Andreas Aurifaber was a German physician of some repute, but through his influence with Albert of Brandenburg, last grand-master of the Teutonic Knights, first Protestant duke of Prussia, became an outstanding figure in the controversy associated with Andreas Osiander whose daughter he had married. He was born in Breslau, he studied at the University of Wittenberg in 1527, there became a friend of Philip Melanchthon. In 1529 he became rector of the Latin school at Danzig, two years accepted a similar post at Elbing; the bounty of Duke Albert of Prussia enabled him to pursue the study of medicine at Wittenberg and in Italy, after 1545 he was physician to the Duke and professor of physics and medicine in the newly established University of Königsberg. There he wrote a number of treatises on physiology. In 1550 he married a daughter of Osiander, became involved in the bitter controversy aroused by the latter’s views on justification and grace. After Osiander's death in 1552, who in the preceding year had been made rector of the university, became the leader of the Osiandrian faction and made use of his office and his influence over the duke to crush the rival faction in Prussia, driving its adherents from the university in 1554.
He went on to travel extensively throughout Germany, aroused the hatred of the conservatives, who assailed him with extreme virulence. Aurifaber, retained his influence until his death, which occurred in the antechamber of the Duke in Königsberg, on December 12, 1559. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Aurifaber s.v. Andreas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. P. 925. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed.. "Aurifaber, Andreas". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls. Hirsch, August, "Aurifaber, Andreas", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 690–691 Hammann, Gustav, "Aurifaber, Andreas", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 456–456 "Andreas Aurifaber". Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. "Entry". Zedlers Universallexikon. 02.
P. 1144. Johann Samuel Ersch – Johann Gottfried Gruber: Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste VOLUME T. 6 S. 417 Kremer, Richard L.: Calculating with Andreas Aurifaber: A new Source for Copernican Astronomy in 1540. In: Journal for the History of Astronomy 41, p. 483–502 Irene Dingel: Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche Bd. 1. P. 1256 Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie vol. 1, p. 224 Heinz Scheible: Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart vol. 1, p. 975 Heinz Scheible: Melanchthons Briefwechsel Personen 11 Thomas Anselmino: Medizin und Pharmazie am Hof Albrechts von Preußen, 2003 p. 41-46, 103-106 Wagenmann, Gustav Kawerau: Aurifaber, Andreas. In: Realenzyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, 3rd edition, vol. 2, pp. –287-288
Partitions of Poland
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations; the First Partition of Poland was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the Second Partition was signed on January 23, 1793. Austria did not participate in the Second Partition; the Third Partition of Poland took place on October 24, 1795, in reaction to the unsuccessful Polish Kościuszko Uprising the previous year. With this partition, the Commonwealth ceased to exist. In English, the term "Partitions of Poland" is sometimes used geographically as toponymy, to mean the three parts that the partitioning powers divided the Commonwealth into, namely: the Austrian Partition, the Prussian Partition and the Russian Partition.
In Polish, there are two separate words for the two meanings. The consecutive acts of dividing and annexation of Poland are referred to as rozbiór, while the term zabór means each part of the Commonwealth annexed in 1772–95 becoming part of Imperial Russia, Prussia, or Austria. In Polish historiography, the term "Fourth Partition of Poland" has been used, in reference to any subsequent annexation of Polish lands by foreign invaders. Depending on source and historical period, this could mean the events of 1815, or 1832 and 1846, or 1939; the term "Fourth Partition" in a temporal sense can mean the diaspora communities that played an important political role in re-establishing the Polish sovereign state after 1918. During the reign of Władysław IV, the liberum veto was developed, a policy of parliamentary procedure based on the assumption of the political equality of every "gentleman", with the corollary that unanimous consent was needed for all measures. A single member of parliament's belief that a measure was injurious to his own constituency after the act had been approved, became enough to strike the act.
Thus it became difficult to undertake action. The liberum veto provided openings for foreign diplomats to get their ways, through bribing nobles to exercise it. Thus, one could characterise Poland–Lithuania in its final period before the partitions as in a state of disorder and not a sovereign state, as a vassal state, with Russian tsars choosing Polish kings; this applies to the last Commonwealth King Stanisław August Poniatowski, who for some time had been a lover of Russian Empress Catherine the Great. In 1730 the neighbors of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, namely Prussia and Russia, signed a secret agreement to maintain the status quo: to ensure that the Commonwealth laws would not change, their alliance became known in Poland as the "Alliance of the Three Black Eagles", because all three states used a black eagle as a state symbol. The Commonwealth had been forced to rely on Russia for protection against the rising Kingdom of Prussia, which demanded a slice of the northwest in order to unite its Western and Eastern portions.
Catherine had to use diplomacy to win Austria to her side. The Commonwealth had remained neutral in the Seven Years' War, yet it sympathized with the alliance of France and Russia, allowed Russian troops access to its western lands as bases against Prussia. Frederick II retaliated by ordering enough Polish currency counterfeited to affect the Polish economy. Through the Polish nobles whom Russia controlled and the Russian Minister to Warsaw and Prince Nicholas Repnin, Empress Catherine the Great forced a constitution on the Commonwealth at the so-called Repnin Sejm of 1767, named after ambassador Repnin, who dictated the terms of that Sejm; this new constitution undid the reforms made in 1764 under Stanisław II. The liberum veto and all the old abuses of the last one and a half centuries were guaranteed as unalterable parts of this new constitution. Repnin demanded religious freedom for the Protestant and Orthodox Christians, the resulting reaction among some of Poland's Roman Catholics, as well as the deep resentment of Russian intervention in the Commonwealth's domestic affairs, led to the War of the Confederation of Bar of 1768–1772, formed in Bar, where the Poles tried to expel Russian forces from Commonwealth territory.
The irregular and poorly commanded Polish forces had little chance in the face of the regular Russian army and suffered a major defeat. Adding to the chaos was a Ukrainian Cossack and peasant rebellion, the Koliyivshchyna, which erupted in 1768 and resulted in massacres of noblemen, Jews and Catholic priests, before it was put down by Polish and Russian troops. In 1769 Austria annexed a small territory of Spisz and in 1770 -- Nowy Targ; these territories had been a bone of contention between Poland and Hungary, a part of the Austrian crown lands. In February 1772, the agreement of partition was signed in Vienna. Early in August, Russian and Austrian troops invaded the Commonwealth and occupied
Hugo Münsterberg was a German-American psychologist. He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational, medical, clinical and business settings. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. Torn between his loyalty to the United States and his homeland, he defended Germany's actions, attracting contrasting reactions. Hugo Münsterberg was born into a merchant family in Danzig a port city in West Prussia. If he was known for his German nationalism, Hugo's family was Jewish, a heritage he didn't feel connection with and would ever manifest publicly, his father Moritz, was a successful lumber merchant and his mother, Minna Anna Bernhardi, a recognized artist and musician, was Moritz's second wife. Moritz had two sons with his first wife and Emil, two with Anna and Oscar; the four sons remained close, all of them became successful in their careers. A neo-Renaissance villa in Detmold, that Oscar lived in from 1886-1896 has been renovated and opened as a cultural center.
The family had a great love of the arts, Münsterberg was encouraged to explore music and art. Both his mother and his father died; when he was 12, his mother died. This marked a major change in the young boy's life, transforming him from a carefree child to a much more serious young man. In 1880 his father died. Münsterberg had many interests in his early years and displayed interests in many fields including art, poetry, foreign languages and acting. Münsterberg's first years of school were spent at the Gymnasium of Danzig from which he graduated in 1882 with Oliver and Dennis, he entered the University of Leipzig in 1883 where he heard a lecture by Wilhelm Wundt and became interested in psychology. Münsterberg became Wundt's research assistant, he received his Ph. D. in physiological psychology in 1885 under Wundt's supervision at the age of 22. Following Wundt's advice Münsterberg decided to study medicine and in 1887 received his medical degree at the University of Heidelberg, he passed an examination that enabled him to lecture as a privatdocent at University of Freiburg.
While at Freiburg he started a psychology laboratory and began publishing papers on a number of topics including attentional processes, memory and perception. In the same year he married a distant cousin, Selma Oppler of Strassburg, on August 7. In 1889, he was promoted to assistant professorship and attended the First International Congress of psychology where he met William James, they kept up a frequent correspondence and in 1892 James invited him to Harvard for a three-year term as a chair of the psychology lab though Münsterberg did not speak English at the time. He learned to speak English rather and as a result his classes became popular with students, in fact he was attracting students from James's classes. Part of the responsibilities he assumed as part of his new position at Harvard was that he became the supervisor of the psychology graduate students, in this position directed their dissertation research; as a result, he had a great influence of many students including Mary Whiton Calkins.
In 1895 he returned to Freiburg due to uncertainties of settling in the United States. However, because he could not obtain an academic position that he wanted, he wrote James and requested his old position back so that he could return to Harvard which he did in 1897, but he never could separate himself from his homeland of Germany. While at Harvard, Münsterberg's career was going well, he was affiliated with many organizations including the American Psychological Association of which he became president, the American Philosophical Association of which he became president, the Washington Academy, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was the organizer and vice-president of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the Saint Louis World's Fair of 1904, vice-president of the International Psychological Congress in Paris in 1900, vice-president of the International Philosophical Congress at Heidelberg in 1907. In 1910-11 he was appointed exchange professor from Harvard to the University of Berlin.
During that year he founded the Amerika-Institut in Berlin. During the whole period of his stay in the United States, he worked for the improvement of the relations between the United States and Germany, writing in the U. S. for a better understanding of Germany and in Germany for a higher appreciation of the United States. Because of his work in applied psychology, Münsterberg was well known to the public, academic world, scientific community; the outspoken views of Münsterberg on the issues of the upcoming First World War raised storms of controversy about his ideals and position. He appeared as the most eminent supporter of German policies in U. S. and as such was at the utmost bitterly condemned by the Entente Allies and their friends, but to the pro-Germans, he appeared an idol. While supporting German policies, Münsterberg denounced many of the activities of the Teutonic hyphenates in the United States. Fearing a patriotic response to overt support of the German Empire would undermine his own more covert approach, he condemned the forming of an alien party within the United States as "a crime against the spirit of true Americanism" and said that its results would reach far beyond the time of the war.
At his death, the general attitude toward Münsterberg had changed and his death went unnoticed. This was because of his pro-Germ
Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau
Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau was a German poet of the Baroque era. He was died in Breslau in Silesia. During his education in Danzig and Leiden, he befriended Martin Opitz and Andreas Gryphius, both leading figures in 17th-century German poetry. In his years, Hofmannswaldau involved himself in the city politics of Breslau, rising to the position of Bürgermeister. During his lifetime, Hofmannswaldau's poems circulated in manuscript, it was the posthumous publication of Deutsche Übersetzungen und Gedichte in 1679 that assured his reputation as the most influential poet of his era, followed by Benjamin Neukirch's more extensive collection, Herrn von Hoffmannswaldau und anderer Deutschen auserlesener und bißher ungedruckter Gedichte, the first volume of which appeared in 1695. Hofmannswaldau's style of poetry came to be known as Galant and is marked by extravagant metaphors, skillful use of rhetoric and unashamed eroticism, it shows the influence of the Italian poet Giambattista Marino.
Hofmannswaldau's verse enjoyed great popularity until it was attacked for bad taste by Johann Christoph Gottsched in the mid-18th century. Gedichte des Barock, ed. Ulrich Maché and Volker Meid Works by or about Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau at Internet Archive Works by Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau at LibriVox Complete poems of Christian Hofmannswaldau
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered 400,000 square miles and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million; the Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states. Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act 1573. The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it. After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution—the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.
The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the "Rzeczpospolita". Western Europeans simply called it Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The English term'Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth' and German'Polen-Litauen' are seen as renderings of the Commonwealth of Two Nations variant. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.
Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent 1569 Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades. A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in 1648.
It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, for protection by the Russian Tsar. Russian annexation of part of Ukraine supplanted Polish influence; the other blow to the Commonwealth was a Swedish invasion in 1655, known as the Deluge, supported by troops of Transylvanian Duke George II Rákóczi a
University of Königsberg
The University of Königsberg was the university of Königsberg in East Prussia. It was founded in 1544 as the world's second Protestant academy by Duke Albert of Prussia, was known as the Albertina. Following World War II, the city of Königsberg was transferred to the Soviet Union according to the 1945 Potsdam Agreement, renamed Kaliningrad in 1946; the Albertina was closed and the remaining German population expelled. Today, the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in Kaliningrad claims to maintain the traditions of the Albertina. Albert, former Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and first Duke of Prussia since 1525, had purchased a piece of land behind Königsberg Cathedral on the Kneiphof island of the Pregel River from the Samland chapter, where he had an academic gymnasium erected in 1542, he issued the deed of foundation of the Collegium Albertinum on 20 July 1544, after which the university was inaugurated on 17 August. The newly established Protestant duchy was a fiefdom of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the university served as a Lutheran counterpart to the Catholic Cracow Academy.
Its first rector was son-in-law of Philipp Melanchthon. Lithuanian scholars Stanislovas Rapalionis and Abraomas Kulvietis were among the first professors of university. All professors had to take an oath on the Augsburg Confession. Since the Prussian lands lay beyond the borders of the Holy Roman Empire, both Emperor Charles V and Pope Paul III withheld their approval the Königsberg academy received the royal privilege by King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland on 28 March 1560. From 1618 the Prussian duchy was ruled in personal union by the Margraves of Brandenburg and in 1657 the "Great Elector" Frederick William of Brandenburg acquired full sovereignty over Prussia from Poland by the Treaty of Wehlau; the Albertina was the second oldest university and intellectual centre of Protestant Brandenburg-Prussia. It comprised four colleges: Theology, Medicine and Law also natural sciences. Subsequent rectors included numerous Hohenzollern Prussian royals, who had never been to the university represented by a prorector in charge of academic affairs.
The Prussian lands remained unharmed by the disastrous Thirty Years' War, which gained the Königsberg university an increasing popularity among students. In the 17th century, it was known as a home to Simon Dach, serving as rector in 1656/57, his fellow poets. Tsar Peter I of Russia visited the Albertina in 1697, leading to increased contacts between Prussia and the Russian Empire. Notable Russian students at Königbserg were Kirill Razumovsky president of the Russian Academy of Sciences and General Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich; the university and the city had profound impact on the development of Lithuanian culture. The first book in Lithuanian language was printed here in 1547 and several important Lithuanian writers attended the Albertina; the university was the preferred educational institution of the Baltic German nobility. The 18th century went down in cultural history as the "Königsberg Century" of Enlightenment, a heyday initiated by the Albertina student Johann Christoph Gottsched and continued by the philosopher Johann Georg Hamann and writer Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder.
Notable alumni were Johann Gottfried Herder, Zacharias Werner, Johann Friedrich Reichardt, E. T. A. Hoffmann, foremost the philosopher Immanuel Kant, rector in 1786 and 1788; these scholars laid the foundations for the Weimar Classicism and German Romanticism movements. The Albertina's magnificent botanical garden was inaugurated in 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars. Two years Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel established his outstanding observatory next door to the garden. Other university professors included such giants of the science world as the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the biologist Karl Ernst von Baer, the mathematician Carl Gustav Jacobi, the mineralogist Franz Ernst Neumann and the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the university was most famous for its school of Mathematics, founded by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, continued by his pupils Ludwig Otto Hesse, Friedrich Richelot, Johann G. Rosenhain and Philipp Ludwig von Seidel, it was associated with the names of Hermann Minkowski, Adolf Hurwitz, Ferdinand von Lindemann and David Hilbert, one of the greatest modern mathematicians.
The mathematicians Alfred Clebsch and Carl Gottfried Neumann founded the Mathematische Annalen in 1868, which soon became the most influential mathematical journal of the time. Celebrating the university's 300 years jubilee 0n 31 August 1844, King Frederick William IV of Prussia laid the foundation for the new main building of the Albertina, inaugurated in 1862 by Crown Prince Frederick and Prorector Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz; the building on central Paradeplatz was erected in a neo-Renaissance style according to plans designed by Friedrich August Stüler. The facade was adorned by an equestrian figure in relief of Albert of Prussia. Below it were niches containing statues of the Protestant reformers Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon. Inside was a handsome staircase, borne by marble columns; the Senate Hall contained a portrait of Emperor Frederick III by Lauchert and a bust of Immanuel Kant by Hagemann, a student of Schadow. The adjacent hall was adorned with frescoes painted in 1870.
The university library was situated on Mitteltragheim in 1901 and contained over 230,00
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. MLU offers German and international courses leading to academic degrees such as BA, BSc, MA, MSc, doctoral degrees and Habilitation; the university was created in 1817 through the merger of the University of Wittenberg and the University of Halle. The university is named after the Protestant reformer Martin Luther, a professor in Wittenberg. Today, the university itself is located in Halle, while the Leucorea Foundation in Wittenberg serves as MLU's convention centre for seminars as well as for academic and political conferences. Both Halle and Wittenberg are about one hour from Berlin via the Berlin–Halle railway, which offers Intercity-Express trains; the University of Wittenberg was founded in 1502 by Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, as the Renaissance was becoming more and more popular. The foundation of the university was criticized when the Ninety-five Theses reached Albert of Brandenburg, the Archbishop of Mainz.
Ecclesiastically speaking, the Electorate of Saxony was subordinate to Albert. He criticized the elector for Luther's theses, viewing the founded university as a breeding ground for heretical ideas. Under the influence of Philipp Melanchthon, building on the works of Martin Luther, the university became a centre of the Protestant Reformation incorporating, at one point in time, Luther's house in Wittenberg, the Lutherhaus, as part of the campus. Notable alumni include George Müller, Georg Joachim Rheticus and – in fiction – William Shakespeare's Prince Hamlet and Horatio and Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus; the University of Halle was founded in 1694 by Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, who became Frederick I, King in Prussia, in 1701. In the late 17th century and early 18th century, Halle became a centre for Pietism within Prussia. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the universities were centers of the German Enlightenment. Christian Wolff was an important proponent of rationalism, he influenced many German scholars, such as Immanuel Kant.
Christian Thomasius was at the same time the first philosopher in Germany to hold his lectures not in Latin, but German. He contributed to a rational programme in philosophy but tried to establish a more common-sense point of view, aimed against the unquestioned superiority of aristocracy and theology; the institutionalisation of the local language as the language of instruction, the prioritisation of rationalism over religious orthodoxy, new modes of teaching, the ceding of control over their work to the professors themselves, were among various innovations which characterised the University of Halle, have led to its being referred to as the first "modern" university, whose liberalism was adopted by the University of Göttingen about a generation and subsequently by other German and most North American universities. The University of Wittenberg was closed in 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars; the town of Wittenberg was granted to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the university was merged with the Prussian University of Halle in 1817.
It took its present name on 10 November 1933. More than a dozen professors were expelled. Others were shifted to Halle-Wittenberg from universities regarded as "better" at the time, which led to the university being called an academic Vorkuta – after the largest center of the Gulag camps in European Russia). Following the continental European academic tradition, MLU has 9 faculties, regrouping academic staff and students according to their field of studies: Faculty of Theology Faculty of Law and Economics Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Philosophy I Faculty of Philosophy II Faculty of Philosophy III Faculty of Natural Sciences I Faculty of Natural Sciences II Faculty of Natural Sciences III The Botanical Garden of Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, founded in 1698. MLU's historical observatory, built in 1788 by Carl Gotthard Langhans. MLU is enclosed by a variety of research institutions, which have either institutional or personal links with the university or cooperate in their respective fields of studies: The German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina The Halle Institute for Economic Research The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials The Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe The Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry The Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding The Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology The Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics The Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Even though MLU is an academic, research oriented institution, not an academy of music or conservatory, the university has an academic orchestra, founded in 1779, a rather prestigious choir, founded in 1950, which together constitute the so-called Collegium musicum.
Members are gifted students of all faculties, but academic staff and alumni. The university choir performs at the international Handel Festival in George Frideric Handel’s birthplace, Halle. MLU has many international partner universities, including: Argentina: National University of La Plata Australia: University of Queensland Austria: Johannes Kepler University Linz Canada: University of Ottawa Colombi