Abydos is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt. It is located about 11 kilometres west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10' N, near the modern Egyptian towns of el-'Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana. In the ancient Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju; the English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers from the unrelated city of Abydos on the Hellespont. Considered one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt, the sacred city of Abydos was the site of many ancient temples, including Umm el-Qa'ab, a royal necropolis where early pharaohs were entombed; these tombs began to be seen as significant burials and in times it became desirable to be buried in the area, leading to the growth of the town's importance as a cult site. Today, Abydos is notable for the memorial temple of Seti I, which contains an inscription from the nineteenth dynasty known to the modern world as the Abydos King List, it is a chronological list showing cartouches of most dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from Menes until Seti I's father, Ramesses I.
The Great Temple and most of the ancient town are buried under the modern buildings to the north of the Seti temple. Many of the original structures and the artifacts within them lost. Abydos was occupied by the rulers of the Predynastic period, whose town and tombs have been found there; the temple and town continued to be rebuilt at intervals down to the times of the Thirtieth Dynasty, the cemetery was in continuous use. The pharaohs of the First Dynasty were buried in Abydos, including Narmer, regarded as the founder of the First Dynasty, his successor, Aha, it was in this time period. Some pharaohs of the Second Dynasty were buried in Abydos; the temple was enlarged by these pharaohs as well. Funerary enclosures, misinterpreted in modern times as great'forts', were built on the desert behind the town by three kings of the Second Dynasty. From the Fifth Dynasty, the deity Khentiamentiu, foremost of the Westerners, came to be seen as a manifestation of the dead pharaoh in the underworld. Pepi I constructed a funerary chapel which evolved over the years into the Great Temple of Osiris, the ruins of which still exist within the town enclosure.
Abydos became the centre of the worship of the Osiris cult. During the First Intermediate Period, the principal deity of the area, began to be seen as an aspect of Osiris, the deities merged and came to be regarded as one. Khentiamentiu's name became an epithet of Osiris. King Mentuhotep II was the first to build a royal chapel. In the Twelfth Dynasty a gigantic tomb was cut into the rock by Senusret III. Associated with this tomb was a cenotaph, a cult temple and a small town known as "Wah-Sut", used by the workers for these structures. Next to the cenotaph at least two kings of the Thirteenth Dynasty were buried as well as some rulers of the Second Intermediate Period, such as Senebkay. An indigenous line of kings, the Abydos Dynasty, may have ruled the region from Abydos at the time. New construction during the Eighteenth Dynasty began with a large chapel of Ahmose I; the Pyramid of Ahmose I was constructed at Abydos—the only pyramid in the area. Thutmose III built a far larger temple, about 130 ft × 200 ft.
He made a processional way leading past the side of the temple to the cemetery beyond, featuring a great gateway of granite. Seti I, during the Nineteenth Dynasty, founded a temple to the south of the town in honor of the ancestral pharaohs of the early dynasties. Merneptah added the Osireion, just to the north of the temple of Seti. Ahmose II in the Twenty-sixth Dynasty rebuilt the temple again, placed in it a large monolith shrine of red granite, finely wrought; the foundations of the successive temples were comprised within 18 ft. depth of the ruins discovered in modern times. The last building added. From the Ptolemaic times of the Greek occupancy of Egypt, that began three hundred years before the Roman occupancy that followed, the structures began to decay and no works are known. From earliest times, Abydos was a cult centre, first of the local deity and from the end of the Old Kingdom, the rising cult of Osiris. A tradition developed that the Early Dynastic cemetery was the burial place of Osiris and the tomb of Djer was reinterpreted as that of Osiris.
Decorations in tombs throughout Egypt, such as the one displayed to the right, record journeys to and from Abydos as important pilgrimages made by individuals who were proud to have been able to make the vital trip. From the First Dynasty to the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, nine or ten temples were successively built on one site at Abydos; the first was about 30 ft × 50 ft, enclosed by a thin wall of unbaked bricks. Incorporating one wall of this first structure, the second temple of about 40 ft square was built with walls about 10 ft thick. An outer temenos wall surrounded the grounds; this outer wall was made wider some time around the Third Dynasty. The old temple vanished in the Fourth Dynasty, a smaller building was erected behind it, enclosin
Cycles Follis, founded in 1903 and based in 10, rue Danton, France, was a long-established artisan manufacturer in the French bicycle industry. Cycles Follis built a range of bicycles, but was well known for its tandems and racings. During the 1940s and 1950s, he received many patents on brakes and drivetrain components. In the 1940s and 1950s Follis had teams and individual racers competing for him in his own name, most notably Jean Forestier, who won numerous races and three stages of the Tour de France in 1954-1957, finishing 4th overall in 1957 and winning the green jersey. In 1973, the granddaughter of the founder Joseph Follis, took over, she was married to the former employee Jean-Claude Chollet, they ran the business until its closure in 2007. The entire production of this period were made to measure steel frames and forks. There was no serial production. Customers could determine if they preferred lugs or fillet brazed frames as well as any other detail; this included part specifications and paint, only complete bicycles were sold.
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Heywood Cricket Club, based in Heywood, Greater Manchester, are an English cricket team that plays in the Central Lancashire Cricket League. They were founded around 1879; the team carries the name of Biwater's, a locally based company who sponsor the team. Heywood play their home matches at the Crimble ground on the outskirts of the town's park known as Queens Park, they have played here since 1921. The pitch at Crimble is said to be one of the largest pitches in Lancashire, second only to Old Trafford; the club were founder members of the Central Lancashire League in 1892 and have remained in this league throughout its history. Though the club have been in existence since before this with captain's records going back to 1879, they have had varied success throughout the years, beginning with their first league title in 1904. Their most recent league title being in 2008. Heywood enter teams into the first 11, 2nd 11, 3rd 11, under 18's, under 15's and under 13's competitions. Youth development has played an important role in Heywood's cricketing ethos.
Several team members are coaches. Heywood holds Clubmark status with the ECB, they have employed many notable people as cricket professionals including former England coach and former Zimbabwe cricketer Andy Flower, West Indies fast bowlers Curtly Ambrose and Sherwin Campbell and Australian fast-bowler and former Pakistan coach Geoff Lawson. John Reid, the former New Zealand Test captain, scored more than 1,000 runs and took 100 wickets in a season for Heywood while the team's professional player in the early 1950s. England seam bowler Kate Cross became the first female cricketer to play in the Central Lancashire Cricket League when she took three wickets for Heywood in their opening fixture in 2015. First Division Winners 1904, 1929, 1931, 1945, 1960, 1963, 1967, 1968, 1974, 1976, 1984, 2006, 2008. First Division Runners Up 1900, 1901, 1903, 1930, 1952, 1961, 1970, 1972, 1979. Wood Cup Winners 1929, 1945, 1970, 1971, 1984, 1993, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007. Wood Cup Runners Up 1964 1983 2004 T20 Cup Winners 2009 Aggregate Cup Winners 1929, 1931, 1945, 1961, 1967, 1970, 1976, 1984 Subsidiary Cup 1st XI 1979, 1982, 1989 Second Division Winners 1945, 1967 Second Division Runners Up 1894, 1895, 1909, 1911, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1935, 1940, 1961, 1970, 1971, 1976.
Subsidiary Cup 1973, 2005 Burton Cup Winners 1984, 1996 Burton Cup Runners Up 1980 Roydes Trophy Winners 2004 League Champions 2006 Whittaker Cup Winners 1933, 1934, 1936, 1954, 1956, 1961, 1965, 1975 1976 1988, 1989, 1991, 1994, 2009, 2010 Taylor Cup Winners 1989, 1990, 2010 Ashworth Trophy Winners: 1981, 1991, 2002, 2007 Knibbs Trophy Winners: 1981, 1984 Knibbs Trophy Eunners Up: 1980 Rhodes Trophy Winners: 1986 Rochdale Observer Trophy Winners: 2002, 2007 Heywood Cricket club website