Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański is a French-Polish film director, producer and actor. Since 1978, he has been a fugitive from the U. S. criminal justice system, having fled the country while awaiting sentencing in his sexual abuse case, where he pleaded guilty to statutory rape. Polanski was born in Paris, his Polish-Jewish parents moved the family back to Poland in 1937, when he was four. Two years Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany and the USSR starting World War II and the Polanski's found themselves trapped in the Kraków Ghetto. After his mother and father were taken in raids, Polanski spent his formative years in foster homes under an adopted identity, trying to survive the Holocaust. Polanski's first feature-length film, Knife in the Water, was made in Poland and was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, he has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme d'Or of the Cannes Film Festival in France.
In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion. In 1968 he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemary's Baby. A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, four friends were brutally murdered by members of the Manson Family. Following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and continued directing, he made Macbeth in England and back in Hollywood, nominated for eleven Academy Awards. In 1977, Polanski was charged with drugging and raping a 13-year-old girl, he subsequently pled guilty to the lesser offence of unlawful sex with a minor. After spending 42 days undergoing psychiatric evaluation in prison in preparation for sentencing, who had expected to be put on probation, fled to Paris after learning that the judge planned to imprison him. In Europe, Polanski continued starring Nastassja Kinski, it won France's César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director, received three Oscars. He produced and directed The Pianist, a drama about a Jewish-Polish musician escaping Nazi persecution, starring Adrien Brody and Emilia Fox.
The film won three Academy Awards including Best Director, along with numerous international awards. He directed Oliver Twist, a story which parallels his own life as a "young boy attempting to triumph over adversity", he was awarded Best Director for The Ghost Writer at the 23rd European Film Awards. He received Best Screenwriter nomination at the aforementioned awards for Carnage. In 2018, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences voted to expel Polanski from its membership because of the statutory rape case. Polanski was born in Paris, his mother had Annette, by her previous husband. Annette managed to survive Auschwitz, where her mother died, left Poland forever for France. Polański's father was Jewish and from Poland. Polański's parents were both agnostics. Polański, influenced by his education in the People's Republic of Poland, said "I'm an atheist" in an interview about his film, Rosemary's Baby; the Polański family moved back to the Polish city of Kraków in 1936, were living there when World War II began with the invasion of Poland.
Kraków was soon occupied by the German forces, the racist and anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws made the Polańskis targets of persecution, forcing them into the Kraków Ghetto, along with thousands of the city's Jews. Around the age of six, he attended primary school for only a few weeks, until "all the Jewish children were abruptly expelled," writes biographer Christopher Sandford; that initiative was soon followed by the requirement that all Jewish children over the age of twelve wear white armbands with a blue Star of David imprinted for visual identification. After he was expelled, he would not be allowed to enter another classroom for the next six years. Polanski witnessed both the ghettoization of Kraków's Jews into a compact area of the city, the subsequent deportation of all the ghetto's Jews to German death camps, he watched. He remembers from age six, one of his first experiences of the terrors to follow: I had just been visiting my grandmother... when I received a foretaste of things to come.
At first I didn't know. I saw people scattering in all directions. I realized why the street had emptied so quickly; some women were being herded along it by German soldiers. Instead of running away like the rest, I felt compelled to watch. One older woman at the rear of the column couldn't keep up. A German officer kept prodding her back into line, but she fell down on all fours... A pistol appeared in the officer's hand. There was a loud bang, blood came welling out of her back. I ran straight into the nearest building, squeezed into a smelly recess beneath some wooden stairs, didn't come out for hours. I developed a strange habit: clenching my fists so hard. I woke up one morning to find that I had wet my bed, his father was transferred, along with thousands of other Jews, to Mauthausen, a group of 49 German concentration camps in Austria. His mother was taken to Auschwitz, was killed soon after arriving; the forced exodus took place after the German liquidation of the Kraków ghetto, a true-life backdrop to Polanski's film The Pianist.
Dominique Perrault is a French architect and urban planner. He became world known for the design of the French National Library, distinguished with the Silver medal for town planning in 1992 and the Mies van der Rohe Prize in 1996. In 2010 he was awarded the gold medal by the French Academy of Architecture for all his work, he was named as the 2015 Praemium Imperiale Laureate for Architecture. He received his Diploma in Architecture at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1978, he holds a postgraduate diplomas in Town Planning from the Ecole supérieure des Ponts et Chaussée and History from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. He heads Dominique Perrault Architecture in Paris. Leading figure of French architecture, Dominique Perrault is Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, a lecturer in France and abroad and a member of the Conseil scientifique de l’Atelier International du Grand Paris since 2012. After winning the competition of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in 1989, he realized, amongst other projects, the Olympic Velodrome and Olympic swimming pool in Berlin, the extension of the Court of Justice of European communities in Luxembourg, the Olympic Tennis Stadium in Madrid, the Ewha Womans University or the Fukoku Tower in Osaka.
His work is exhibited in major museums around the world. A solo exhibition showing all of his work was held at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris in 2008, he was appointed Commissioner of the French pavilion architecture section of the Venice Biennale in 2010. Dominique Perrault leads in parallel significant heritage rehabilitation projects including those of Longchamp Racecourse in Paris, Dufour Pavilion at Versailles and La Poste du Louvre in Paris. In spring 2014, Dominique Perrault inaugurated the tallest tower of Austria in Vienna, the DC Tower 1, icon of the new business district and the Grand Théâtre des Cordeliers in the historical city of Albi, south of France. Four specific conceptual features were highlighted by the University of Architecture and Urbanism in Bucharest in May 2013 who granted Dominique Perrault the title of "Doctor Honoris Causa". "The first feature, connected to an imperative need of enriching the architectural language, regards the eloquent interpretation of some sources coming from artistic minimalism and conceptual art.
With Dominique Perrault, the architectural design vocabulary is heading towards a reduction of syntax, not of morphology. The second concerns his open, flexible approach that accepts uncertainties and rejects dogmatism and the critique of the privileged role of style and composition in the modern architectural discourse; the third feature highlights the idea of how architecture should be understood as a part of landscape within the topography of fundamental relations. The fourth emphasizes his experience with materiality. Being inspired by the lesson of modernism, the curtain façades, detached from structure and enhanced by light, transparent or translucent screens of glass or metal seem to be a tribute to contemporary technologies, yet are not subservient to them. Innovation penetrates the engineering level." According to Frederic Migayrou, "All of Dominique Perrault’s work questions the figural aspect of architecture, its ability to provide meaning, to build a dynamic image woven out of social and cultural values.
Dominique Perrault weaves his position between rationalism that seeks to articulate laws for the composition of typological elements, a structuralist understanding of architectural syntax, thereby increasing the possibilities of interplay between disparate scales of symbolic values." At the crossroads of disciplines, Luis Fernandez-Galiano reminds that "it is frequent to describe Perrault’s work in terms of the great tradition of French geometric monumentality. 1981-1983: Someloir factory, Châteaudun, France) 1983-1986: Housing estate «Les Caps Horniers», Rezé-lès-Nantes, France 1984-1987: ESIEE – Academy for engineers of electronics and electrical engineering, Marne-la-Vallée, France 1986-1990: Multi-storey industrial building « Hôtel Industriel Jean-Baptiste Berlier », France 1987-1993: Water processing plant for SAGEP, Ivry-sur-Seine, France 1988-1991: Conference center Usinor-Sacilor, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France 1988-1991: Apartment building «Le Louis Lumière», Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France 1988-1994: Meuse Department Headquarters, Bar-le-Duc, France 1989-1993: Mayenne Departmental Archives, France 1989-1995: French National Library, France 1991: Galerie Denise René, France 1992-1999: Olympic Velodrome and Olympic swimming pool, Germany 1993-1995: Technical center of books, Bussy Saint-Georges, France 1995-1997: The Great Greenhouse for the Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie, France 1996-2004: Innsbruck Town Hall, Austria 1996-2008: Extension of the European Court of Justice, Luxembourg 1997-1999: APLIX factory- Industrial manufacturing unit, Le Cellier, France 1997-2001: Lucie Aubrac Multimedia Library, Vénissieux, France 1998-2007: Montigalà sport complex, Barcelona, Spain 1999-2003: Three supermarkets for MPREIS group, Zirl, Austria 1999-2004: Piazza Gramsci, Cinisello Balsamo, Italy 1999-2008: ME Barcelona Hotel, Spain 1999-2009: Hines office building, Spain 2000-2002: Parking garage Emile Durkheim, France 2001-2004: GKD-USA Factory, Maryland, USA 2002-2005: Ca
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Pierre-Yves Trémois is a French visual artist and sculptor. He is known for evocative works drawing in equal proportions on surrealism and science illustration, for combining graphic precision and rigor with flamboyant fantasy, he holds seat #2 in the engraving section at the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters Pierre-Yves Trémois website
Boillot & Lauck
Boillot and Lauck was a long term architectural partnership between Elmer R. Boillot and Jesse F. Lauck in Kansas City, Missouri, their work includes properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The firm focused on residential properties in its early years and expanded into apartment buildings; the firm was chief architect for Sedalia Air Force Base near Missouri. The firm designed 23 homes in the Coleman Highlands neighborhood, they designed the Parriott House for oilman Foster Brooks Parriott in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Lauck continued with his own firm after Boillot's retirement. Architectural historian Tom Taylor gave a talk about the firm in 2016. Hotel Phillips, 106 W. 12th St. Kansas City, NRHP listed. Boillot,Elmer R. One or more contributing properties in the Park Manor Historic District, 910 Ward Pkwy, 920 Ward Pkwy. and 4826 Roanoke Pkwy Kansas City Boillot and Lauck Foster B. Parriott House, 2216 E. 30th St. a Neoclassical mansion in Tulsa, Oklahoma, NRHP listed. Boillot and Lauck One or more buildings in the Unity School of Christianity Historic District including Unity Tower and the Silent Unity buildings, Jct.
US 50 and Colborn Rd. Unity Village, Missouri Boillot,Elmer and Lauck,Jesse F The Walnuts apartments Aines Farm Dairy Building, 3110-30 Gillham Rd. Kansas City, MO Lauck, J. F. NRHP listed
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Lucien Clergue was a French photographer. He was Chairman of the Academy of Fine Arts, Paris for 2013. Lucien Clergue was born in France. At the age of 7 he began learning to play the violin, after several years of study his teacher admitted that he had nothing more to teach him. Clergue was from a family of shopkeepers and could not afford to pursue further studies in a college or university school of music, such as a conservatory. In 1949, he learned the basics of photography. Four years at a corrida in Arles, he showed his photographs to Spanish painter Pablo Picasso who, though subdued, asked to see more of his work. Within a year and a half, young Clergue worked on his photography with the goal of sending more images to Picasso. During this period, he worked on a series of photographs of travelling entertainers and harlequins, the « Saltimbanques », he worked on a series whose subject was carrion. On November 4, 1955, Lucien Clergue visited Picasso in France, their friendship lasted nearly 30 years until Picasso's death.
Clergue's autobiographical book, Picasso My Friend, looks back on important moments of their relationship. In 1968, with his friend Michel Tournier, Clergue founded the Rencontres d’Arles photography festival, held annually in July in Arles, he exhibited his work at the festival during the years 1971–1973, 1975, 1979, 1982–1986, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1994, 2000, 2003 and 2007. Clergue illustrated books, among them a book by writer Yves Navarre. Clergue took many photographs of the gypsies of southern France, was instrumental in propelling the guitarist Manitas de Plata to fame. Clergue's photographs are in the collections of private collectors, his photographs have been exhibited in over 100 solo exhibitions worldwide, with noted exhibitions such as in 1961, at the Museum of Modern Art New York, the last exhibition organized by Edward Steichen with Lucien Clergue, Bill Brandt and Yasuhiro Ishimoto. Museums with large collections of his work include The Fogg Museum at Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
His work, Fontaines du Grand Palais, is in Museo cantonale d'arte of Lugano. His photographs of Jean Cocteau are on permanent display at the Jean Cocteau Museum in Menton, France. In the U. S. an exhibition of the Cocteau photographs was premiered at New York City. In 2007, the city of Arles honored Lucien Clergue and dedicated a retrospective collection of 360 of his photographs dating from 1953 to 2007, he received the 2007 Lucie Award. He was named Knight of the Légion d'honneur in 2003 and elected member of the Academy of Fine Arts of the Institute of France on May 31, 2006, at the same time as a new section dedicated to photography was created. Clergue was the first photographer to enter the Academy to a position devoted to photography, he was Chairman of the Academy of Fine Arts for 2013. Lucien Clergue was married to the art curator Yolande Clergue, founder of The Fondation Vincent van Gogh Arles, he was the father of two daughters: Anne Clergue, a curator of contemporary art who has worked at Leo Castelli Gallery, Olivia Clergue, a handbag fashion designer whose godfather was Pablo Picasso.
Corps mémorable, Pierre Seghers editions, Paris, 1957. Poems by Paul Éluard, cover by introductory poem by Jean Cocteau. Re-released in 1960 without Cocteau’s poem in 1963 in a German version where censors imposed changes to one of the dozen photos, it was again re-released in 1965 with all the text in black. In 1969, an updated edition with added photos and new marquetry was published. In 1996, on the occasion of the poet's centenary, another edition was published with new photos and a marquette designed by Massin. In 2003, a final edition was released. An exposition organized by the Carré d'Art of Nîmes at the end of 2006 celebrated the 50-year anniversary of this legendary work. Poésie Photographique = Photographic Poetry. Munich, Germany: Prestel Publishing, 2003. Edited by Eva-Monika Turck. ISBN 3-7913-2850-6. With a foreword by Manfred Heiting and a contribution by Ivo Kranzfelder. English and German editions. Langage des Sables, Marseilles, 1980, ISBN 2-902634-08-0 Portraits, Actes Sud, Arles, 2005, ISBN 2-7427-5423-7 Toros Muertos published in the U.
S. by Brussel & Brussel. This was a 48-page collection of images of the Spanish bullfights. Brasilia. Hatje Cantz, Germany 2013, English language text: ISBN 978-3-7757-3313-7 Portfolio and recent work by Lucien Clergue on Anne Clergue's website You can rent an exhibition of Lucien Clergue through Exposare, http://www.exposare.com/ Bibliography and Artwork