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Acacia

Acacia known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae. It comprised a group of plant species native to Africa and Australia, with the first species A. nilotica described by Linnaeus. Controversy erupted in the early 2000s when it became evident that the genus as it stood was not monophyletic and that several divergent lineages needed to be placed in separate genera, it turned out that one lineage comprising over 900 species native to Australia was not related to the African lineage that contained A. nilotica—the first and type species. This meant. Botanist Les Pedley named this group Racosperma, inconsistently adopted. Australian botanists proposed that this would be more disruptive than setting a different type species and allowing this large number of species to remain Acacia, resulting in the two African lineages being renamed Vachellia and Senegalia, the two New World lineages renamed Acaciella and Mariosousa.

This was adopted, but many botanists from Africa and elsewhere disagreed that this was necessary. A number of species have been introduced to various parts of the world, two million hectares of commercial plantations have been established; the heterogeneous group varies in habit, from mat-like subshrubs to canopy trees in forest. The genus was first described from Africa by C. F. P. von Martius in 1829. Several hundred combinations in Acacia were published by Pedley in 2003; the genus of 981 species, Acacia s.l. in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae is monophyletic. All but 10 of its species are native to Australia. Following a controversial decision to choose a new type for Acacia in 2005, the Australian component of Acacia s.l. now retains the name Acacia. At the 2011 International Botanical Congress held in Melbourne, the decision to use the name Acacia, rather than the proposed Racosperma for this genus, was upheld. Other Acacia s.l. taxa continue to be called Acacia by those who choose to consider the entire group as one genus.

Australian species of the genus Paraserianthes s.l. are deemed its closest relatives P. lophantha. The nearest relatives of Acacia and Paraserianthes s.l. in turn include the Australian and South East Asian genera Archidendron, Archidendropsis and Wallaceodendron, all of the tribe Ingeae. The origin of "wattle" may be an Old Teutonic word meaning "to weave". From around 700 A. D. watul was used in Old English to refer to the interwoven branches and sticks which formed fences and roofs. Since about 1810 it refers to the Australian legumes. One species is native to Madagascar, one to Reunion island, 12 to Asia, the remaining species are native to Australasia and the Pacific Islands; these species were all given combinations by Pedley when he erected the genus Racosperma, hence Acacia pulchella, for example, became Racosperma pulchellum. However these were not upheld with the retypification of Acacia. Acacias in Australia evolved their fire resistance about 20 million years ago when fossilised charcoal deposits show a large increase, indicating that fire was a factor then.

With no major mountain ranges or rivers to prevent their spread, the wattles began to spread all over the continent as it dried and fires became more common. They began to form dry, open forests with species of the genera Allocasuarina and Callitris; the southernmost species in the genus are Acacia dealbata, Acacia longifolia, Acacia mearnsii, Acacia melanoxylon, reaching 43°30' S in Tasmania, Australia. An Acacia-like 14 cm long fossil seed pod has been described from the Eocene of the Paris Basin. Acacia like fossil pods under the name Leguminocarpon are known from late Oligocene deposits at different sites in Hungary. Seed pod fossils of †Acacia parschlugiana and †Acacia cyclosperma are known from Tertiary deposits in Switzerland. †Acacia colchica has been described from the Miocene of West Georgia. Pliocene fossil pollen of an Acacia sp. has been described from West Abkhazia. Oldest records of fossil Acacia pollen in Australia are from the late Oligocene epoch, 25 million years ago, they are present in all terrestrial habitats, including alpine settings, woodlands, coastal dunes and deserts.

In drier woodlands or forest they are an important component of the understory. Elsewhere they may be dominant, as in the Brigalow Belt, Myall woodlands and the eremaean Mulga woodlands. In Australia, Acacia forest is the second most common forest type after Eucalypt forest, covering 980,000 square kilometres or 8% of total forest area. Acacia is the nation’s largest genus of flowering plants with 1,000 species found. Several of its species bear vertically oriented phyllodes, which are green, broadened leaf petioles that function like leaf blades, an adaptation to hot climates and droughts; some phyllodinous species have a colourful aril on the seed. A few species have cladodes rather than leaves. Aboriginal Australians have traditionally harvested the seeds of some species, to be ground into flour and eaten as a paste or baked into a cake; the seeds contain as much as 25% more protein than common cereals, they store well for long periods due to the hard seed coats. In addition to utilizing the edible seed and gum, the people employed the timber for implements, weapons and musical instruments.

In ancient Egypt, an ointment made from the ground leaves of the plant was used to t

Hoys Roadlines

Hoys Roadlines was an Australian bus operator based in the Victorian city of Wangaratta. From 1993 until 2004 the company had a contract to operate train services on the Shepparton line on behalf of the Victorian State Government; the company commenced operations in 1930 from Wangaratta in the north-east of Victoria, to Shepparton and the Mount Buffalo Chalet. The company expanded into school bus runs, charter coaches, Department of Infrastructure contract coach services such as the daily Albury to Adelaide service; the company begun to downsize their operations after the loss of the rail franchise, the Adelaide to Albury route operations being purchased by Dysons in August 2004 and the remaining operations by V/Line in July 2005. In August 1993 the Kennett State Government put the operation of nine country passenger rail services to tender. Companies were invited to use buses, or a combination of the two. Hoys won a seven-year contract for the Melbourne to Cobram service from 1 July 1994. Hoys opted to operate trains as far with buses beyond.

Station staff and buffet staff were employed by Hoys. This was in contrast to the other private company to win a contact, West Coast Railway for the Melbourne to Warrnambool service, who decided to purchase and operate its own trains. Two contracts were entered into by Hoys; the first was with the Department of Transport to provide a public service of acceptable standard and be compensated at an agreed rate per passenger carried per sector, these being Melbourne - Seymour, Seymour - Shepparton, Shepparton - Seymour. A second agreed cost contract was made with V/Line for the provision of locomotives, carriages, train maintenance and servicing, safeworking training and implementation, food and drink catering services. Hoys could have extra passenger cars or luggage vans added to the train at an extra cost. Loading figures were given to V/Line every 28 days. From 1 July 1994 the company was contracted with the Department of Transport to provide 26 services each week; these included four trains and two buses Melbourne to Shepparton Monday to Saturday, with one train each way on Sundays.

A bus connection were made with some buses extended to Tocumwal. A six-month trial was made for bus services to Finley and Berrigan in New South Wales, a service to Griffith was introduced. Hoys employed 11 staff, with half of them former V/Line employees, they included a station master at Shepparton, two station staff and five conductors, all trained by V/Line in safeworking. A company conductor was with a second conductor in charge of the buffet. Conductors could only sell tickets for Hoys operated services, with passengers connecting to V/Line services needing to buy tickets at Spencer Street station, or from the ticket agent at Shepparton; the company was responsible for the unmanned Nagambie, Murchison East and Mooroopna stations, as well Shepparton station, manned. Trains were cleaned by Hoys at Shepparton during the daytime layover, with a thorough cleaning carried out when the train was stabled overnight. Any locomotives and carriages from the V/Line fleet could be assigned to the service, with no special Hoys branding applied.

The usual consist of the trains was a 3 carriage N set providing 206 first and economy class seats, carrying 80-100 passengers at Shepparton, 160-200 further along the line to Melbourne. By 1995 a 5.5% increase in patronage had been recorded. An average of 188 passenger per service was recorded, with 5,500 sector fares sold per week. Local radio advertisement promoting the train were made, as some locals believed the train had been cancelled in 1993; the initial contract was extended for a further three years. During the contact period V/Line itself had been privatised, with services now operated under contract by National Express, who in December 2002 withdrew from their operations in Victoria with V/Line passing back to full State Government control. In August 2002, the State Government commenced negotiating with Hoys for a contract extension to 2006, but this was not concluded and V/Line took back the service when the franchise expired on 30 June 2004. Shepparton railway line West Coast Railway

Rous Cup

The Rous Cup was a short-lived football competition in the second half of the 1980s, contested between England, Scotland and, in years, a guest team from South America. The Rous Cup arose from the ashes of the British Home Championship, discontinued in 1984; the competition was a replacement for the annual England v Scotland match, lost due to the end of the British Home Championship. Thus, the competition consisted of just one game between England and Scotland with the winner claiming the Cup. After two years under this format, it was decided to invite a different South American team to compete each year to create more excitement and to fulfil England and Scotland's desire to play'stronger' teams; as there were now three teams competing, a league system, just like the one used in the British Home Championship, was introduced. Each team would play the other two once, receiving two points for a win, one for a draw and none for a loss, with goal difference being used to differentiate between teams level on points.

England and Scotland continued to play each other home and away in alternating years, but the guest South American team would play both their games away. Though large numbers of travelling Scots to London had been a feature of England-Scotland games for many years, travelling English support to Glasgow was negligible in comparison until 1987 when minor scuffles broke out on the Hampden Park terracing. In 1989, major disturbances across Glasgow were reported as significant numbers of English hooligans appeared at this fixture for the first time. With English club sides banned from European football at the time, the FA were anxious not to see the national side banned too and the Scotland-England match was a high-profile game that brought interest from across the world; this was a major factor in the demise of the fixture. The cup was discontinued, after five years, in 1989; the annual England vs Scotland fixture was abandoned at this point. For many years since the oldest rivalry in world football was only renewed when the two nations were drawn together in the Euro 96 group stage and in a two-match qualification play-off for Euro 2000.

In the 21st century, the teams have only played each other in two friendly matches and in two 2018 World Cup qualifying group matches. In 1986, the England vs Scotland match was played in April, restoring it to the time of the year when it had been played in the post-war years before the Home Internationals were concentrated in May from 1969. In every other year, the Rous Cup was played in May; this fell just after the domestic seasons in each country had finished. In 1989, it coincided with the end of the English domestic season, extended after fixtures were postponed following the Hillsborough disaster. Note: Two points for win, one for a draw Most appearances: Chris Waddle, Roy Aitken and Alex McLeish – 8 Most goals: Gary Lineker – 2 Highest attendance: 92,000 Lowest attendance: 9,006