An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and discussion of research, they are peer-reviewed or refereed. Content takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, book reviews; the purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, perfecting all Philosophical Arts, Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; the first academic journal was Journal des sçavans, followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
The first peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of " people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by François Eudes de Mézeray in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans; the journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, had four main objectives: review newly published major European books, publish the obituaries of famous people, report on discoveries in arts and science, report on the proceedings and censures of both secular and ecclesiastical courts, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more focused on scientific communications.
By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany and England. Several of those publications however, in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived. A. J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature and Science, the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who remain anonymous; the number of these peer reviewers varies according to each journal's editorial practice – no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review; the editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication.
Accepted articles are subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months. Review articles called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals; some journals are devoted to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, others do not publish review articles. Such reviews cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some journals are enumerative. Yet others are evaluative; some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original researc
The Military Order of Maria Theresa was the highest military honour of the Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire. Founded on 18 June 1757, the day of the Battle of Kolin, by the Empress Maria Theresa, the honour was to reward meritorious and valorous acts by commissioned officers and the courageous act of defeating an enemy, thus "serving" their monarch, it was given for "successful military acts of essential impact to a campaign that were undertaken on own initiative, might have been omitted by an honorable officer without reproach." This gave rise to a popular myth. It is considered to be the highest honour for a soldier in the Austrian armed services; the order had two classes: the Knight's Cross and the Grand Cross. On 15 October 1765, Emperor Joseph II added a Commander's Cross, a breast star to be worn by holders of the Grand Cross. Prospective recipients were considered only in regard to their military service records. Knight's Cross recipients were automatically ennobled with the title of Ritter in the Austrian nobility for life, admitted to court.
Upon further petition, they could claim the hereditary title of Baron. They were entitled to a pension. Widows of the order's recipients were entitled to half of their spouse's pension during the remainder of their lives; the order ceased to be awarded by the Austrian emperor on the fall of the Habsburg Dynasty in 1918, when its last sovereign, Charles I, transferred his powers concerning this honour to the Order Chapter. The Chapter processed applications until its last meeting in 1931, when it was decided that further awards should not be made. Membership of the order was awarded a total of 1241 times. Alois Windisch and Friedrich Franek were the only two men who were awarded both the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa and the German Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. On 4 November 1938, it was decided in Hungary to award further decorations of the order, citing legal continuity as long as Hungary's royal powers were exercised by the Regent Miklós Horthy. During World War II, only one person received the Knight's Cross of the Order of Maria Theresa: Major General Kornél Oszlányi, commanding officer of the Royal Hungarian Army's 9th Light Infantry Division, for the battles at the river Don near Voronezh.
The last surviving knight of the Order was k.u.k. Fregattenleutnant Gottfried Freiherr von Banfield, he received the honour in 1917 for his services as a maritime aviator during World War I, he headed the Tripcovich Shipping Company in Trieste after the war. He died in 1986, aged ninety-six; the badge of the order was a white-enamelled cross. The central disc is in enamel, bearing the coat-of-arms/national flag of Austria, surrounded by a white ring bearing the motto "Fortitudini"; the star of the order was a silver faceted cross of the same shape as the badge, with a wreath of green-enameled oak leaves between the arms of the cross. The central disc is the same as the one on the badge; the ribbon of the order was red-white-red, from the national flag of Austria. Field Marshal H. I.& R. Ap. M. Franz Joseph I, emperor and king of Austria-Hungary. Count Eduard Clam-Gallas was an Austrian General. Count Leopold Joseph von Daun Prince of Thiano, Austrian field marshal, was born at Vienna, as son of Count Wirich Philipp von Daun.
András Hadik de Futak was a Hungarian Count. He was commander of a Habsburg army corps in the Seven Years' War under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine. Paul von Hindenburg was a German field marshal and politician, served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen, born August Mackensen, was a German field marshal, he commanded with success during the First World War and became one of the German Empire's most prominent military leaders. Archduke John of Austria was a member of the Habsburg dynasty, an Austrian field marshal and German Imperial regent. Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz, Bohemia, 2 November 1766 – Milan, Italy, 5 January 1858) was a Czech nobleman and Austrian general, immortalised by Johann Strauss I's Radetzky March. General Radetzky was in the military for over 70 years, until his death at age 91, is known for the victories at the Battles of Custoza and Novara during the First Italian War of Independence. H. I.&. R. M. Wilhelm II, German Emperor was king of Prussia.
Louise Marie Thérèse d'Artois was a duchess and a regent of Parma. She was the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of King Charles X of France and Princess Caroline of Naples and Sicily, she served as regent of Parma during the minority of her son from 1854 until 1859. Louise's father died; when her grandfather abdicated in 1830, Louise joined the rest of her immediate family in exile settling in Austria. As the granddaughter of the king, Louise was a petite-fille de France, her younger brother, Count of Chambord, was King of France from 2 to 9 August 1830, afterwards the Legitimist pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883. On 10 November 1845, at Schloss Frohsdorf in Austria, Louise married Hereditary Prince Ferdinand Charles of Lucca. On 17 December 1847 Empress Marie Louise died and her father-in-law succeeded as Duke Charles II of Parma; the Duchy of Lucca was incorporated in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, she and her husband became known as Hereditary Prince and Hereditary Princess of Parma.
Her father-in-law was Duke of Parma for a few months. In March 1848 revolution broke out in Parma supported by King Charles Albert of Sardinia. Ferdinand Charles was taken prisoner at Cremona, he remained a prisoner at Milan for several months until the British government negotiated his release. After a brief sojourn on the island of Malta, he travelled to Naples and Livorno where he was joined by Louise Marie Thérèse who had just given birth to their first son; the family sought refuge in England and Scotland. In August 1848 the Austrian army entered Parma, restored Charles II. Ferdinand Charles and his family, remained in England, since hostilities continued between the Austrian and Piedmontese armies. For several years Charles II had considered abdicating in favour of Ferdinand Charles, but he delayed in the hope that when he did so things would be more secure for his son. On 24 March 1849, the abdication of Charles II was announced. Ferdinand Charles, still living in England, succeeded him under the name Charles III.
On 18 May 1849, Louise's husband re-entered Parma. He did not take over the administration of the duchy until 25 August; when her husband was murdered in 1854, Louise served as regent for their young son, the new duke, Robert I. Like the other rulers of the Central Italian states and her son were ousted during the Franco-Austrian War of 1859, they retired to Austrian protection in Venice. Various schemes following the war, either for her and her son's restoration in Parma, or territorial swaps which might leave them ruling over Tuscany, Modena, or the Romagna, came to nothing, as the whole of central Italy was annexed by Piedmont in March 1860. Louise lived out the remainder of her life in exile. Queen Sophie of the Netherlands met Louise Marie in 1862 and described her in a letter to a friend: The other day I made the acquaintance of the Duchesse de Parme, Count Chambord's sister, she is much larger than Princess Mary of Cambridge small, but lively, without bitterness after so many misfortunes.
Her boys are full of French repartée and gaiety. I liked her and pity such a lot—murder and revolutions persecuting her since birth... Margherita ∞ Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Carlist claimant to the Spanish throne, had issue. Roberto, Duke of Parma ∞ Princess Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies, had issue. ∞ Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, had issue. Alicia of Parma ∞ Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, had issue. Enrico, Count of Bardi ∞ Princess Luisa Immacolata of the Two Sicilies. ∞ Infanta Adelgundes of Portugal, Duchess of Guimarães. Louise died on 1 February 1864, aged 44, in the Palazzo Giustinian in Venice, she was buried in her grandfather Charles X's crypt at the Franciscan monastery Kostanjevica in Görz, Austria. Other members of the French Royal Family buried there include her brother Henri, Count of Chambord, her aunt Marie Thérèse of France, her uncle Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême