Kashghar. In 1586, he married Sahib-i-Jamal Begum, daughter of Khwaja Hassan, of Herat, a cousin of Zain Khan Koka. In 1587, he married daughter of Bhim Singh, Maharaja of Jaisalmer, he married a daughter of Raja Darya Malbhas. In October 1590, he married daughter of Mirza Sanjar Hazara. In 1591, he married daughter of Raja Kesho Das Rathore, of Mertia. On 11 January 1592, he married daughter of Ali Sher Khan, by his wife, Gul Khatun. In October 1592, he married a daughter of Kashmir. In January/March 1593, he married Nur un-nisa Begum, daughter of Ibrahim Husain Mirza, by his wife, Gulrukh Begum, daughter of Kamran Mirza. In September 1593, he married a daughter of Raja of Khandesh, he married a daughter of Abdullah Khan Baluch.
On 28 June 1596, he married Khas Mahal Begum, daughter of Zain Khan Koka, sometime Subadar of Kabul and Lahore. In 1608, he married Saliha Banu Begum, daughter of Qasim Khan, a senior member of the Imperial Household. On 17 June 1608, he married eldest daughter of Jagat Singh, Yuvraj of Amber. Jahangir married the beautiful and intelligent Mehr-un-Nisaa on 25 May 1611, she was the widow of Sher Afgan. Mehr-un-Nisaa became his indisputable chief consort and favourite wife after their marriage, she was witty and beautiful, what attracted Jahangir to her. Before being awarded the title of Nur Jahan, she was called Nur Mahal, her abilities are said to range from fashion designing to hunting. There is a myth that she had once killed four tigers with six bullets. Mehr-Un-Nisa, or Nur Jahan, occupies an important place in the history of Jahangir, she was the widow of Sher Afgan, whose actual name was Ali Quli Beg Ist ` ajlu. He had earned the title "Sher Afgan" from Emperor Akbar after throwing off a tiger that had leaped to attack Akbar on the top of an elephant in a royal hunt at Bengal and stabbing the fallen tiger