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Abu Nidal Organization

The Abu Nidal Organization is the most common name for the Palestinian nationalist militant group Fatah – The Revolutionary Council. The ANO is named after its founder Abu Nidal, it was created by a split from Yasser Arafat's Fatah faction of the PLO in 1974. The group has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and the European Union; the ANO was secular and anti-Western, but was not associated with a broad ideology like leftism or Marxism. The ANO was formed as a result of the 1974 Rejectionist Front split in the PLO, after Arafat's Fatah had pushed through amendments of the PLO's goals, which were seen as a step towards compromise with Israel. Abu Nidal moved to Ba'athist Iraq where he set up the ANO, which soon began a vicious string of terrorist attacks, it hasn't defined its ideological position, but was opposed to any form of compromise or negotiation with Israel. It is known as one of the most uncompromisingly militant Palestinian groups ever.

It had an estimated membership of several hundred. The ANO carried out attacks in 20 countries, killing or injuring 1,650 persons. Targets include the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, various Arab and European countries; the group has not attacked Western targets since the late 1980s. Major attacks included the Rome and Vienna Airport Attacks in December 1985, the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul and the Pan Am Flight 73 hijacking in Karachi in September 1986, the City of Poros day-excursion ship attack in Greece in July 1988; the ANO has been noted for its uncompromising stance on negotiation with Israel, treating anything less than all-out military struggle against Israel as treachery. This led the group to perform numerous attacks against the PLO, which had made clear it accepted a negotiated solution to the conflict. Fatah-RC is believed to have assassinated PLO deputy chief Abu Iyad and PLO security chief Abu Hul in Tunis in January 1991, it assassinated a Jordanian diplomat in Lebanon in January 1994 and has been linked to the killing of the PLO representative there.

Noted PLO moderate Issam Sartawi was killed by the Fatah-RC in 1983. In the late 1970s, the group made failed assassination attempt on the present Palestinian president and PLO chairman, Mahmoud Abbas; these attacks, numerous others, led to the PLO issuing a death sentence in absentia against Abu Nidal. In the early 1990s, it made an attempt to gain control of a refugee camp in Lebanon, but this was thwarted by PLO organizations. Abu Nidal Arab People's Movement Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Abu Nidal: Ruthless maverick

Poulawack Cairn

Poulawack Cairn is a prehistoric burial cairn located in the Burren area of County Clare, Ireland. The cairn is located in the civil parish of Carran, it is situated on private property. There is a cashel or ringfort nearby. Similar structures of notable size are found on Turlough Hill and Slievecarran in the north east of The Burren. Today, the cairn is 2.5 m high in the center. It was first excavated by Hugh Hencken of Harvard University in 1934 and has since been the subject of repeated investigations. Hencken thought that the cairn was constructed in two phases over a short time in the early Bronze Age, it is now consensus, that the cairn was in fact built over a period of c. 1,800 years in three separate phases. Phase I is a polygonal stone cist made from slabs of limestone, dated to around 3500 BC, containing the remains of three adults and one child plus several objects, it was covered by a low cairn of stones with a surrounding circle of stones 10 m in diameter. Phase II took place over 1,000 years later.

At that time three more burial cists were inserted into the cairn, which had likely collapsed outwards over the kerb stones. This phase, around 2000 BC, included the burial of eight people, which may have taken place over an extended period of time; the third and final phase of construction occurred over a short time at some point between 1600 and 1400 BC. The original cairn was covered with a new, larger cairn surrounded with a new circle of kerb stones 14 m in diameter. Three additional cists were inserted at that time; the remains of a fourth person were found placed directly on the limestone surface of the plateau, covered with slabs and enclosed within the expanding cairn. Thus the cairn saw burials of just 16 people over a 1,800-year period. Like at Poulnabrone dolmen, only special people were buried at this site. Poulawack Cairn at the Clare County Library

The Separation (Priest novel)

The Separation is a novel by British writer Christopher Priest, published in 2002. It is an alternate history revolving around the experiences of identical twin brothers during the Second World War, during which one becomes a pilot for the RAF, the other, a conscientious objector, becomes an ambulance driver for the Red Cross; the author introduces a deliberate confusion by giving these brothers identical initials – J. L. Sawyer – one known as Jack and the other as Joe. Multiple histories – at least two, on some readings many more – are presented, with different roles and fates for the various characters; the novel abounds with plays on the uncertainty of identity not just between the twin brothers, but that of Winston Churchill and, Rudolf Hess, Hitler's deputy, who flew to Britain in 1941 claiming to have a peace offer from Hitler. The novel utilises a favourite technique of Priest's, that of the unreliable narrator; the novel was first published in the United Kingdom in 2002, in trade paperback by Scribners, followed by a hardcover by Gollancz in 2003.

It was not published in the United States until 2005, when it was published in hardback by Old Earth Books. The Separation was translated into French by Michelle Charrier. British magazine The Bookseller reported in May 2003, that The Separation was "to be republished by Orion after the author bought back the rights from Simon & Schuster." The report said that Priest was unhappy with the publicity and marketing support, quoted Priest as saying, "A lot of staff I had been working with had left. The new editor was not in sympathy with the book, there was no apparent inhouse support for it." The article added that, in November 2002, Orion's managing director, Malcolm Edwards approached Priest and proposed that Gollancz republish the title in hardback. "Gollancz has always felt like a natural home to me, so I can't say how pleased I am to have made it after all these years," Priest said. In an article for New Scientist about the contestants for the 2003 Arthur C. Clarke Award, Maggie McDonald praised the novel as "strong competition...

The twins—RAF pilot and conscientious objector—reach cusps of change, war triumphs, peace fails or vice versa. Priest's writing is gripping, it's one of those rare books that reveal what writing is: manner and matter twinned and entwined."Elizabeth Hand described the book as "exquisite... an exceptionally frightening novel whose nightmare power derives from its chilling clinical evocation of an historical reality with which we are all familiar, the London Blitz... a cliffhanger narrative of dual identities and shifting realities, as two versions of the twins' histories—and England's, the world's—are woven together, like strands of DNA, to form a terrifying narrative. Priest has used doubles before to great effect, in his award-winning novel The Prestige, its chapters linger in the mind like scenes from a Hitchcock film, impossible to shake off. A masterly novel that deserves to become a classic."Publishers Weekly called it a "subtle, unsettling alternative WWII history": "Convincingly detailed diaries, scraps of published texts, declassified transcripts and more baffle a historian who tries to reconcile different realities.

The brothers themselves recognize the uncertainty of actions. Many alternative history novels are bloodless extrapolations from mountains of data, but this one builds characters you care about—then leaves their dilemmas unresolved as they try to believe that what they have done is'right'."Pauline Morgan, reviewing the novel for SF, said, "This is a glorious book to read—not for nothing was Christopher Priest included in the line-up of Britain's best young novelists some years ago. The Separation does; the Separation won the 2003 Arthur C. Clarke Award, it was a finalist for the 2002 Sidewise Award for best long-form alternate history, the 2003 John W. Campbell Memorial Award; the French translation won the 2006 Grand Prix de l'Imaginaire for best novel in translation. Christopher Priest's Website Singling out the duplications in The Separation an essay by Paul Kincaid The scars of war: Christopher Priest looks behind the course of history for inspiration Guardian Unlimited Excess Candour: Trying to Find The Separation in This World a review by John Clute The Separation at Worlds Without End

Crescent Schools International

Crescent Schools International, is an international school in Sri Lanka, with four branches in Colombo 9, Colombo 15, Wellampitiya and Ratnapura. It was established in 1986 with a view to provide quality education in English medium in an Islamic environment; the school has expanded over the last 25 years and is today managed by a Corporate Management Team and staffed with a teacher panel of over 80 teachers. CSI is attended by thousand five hundred students and has classes ranging from Preschool to Ordinary Level; the current Principal of CSI is former Government Zonal Education Officer Mr. M. M. M. Aiyub; the management of the school is handle by the school CMT team. Former Principals of CSI include Mr. Imtiaz Muhsin. CSI follows the Local-Curriculum, a subject-formatting set by the Ministry of Education, now being followed by the majority of schools of Sri Lanka. CSI holds annual extracurricular activities such as: Annual Sports Meet Annual Awards Ceremony Educational Tours Independence Day Celebration English Day Sinhala And Tamil Literacy Day Prefects' Day Islamic Day Debate Programme Children's Day CelebrationsCSI Students participate in inter-school extracurricular events and competitions.

CSI Student Asmara Agus became 1st runner-up at the 2008 CIMA Spellmaster event from amongst 1200 students from 240 schools. Www. - Official Website of Crescent Schools International

Anholt (Denmark)

Anholt is a Danish island in the Kattegat, midway between Jutland and Sweden at the entrance to the North Sea in Northern Europe. There are 145 permanent residents as of 1 January 2016. Anholt is seven miles long and about four miles wide at its widest, covers an area of 21.75 km2. Anholt is part of Norddjurs Municipality in Region Midtjylland. Before the 2007 municipal reform, it was in Grenå Municipality; the western fifth of Anholt consists of hilly moraine country, while the eastern four-fifths of the island consist of flat raised seabed with some low hills, former wind-blown sand dunes. Only the western moraine hills are inhabited; the eastern part, called "Ørkenen" is treeless. The desert has never been ploughed. For this reason the original stone age topography from when the glaciation ceased, at the end of the last ice age 10,000 years ago, is still visible in many places; this includes former shorelines inland, consequences of different sea levels over time. The unploughed features of The Desert are unique for Denmark, as well as for this part of Europe.

The inhabited part of Anholt has The Harbour and Anholt Town, inland. There are 300 to 400 summer houses, some of them rentals; the western part of Anholt is a moraine landscape. The small village is situated in the middle of the landscape, whereas the harbour is at the northwestern tip of the island; the eastern part of the island is known as Ørkenen. This desert-like area is the largest of its kind in Northern Europe; the desertification was caused by deforestation. It is not a true desert. Great efforts are being taken to prevent the effects of erosion. In 1995/6 the Danish Heath Society cleared large areas in the south part of Ørkenen of mountain pine. On Totten, the eastern tip of the island, there is one of the biggest colonies of seals in Denmark; this part of the island is closed to visitors. Dangerous reefs and shoals surround Anholt. In 1560 King Frederick II ordered the erection of bascule lights at Skagen and Kullen Lighthouse to mark the main route through Danish waters from the North Sea to the Baltic.

Despite the bascule light, on 10/11 November 1716 the 60-gun third-rate HMS Auguste, Captain Robert Johnson, ran ashore on the island of Anholt during heavy weather and was wrecked. Most of the people on her were saved. An ecological consequence of the introduction of the bascule light was the deforestation of Anholt for firewood, resulting in Anholt's "desert". By the time of the switch after 1600 to imported pit coal, considerable damage had been done. In 1785 a 35-meter tower was erected with an open fire. In 1805 a lantern replaced the fire and in 1838 a mirror was added. In early 1842 a flashing light replaced the fixed light, a lightship was towed to a station of the Knobben, off Anholt. Around the mid-19th century there was a floating light stationed several miles out from the lighthouse, near the end of the several miles long reef; this floating light operated from May to December. Today's tower dates to 1881. At one time there was a beacon fire in the middle of the east coast of the island, but that has disappeared.

The present Anholt Fyr belongs to the Danish Maritime Safety Administration and has the status of a protected historical landmark. Anholt has been settled since the New Stone Age and one may still find flint flakes on the “desert”. There have been some Old Stone Age; the island has never been the object of systematic archaeological investigation, so no Bronze Age remnants have been found. Some Viking finds have been made; the 1231 land register of King Valdemar II shows that the king owned a house or a hunting lodge on the Sønderbjerg, the island's highest point. Anholt was thus property of the crown. In 1441 the island was under the administration of Kalø Lehn, headed by Otto Nielsen Rosenkrands. Anholt belonged to the parish of Morup in the Danish province of Halland until the middle of the 16th century, when a church was built on the island itself; the island remained Danish when Denmark ceded Halland to Sweden in 1645. A story claims that a negotiator had left a glass of beer placed over the island on the map during the peace negotiations.

A more plausible explanation is that Swedish forces had not conquered the remote island and had little interest in it. In 1668 Anholt was sold to the tax farmer Peder Jensen Grove. Six years his widow married Hans Rostgaard of Krogerup and the island came at the hands of the Rostgaard von der Maase family. Most lawyer Jens Christian Rostgaard von der Maase, of Copenhagen, has owned the greater and protected part of the island. Early in the Gunboat War, the Danes closed the lighthouse on Anholt. On 5 December 1808 the bomb vessel HMS Proselyte was wrecked on Anholt Reef, she had stationed herself off the island on 9 November 1808 to carry a light for the safety of passing convoys. Following the loss of Proselyte, on 18 May 1809 the 64-gun third rate HMS Standard, under Captain Askew Paffard Hollis, the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate Owen Glendower captured the island. A party of seamen and marines under the command of Captain William Selby of Owen Glendower, with the assistance of Captain Edward Nicolls of the Standard's marines, landed.

The Danish garrison of 170 men put up a sharp but ineffectual resistance that killed one British marine and wounded two. The British took immediate possession of the island; the principal objectiv

The Country Wife

The Country Wife is a Restoration comedy written in 1675 by William Wycherley. A product of the tolerant early Restoration period, the play reflects an aristocratic and anti-Puritan ideology, was controversial for its sexual explicitness in its own time; the title itself contains a lewd pun with regard to the first syllable of "country". It is based on several plays by Molière, with added features that 1670s London audiences demanded: colloquial prose dialogue in place of Molière's verse, a complicated, fast-paced plot tangle, many sex jokes, it turns on two indelicate plot devices: a rake's trick of pretending near impotence to safely have clandestine affairs with married women, the arrival in London of an inexperienced young "country wife", with her discovery of the joys of town life the fascinating London men. The implied condition the Rake, claimed to suffer from was, he said, contracted in France whilst "dealing with common women"; the only cure was to have a surgeon drastically reduce the extent of his manly stature and therefore he would be no threat to any man's wife.

The scandalous trick and the frank language have for much of the play's history kept it off the stage and out of print. Between 1753 and 1924, The Country Wife was considered too outrageous to be performed at all and was replaced on the stage by David Garrick's cleaned-up and bland version The Country Girl, now a forgotten curiosity; the original play is again a stage favourite today, is acclaimed by academic critics, who praise its linguistic energy, sharp social satire, openness to different interpretations. After the 18-year Puritan stage ban was lifted at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, the theatrical life of London recreated itself and abundantly. During the reign of Charles II, playwrights such as John Dryden, George Etherege, Aphra Behn, William Wycherley wrote comedies that triumphantly reassert aristocratic dominance and prestige after the years of middle class power during Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth. Reflecting the atmosphere of the Court, these plays celebrate a lifestyle of sensual intrigue and conquest conquest that served to humiliate the husbands of the London middle classes and to avenge, in the sensual arena, the marginalisation and exile suffered by royalists under Cromwell.

Charles' personal interest in the stage nourished Restoration drama, his most favoured courtiers were poets and men of wit, such as John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset, William Wycherley. Wycherley had no title or wealth, but had by 1675 recommended himself by two well-received comedies and had been admitted to the inner circle, sharing the conversation and sometimes the mistresses of Charles, who "was fond of him upon account of his wit". In 1675, at age 35, he created a sensation with The Country Wife, greeted as the bawdiest and wittiest play yet seen on the English stage. Like Charles II, Wycherley had spent some Commonwealth years in France and become interested in French drama, throughout his short playwriting career he would borrow plotlines and techniques from French plays Molière. However, in contrast to the French, English audiences of the 1670s had no enthusiasm for structurally simple comedies or for the neoclassical unities of time and action, but demanded fast pace, many complications, above all "variety".

To achieve the much denser texture and more complex plotting that pleased in London, Wycherley would combine several source plays to produce bustling action and clashing moods, ranging from farce through paradox to satire. A Restoration novelty of which Wycherley took advantage was the readiness of public opinion to accept women on stage, for the first time in British history. Audiences were fascinated to see real women reverse the cross-dressing of the Elizabethan boy actors and appear in tight-fitting male outfits in the popular breeches roles, to hear them match or outdo the rake heroes in repartee and double entendre. Charles' choice of actresses as mistresses, notably Nell Gwyn, helped keep the interest fresh, Wycherley plays on this interest in The Country Wife by having Mr. Pinchwife disguise his wife in a boy's outfit, it has been suggested that he uses the allure of women on display to emphasise in an voyeuristic way Margery's provocative innocence, as well as the immodest knowingness of "town" wives like Lady Fidget.

The Country Wife is more neatly constructed than most Restoration comedies, but is typical of its time and place in having three sources and three plots. The separate plots are interlinked but distinct, each projecting a different mood, they may be schematised as Horner's impotence trick, the married life of Pinchwife and Margery, the courtship of Harcourt and Alithea. 1. Horner's impotence trick provides the play's organising principle and the turning-points of the action; the trick, to pretend impotence to be allowed where no complete man may go, is based on the classic Roman comedy Eunuchus by Terence. The upper-class town rake Harry Horner begins a campaign for seducing as many respectable ladies as possible and thus cuckolding or "putting horns on" their husbands: Horner's name serves to alert the audience to what is going on, he spreads a false rumour of his own impotence, to convince married men that he can safely be allowed to socialise with their wives. The rumour is meant to assist his mass seduction campaign by helping him identify women who are secretly eager for extramarital sex, because those women will react to a impotent man with tell-tale horror and disgust.

This diagnostic trick, which invariably works is one of The Country Wife's many running jokes at the exp