The Abyssinian is a breed of domestic short-haired cat with a distinctive "ticked" tabby coat, in which individual hairs are banded with different colors. The breed is named for Abyssinia; the Abyssinian cat as it is known today was bred in Great Britain. It is alleged that British soldiers deployed to North Africa in the nineteenth century returned home with kittens purchased from local traders; the Abyssinian is a fine-boned, medium-sized cat. The head is moderately wedge-shaped, with a slight break at the muzzle, nose and chin ideally forming a straight vertical line when viewed in profile, they have alert large pointed ears. The eyes are almond-shaped and are gold, hazel or copper depending on coat color; the legs tend to belong in proportion with small oval paws. Abyssinian kittens are born with dark coats that lighten as they mature over several months; the adult coat should not be excessively short and is ideally fine and close-lying, silky to the touch. The ticked or agouti effect, the trademark of the breed—genetically a variant of the tabby pattern—should be uniform over the body, although the ridge of the spine and tail, back of the hind legs and the pads of the paws are always noticeably darker.
Each hair has a light base with three or four bands of additional color growing darker towards the tip. The base color should be as clear as possible. A tendency to white on the chin is common but must be minimal; the typical tabby M-shaped marking is found on the forehead. The breed's original color standard is a warm deep reddish-brown base with black ticking, known as "usual" in the United Kingdom and as "ruddy" elsewhere. Sorrel, a lighter coppery base with chocolate brown ticking, is a unique mutation of this original pattern. Other variants have been introduced by outcrossing to the Burmese and other shorthaired breeds, notably blue and fawn; the less common chocolate and lilac are not recognized in the Cat Fancier's Association breed standard but have been granted full champion status in The International Cat Association and in the UK. The UK recognizes the Silver Abyssinian, in which the base coat is a pure silvery white with black, cream or sorrel ticking. Various other color combinations are in development, including the "torbie", in which a patched tortoiseshell pattern in any of these colors is visible under the tabby banding.
The breed owes their distinctive coat to a dominant mutant gene known as Ta. The first cat to have its entire genome published was an Abyssinian named Cinnamon. Abyssinians are a popular breed thanks in large part to their unusual intelligence and extroverted, willful personalities, they are said to become depressed without the attention of their owners. Veterinarian Joan O. Joshua has written that the "dog-like attachment to the owners" of Abyssinian and Burmese cats causes "greater dependence on human contacts"; this stands in contrast to the mere "tolerant acceptance of human company" based around "comforts" that multiple other breeds display. With their interest in playing with their owners combined with their curious intelligence, Abyssinians are called the clowns of the cat kingdom, they tend to be quiet cats. They have soft chirrup-like vocalizations which do not sound like the expected "meow". Abyssinians love to be shown off, they are friendly toward people. The breed can be prone to gingivitis.
Familial renal amyloidosis or AA amyloidosis, a kidney disorder due to a mutation in the AA amyloid protein gene, has been seen in Abyssinians. The Abyssinian has had severe problems with blindness caused by a hereditary retinal degeneration due to mutations in the rdAc gene. However, the prevalence has been reduced from 45% to less than 4% in 2008 in the country of Sweden. With the widespread availability of rdAc mutation detection tests and services, such as those provided by the UC Davis Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, it is possible to reduce the disease frequency in all populations of Abyssinian; the 2008 study "The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random-bred Populations" by Lipinski et al. conducted at UC Davis by the team led by leading feline geneticist Dr Leslie Lyons found that the Abyssinian has a low level of genetic diversity, a heterozygosity value of 0.45 within a range of 0.34–0.69 for all breeds studied, has genetic markers common to both Southeast Asian and Western breeds indicating that cats from both Asia and Europe were used to create the breed.
Somali cats are the same genetic stock as Abyssinians but are recessive for a gene responsible for long-hair. Ocicats came about from the accidental crossbreeding of Siamese breeds. FBRL Breed Page: Abyssinian Abyssinian Cat Guide
See also: Białystok Voivodeship and Białystok Voivodeship Białystok Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 1944 to 1975, when its purview was separated into eastern Suwałki Voivodeship, Łomża Voivodeship and Białystok Voivodeship. Its capital city was Białystok; the establishment of Podlaskie Voivodeship in 1999 was a reunion of the areas of Białystok Voivodeship. The area's administrative region of 1950 amounted to 23 201 square kilometers, reduced to 23 153 square kilometers. In 1946 the population 941 000 and in 1970 it had 1 176 000 inhabitants. In early 1944, when the Red Army crossed the Polish frontier before the war, the Bialystok Voivodeship was divided administratively by the German-occupied areas incorporated into the Third Reich and the occupied territories of the USSR. Over the next months, the front moved into the pre-war Polish territory. However, according to the findings of the Tehran Conference of 1943, it was known that the pre-war Polish eastern territories would be incorporated into the Soviet Union and eastern territories of Germany would be incorporated into Polish.
For this reason, the Polish territories occupied by the Red Army in early 1944 did not create the Polish administration. Only after crossing the line in July 1944 the Bug, which would be the future eastern border of Poland, Polish authorities were established in the form of the Polish Committee of National Liberation. A month after the start of its operations, PCNL issued the Decree of the Polish Committee of National Liberation of August 21, 1944 on the Procedure for the appointment of general administration authorities and second instance, which came into force on 22 August 1944. In this decree, it abolished the administrative structure introduced by Germany and restored the Bialystok Voivodeship administrative divisions from the Second Polish Republic. At the time, the front line ran in front of the Vistula and Narew, the formal authority PKWN had was only in part of the pre-war Bialystok Voivodeship. 29 September 1944, administration of 17 districts of Belastok Region and an additional three of the Brest Region was passed to the Polish Committee of National Liberation from the Byelorussian SSR. 31 December 1944 the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland replaced the Polish Committee of National Liberation.
14 March 1945 the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland made the initial administrative division of the German lands included in the Polish before taking all of these areas, creating them four administrative districts do not have the status of regions: Region I, District II, District III, District IV. The Border Agreement between Poland and the USSR of 16 August 1945 established the borders between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Republic of Poland, it was signed by the Provisional Government of National Unity. August 18, 1945 transferred Lomza County from the Warsaw Voivodeship to the Białystok Voivodeship. September 25, 1945 part of the counties of the Recovered Territories transmitted under the management of the Białystok Voivodeship from District IV; these districts have provisionally become parts of the Voivodeship, although de jure continue to form part of Recovered Territories. On June 28, 1946, the areas of the Recovered Territories assigned to Białystok Voivodeship were formally transferred.
Some cities lost civic rights without joining larger neighboring cities: Dąbrowa Białostocka*, Kleszczele*, Sokoły, Suchowola*, Tykocin* 1 July 1952 created Siemiatycze County.1954 the following Counties were created: hajnowski, łapy, zambrow Between 1954 and 1972, gromadas formed the lowest tier of local government in the voivodeship, taking over the role played by gminy. A gromada would consist of several villages, but they were smaller units than the gminy had been. In 1973 gminy were reintroduced and gromadas abolished. 1956 the following counties were created: dąbrowski, sejneński List of Counties in 1967: City Counties: Białystok. Land Counties: Augustów, Białystok, Bielsk Podlaski, Dąbrowa Białostocka, Ełk, Gołdap, Hajnówka, Kolno, Łapy, Łomża, Mońki, Sejny, Sokółka, Suwałki, Wysokie Mazowieckie, Zambrów; the Voivodeship shares a border on the east with the Olsztyn Voivodeship, the southwest with the Warsaw Voivodeship, the south with the Lublin Voivodeship, the north with the RSFSR's Kaliningrad Oblast, the northeast with the Lithuanian SSR and the east with the Byelorussian SSR
The economy of Dominica is reliant upon agriculture bananas, with the financial services industry becoming the island's largest source of income. Banana production employs, upwards of one-third of the work force; this sector is vulnerable to weather conditions and to external events affecting commodity prices. The value of banana exports fell to less than 25% of merchandise trade earnings in 1998 compared to about 44% in 1994. In view of the European Union's announced phase-out of preferred access of bananas to its markets, agricultural diversification is a priority. Dominica has made some progress, with the export of small quantities of citrus fruits and vegetables and the introduction of coffee, aloe vera, cut flowers, exotic fruits such as mangoes and papayas. Dominica has had some success in increasing its manufactured exports, with soap as the primary product. Dominica recently entered the offshore financial services market; because Dominica is volcanic and has few beaches, development of tourism has been slow compared with that on neighboring islands.
Dominica's high, rugged mountains, freshwater lakes, hot springs and diving spots make it an attractive destination. Cruise ship stopovers have increased following the development of modern docking and waterfront facilities in the capital. Eco-tourism is a growing industry on the island. Dominica is a member of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union; the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank issues a common currency to all eight members of the ECCU. The ECCB manages monetary policy, regulates and supervises commercial banking activities in its member countries. Dominica is a beneficiary of the U. S. Caribbean Basin Initiative, its 1996 exports to the U. S. were $7.7 million, its U. S. imports were $34 million. Dominica is a member of the 15-member Caribbean Community and of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States; the Commonwealth of Dominica has become in recent years a major international financial hub, is becoming one of the largest banking centres in the world, offshore services are becoming its main source of income.
There are a number of service providers. These include global financial institutions including Scotiabank, Royal Bank of Canada, Cathedral Investment Bank, First Caribbean International Bank, The Interoceanic Bank of the Caribbean. Regulation and supervision of the financial services industry is the responsibility of the Financial Service Unit of the Commonwealth of Dominica under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance. Starting in the mid-late 1990s, offshore financial centres, such as the Commonwealth of Dominica, came under increasing pressure from the OECD for their harmful tax regimes, where the OECD wished to prevent low-tax regimes from having an advantage in the global marketplace; the OECD threatened to place the Commonwealth of Dominica and other financial centres on a "black list" and impose sanctions against them. However, the Commonwealth of Dominica avoided being placed on the OECD black list by committing to regulatory reform to improve transparency and begin information exchange with OECD member countries about their citizens.
About 22.6% of the total land area is arable. Agricultural production was on the decline before the 1979 hurricane disaster; the main crop of Dominica is bananas, output of which had fallen to 29,700 tons in 1978. As a result of Hurricane David, production hit a low of 15,700 tons in 1979. Agriculture suffered a further blow from Hurricane Allen in August 1980. However, after outside financial support began to rehabilitate the sector, production rose to 27,800 tons in 1981 and totaled 30,000 tons in 1999. Agriculture employs about 40 % of the labor force. Agricultural exports amounted to $19.1 million in 2001. Most crops are produced on small farms, the 9,000 owners of which are banded together in about 10 cooperatives. Other major crops are citrus fruits which are grown in commercial quantities. Production for 1999 included 11,000 tons. Fruits and vegetables are produced for local consumption. There are about 2,000 hectares of pasture land, comprising 2.7% of the total land area. The island does not produce sufficient meat, poultry, or eggs for local consumption so there are large imports of animal products.
In 2001 there were an estimated 540 head of cattle, 9,700 goats, 7,600 sheep, 5,000 hogs. In 2001, production of meat totaled 1,300 tons. Before Hurricane David, some 2,000 persons earned a living fishing in coastal waters, producing about 1,000 tons of fish a year and meeting only about one-third of the local demand; the hurricane destroyed all of the island's 470 fishing boats. In 2000, the catch was 1,150 tons, up from 552 tons in 1991. There is a large fishing industry in Dominica, but it is not modernized and exclusively serves the domestic market. A successful experiment in fresh-water prawn farming, supported by Taiwanese aid, has produced substantial amounts of prawns for the domestic and local markets. Japan has provided support for a fish processing plant in Roseau. Dominica has the potential for a lumber industry; some 46,000 hectares are classified as forest, representing 61% of the total land a
Botswana Communication Regulatory Authority is an independent commission founded under the Communications Regulatory Authority Act, 2012. BOCRA is responsible for regulating all matters related to telecommunications, postal services of Botswana. BOCRA was established in 2012 to replace Botswana Telecommunications Authority by the Government of Botswana Parliament when the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was amended and revised to create Communications Regulatory Authority Act of 2012 During the formation of BOCRA it was given to administer and manage the.bw country TLD. The following legislation prescribes the powers and functions of BOCRA Communications Regulatory Authority Act 2012 Electronic Records Act No 13 of 2014 Electronic Communications And Transactions Act of 2014 Further core purposes of BOCRA are: Setting industry standards Setting tariffs and appropriate guidelines Acting as responsible, accountable referee in industry to facilitate Investment and universal service Facilitating and promoting an environment that ensures protection of end-users To ensure compliance with the communication service regulatory framework through the management and monitoring of broadcast content and terms and licence conditions To research communications regulation, best practice communications services and industry performance so as to advise government on policy formulation Establish communications regulatory policies Inform industry and consumers To promote and encourage efficient communication services so as to attract investment To promote capacity building within communications industry To represent Botswana's interests in the international communications arena List of telecommunications regulatory bodies List of Operators in Botswana Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation National Telecommunications Regulatory Authority Ethiopian Telecommunication Agency Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
Ponnam Prabhakar is an Indian politician and was a member of 15th Lok Sabha. He is the Working President of Telangana Pradesh Congress Committee, he belongs to Indian National Congress and represented the Karimnagar constituency of Andhra Pradesh. He was the youngest Member of Parliament who represented Karimnagar constituency between 2009-14. Having been one of the prominent leaders in Telangana with a towering popularity among the masses, Ponnam Prabhakar has started his journey as a student activist. A natural leader and activist, he was known for his dynamic leadership and passion for the welfare of the society right from his student days. Rooted in the local political scene of Karimnagar, Ponnam Prabhakar has become the saviour of the distressed folk and his growing popularity was the testament, he was elected as Member of Parliament in 15th Lok Sabha Elections with a thumping majority of more than 50,000 votes. The man of masses had started his reign and made name for himself for his fast response to people’s grievances.
Youngest Member of Parliament in 15th Lok Sabha from Telangana Region. Consultative Committee Member of Ministry of Railways and Power. Member of National Committees on Chemicals and Computers. Chairman of AP Markfed. A student leader from his college days and became Union President of SRR Government Degree and PG College during 1987-1988, he served as district General Secretary of National Student's Union of India from 1987 to 1989. He was the Convenor of the District Colleges of Karimnagar from 1987 to 1988, he held the position of NSUI State Secretary from 1989 to 1991 and followed by District President of NSUI from 1992 to 1998. He was elected again as NSUI State President from 1999 to 2002. By 2002, Prabhakar was immensely popular among youth and masses alike, he was entrusted with Media co-ordination responsibilities for Andhra Pradesh Congress Party and served as General Secretary for Youth Congress. He was subsequently made DCMS Chairman of Markfed. AP State Co-operative Marketing Federation Ltd. was running in loses before his appointment and Prabhakar garu with his meticulous efforts transformed it into a high-profit company winning rave accolades from senior leaders.
He worked as General Secretary of State Youth Congress from 2002 to 2003. And worked as Pradesh Congress Committee Media Cell Coordinator from 2002 to 2004, he was made DCMS President and Chairman of State Markfed. As chairman of the Markfed, he had served at best and raised the loss running cooperative company to a profit making company with his efforts and held the post till he contested Lok Sabha elections in 2009, he was elected as member of parliament to enter 15th Lok Sabha in 2009 on Indian National Congress ticket. He was a member for various parliamentary committees, he was one of the active participants in Telangana Movement, which gave the people of India a fruitful Telanagana State. Http://www.hindu.com/2009/05/19/stories/2009051954490500.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20090807065242/http://ponnamonline.com/profile.aspx http://www.jeetegakaun.in/general_elections_2009/parliamentary_constituencies/andhra_pradesh/karimnagar/congress/ponnam_prabhakar.php http://www.ponnamprabhakar.com/ http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/10/stories/2008041050080200.htm http://www.hindu.com/2009/05/28/stories/2009052853220300.htm http://www.telugufire.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=216:ponnam-prabhakar-&catid=40:politics&directory=76
Anood Al-Samerai is a British Southwark based councillor for British political party, the Liberal Democrats and leader of Southwark's Liberal Democrat Group. Born in Southwark, London to an Iraqi father and an English mother. Al-Samerai had lived in Kuwait prior to reaching the age of ten with both her parents until she moved to London due to the occurrence of the first Gulf war. From 2004, Al-Samerai managed the Liberal Democrats MP Simon Hughes office, with previous experience working within the British public sector including work for Guy's Hospital, as well as working abroad in orphanages both in Bosnia and Bulgaria, she has served as councillor in Southwark since 2007. She was the Lib Dem Candidate for Ilford South in the 2010 General Election, finishing 3rd with 8,679 votes. In May 2010 she was elected Lib Dem group leader after the 2010 election, with Paul Noblet as her Deputy, she continued in that role after 2014 election. Official Cllr Anood Al-Samerai Webpage Anood Al-Samerai Official Page at Openly Local Anood Al-Samerai PPC for Ilford South Profile