Walt Disney Animation Studios
Walt Disney Animation Studios referred to as Disney Animation, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California, is an American animation studio that creates animated feature films, short films and television specials for The Walt Disney Company. Founded on October 16, 1923, it is a division of Walt Disney Studios; the studio has produced 57 feature films, from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs to Ralph Breaks the Internet. It was founded as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in 1923 and incorporated as Walt Disney Productions in 1929; the studio was dedicated to producing short films until it expanded into feature production in 1934. In 1983, Walt Disney Productions named its live action film studio Walt Disney Pictures. During a corporate restructuring in 1986, Walt Disney Productions was renamed The Walt Disney Company and the animation division, renamed Walt Disney Feature Animation, became a subsidiary of its film division, The Walt Disney Studios. In 2007, Walt Disney Feature Animation took on its current name, Walt Disney Animation Studios after Pixar was acquired by Disney in the same year.
For much of its existence, the studio was recognized as the premier American animation studio. The studio pioneered the art of storyboarding, now a standard technique used in both animated and live-action filmmaking; the studio's catalog of animated features is among Disney's most notable assets, with the stars of its animated shorts – Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Daisy Duck and Pluto – becoming recognizable figures in popular culture and mascots for The Walt Disney Company as a whole. Walt Disney Animation Studios continues to produce films using both traditional animation and computer-generated imagery. Kansas City, natives Walt Disney and Roy O. Disney founded the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in Los Angeles in 1923 and got their start producing a series of silent Alice Comedies short films featuring a live-action child actress in an animated world; the Alice Comedies were distributed by Margaret J. Winkler's Winkler Pictures, which also distributed a second Disney short subject series, the all-animated Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, through Universal Pictures starting in 1927.
Upon relocating to California, the Disney brothers started working in their uncle Robert Disney's garage at 4406 Kingswell Avenue in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles in October 1923 formally launched their studio in a small office on the rear side of a real estate agency's office at 4651 Kingswell Avenue. In February 1924, the studio moved next door to office space of its own at 4649 Kingswell Avenue. In 1925, Disney put down a deposit on a new location at 2719 Hyperion Avenue in the nearby Silver Lake neighborhood, which came to be known as the Hyperion Studio to distinguish it from the studio's other locations, in January 1926 the studio moved there and took on the name the Walt Disney Studio. Meanwhile, after the first year's worth of Oswalds, Walt Disney attempted to renew his contract with Winkler Pictures, but Charles Mintz, who had taken over Margaret Winkler's business after marrying her, wanted to force Disney to accept a lower advance payment for each Oswald short. Disney refused, as Universal owned the rights to Oswald rather than Disney, Mintz set up his own animation studio to produce Oswald cartoons.
Most of Disney's staff was hired away by Mintz to move over, once Disney's Oswald contract was done in mid-1928. Working in secret while the rest of the staff finished the remaining Oswalds on contract and his head animator Ub Iwerks led a small handful of loyal staffers in producing cartoons starring a new character named Mickey Mouse; the first two Mickey Mouse cartoons, Plane Crazy and The Galloping Gaucho, were previewed in limited engagements during the summer of 1928. For the third Mickey cartoon, Disney produced a soundtrack, collaborating with musician Carl Stalling and businessman Pat Powers, who provided Disney with his bootlegged "Cinephone" sound-on-film process. Subsequently, the third Mickey Mouse cartoon, Steamboat Willie, became Disney's first cartoon with synchronized sound and was a major success upon its November 1928 debut at the West 57th Theatre in New York City; the Mickey Mouse series of sound cartoons, distributed by Powers through Celebrity Productions became the most popular cartoon series in the United States.
A second Disney series of sound cartoons, the Silly Symphonies, debuted in 1929 with The Skeleton Dance. In 1930, disputes over finances between Disney and Powers led to Disney's studio, reincorporated on December 16, 1929, as Walt Disney Productions, signing a new distribution contract with Columbia Pictures. Powers in return signed away Ub Iwerks, who began producing cartoons at his own studio although he would return to Disney in 1940. Columbia distributed Disney's shorts for two years before the Disney studio entered a new distribution deal with United Artists in 1932; the same year, Disney signed a two-year exclusive deal with Technicolor to utilize its new 3-strip color film process, which allowed for fuller-color reproduction where previous color film processors could not. The result was the Silly Symphony Flowers and Trees, the first film commercially released in full Technicolor. Flowers and Trees was a major success, all Silly Symphonies were subsequently produced in Technicolor. By the early 1930s, Walt Disney had realized that the success of animated films depended upon telling gripping stories that would grab the audience and not let go, this realization led him to create a separate "story department" with storyboard artists dedicated to story development.
Kubo and the Two Strings
Kubo and the Two Strings is a 2016 American stop-motion action fantasy film directed and produced by Travis Knight. It stars the voices of Charlize Theron, Art Parkinson, Ralph Fiennes, Rooney Mara, George Takei, Matthew McConaughey, it is the fourth feature film produced by Laika. The film revolves around Kubo, a young boy who wields a magical shamisen and whose left eye was stolen during infancy. Accompanied by an anthropomorphic snow monkey and beetle, he must subdue his mother's corrupted Sisters and his power-hungry grandfather Raiden, responsible for stealing his left eye. Kubo premiered at Melbourne International Film Festival and was released by Focus Features in the United States on August 19 to critical acclaim and grossed $77 million worldwide against a budget of $60 million; the film won the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film at the 70th British Academy Film Awards and at the 89th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for Best Animated Feature Film and Best Visual Effects, becoming the second animated film to be nominated in the latter category following 1993's The Nightmare Before Christmas, the first film to be nominated for both.
In feudal Japan, 12-year-old eyepatched Kubo tends to his ill mother Sariatu in a mountain cave near a small village. He earns their living by magically manipulating origami with music from his shamisen for the townsfolk, telling the tale of his deceased father Hanzo, a samurai warrior. Kubo is never able to finish his story, as he does not know how Hanzo died and his mother herself cannot recall the ending due to her mental state deteriorating. Sariatu warns him not to stay out after dark as her Sisters and Washi, his estranged grandfather, the Moon King will find him and take his remaining eye. One day, Kubo learns of the village's Bon festival allowing them to speak to deceased loved ones. Kubo attends but is angry that Hanzo does not appear from his lantern, forgets to return home before sunset. Karasu and Washi find him and attack, but Sariatu appears and uses her magic to send Kubo far away, telling him to find his father's armor while she fights off her Sisters before the screen goes white.
Kubo wakes up in a distant land during a blizzard to find Monkey, his wooden snow monkey charm, who has come to life. While taking shelter inside the mangled corpse of a whale, Monkey tells him Sariatu is gone and the village destroyed. With help of "Little Hanzo", an origami figure based on Kubo's father, they set out to find the armor. Along the way, they meet Beetle, an amnesiac samurai, cursed to take the form of a stag beetle/human hybrid but believes himself to have been Hanzo's apprentice in the past. Kubo and Beetle find the "Sword Unbreakable" in the Hall of Bones, a cave guarded by a giant skeleton, but they defeat it and escape with the sword, they cross the Long Lake in a leaf boat to locate the "Breastplate Impenetrable" deep underwater. Kubo and Beetle swim down to retrieve it and encounter a sea monster, the "Garden of Eyes", who can entrance its victims with its many eyes by showing secrets and eating them. Kubo is caught in the creature's sight, but while entranced, comes to realize that Monkey is the reincarnated spirit of his mother.
Beetle rescues the unconscious Kubo and obtains the Breastplate, but on returning to the boat, they find that Monkey has been badly wounded fighting and killing Karasu. They go to shore to recover, where Monkey explains that she and her sisters were ordered by the Moon King to kill Hanzo, but she instead fell in love with him, the Moon King branded her an enemy; that night, Kubo dreams of meeting Raiden, a blind elderly man, who points him towards the "Helmet Invulnerable" in Hanzo's abandoned fortress. They realize too late it is a trap set by the Moon King and Washi. Washi reveals. Beetle is killed, Monkey sacrifices herself, buying Kubo the time to use his shamisen to defeat Washi, breaking two of the three strings on it. Little Hanzo provides insight that the Helmet is the bell at the village, Kubo breaks the last string to travel there. At the village, Kubo meets Raiden, revealed as the Moon King, he offers to take Kubo's other eye to make him immortal. Raiden transforms into a giant Dunkleosteus-like dragon, the Moon Beast, pursues Kubo and the remaining villagers into its cemetery.
When Hanzo's armor proves ineffective, Kubo removes it and restrings his shamisen using his mother's hair, his father's bowstring, his own lock of hair. With the instrument, he summons the spirits of the villagers' loved ones, who show the Moon Beast that memories are the strongest magic of all and can never be destroyed. Kubo and the spirits' magic protect themselves and the villagers from the Moon Beast, stripping him of his powers and leaving him a mortal human being without any memories. Spurred on by Kubo's stories, the villagers take compassion and tell Raiden he was a man of many positive traits, accepting him into the village. Kubo is able to speak to his parents' spirits during the subsequent Bon ceremony, as they watch the deceased villagers' lanterns transform into golden herons and fly to the spirit world into the sky. Art Parkinson as Kubo, the main protagonist of the story. Charlize Theron as Monkey/Sariatu, Kubo's mother and one of the Moon King's daughters, reincarnated in a little Japanese snow monkey charm, known as Monkey, after she is killed by her Sisters.
Matthew McConaughey as Beetle/Hanzo, Kubo's fat
Pixar is an American computer animation film studio based in Emeryville, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company. Pixar began in 1979 as the Graphics Group, part of the Lucasfilm computer division, before its spin-out as a corporation in 1986, with funding by Apple Inc. co-founder Steve Jobs, who became the majority shareholder. Disney purchased Pixar in 2006 at a valuation of $7.4 billion by converting each share of Pixar stock to 2.3 shares of Disney stock, a transaction that resulted in Jobs becoming Disney's largest single shareholder at the time. Pixar is best known for CGI-animated feature films created with RenderMan, Pixar's own implementation of the industry-standard RenderMan image-rendering application programming interface, used to generate high-quality images. Pixar has produced 20 feature films, beginning with Toy Story, the first-ever computer-animated feature film. All of the studio's films have debuted with CinemaScore ratings of at least an "A−," indicating positive receptions with audiences.
The studio has produced dozens of short films. As of August 2018, its feature films have earned $13 billion at the worldwide box office, with an average worldwide gross of $659.7 million per film. Finding Nemo, along with its sequel Finding Dory, as well as Toy Story 3 and Incredibles 2 are among the 50 highest-grossing films of all time, with the latter being the second-highest-grossing animated film of all time with a gross of $1.2 billion. Fifteen of Pixar's films are among the 50 highest-grossing animated films of all time; the studio has earned 19 Academy Awards, 8 Golden Globe Awards, 11 Grammy Awards, among many other awards and acknowledgments. Many of Pixar's films have been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature since its inauguration in 2001, with nine winning. Monsters, Inc. Cars, Incredibles 2 are the only three films that were nominated for the award without winning it, while Cars 2, Monsters University, The Good Dinosaur, Finding Dory, Cars 3 were not nominated.
Up and Toy Story 3 were the respective second and third animated films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the first being Walt Disney Animation Studios' Beauty and the Beast. Luxo Jr. a character from the studio's 1986 short film of the same name, is the studio's mascot. On September 6, 2009, Pixar executives John Lasseter, Brad Bird, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton, Lee Unkrich were presented with the Golden Lion award for Lifetime Achievement by the Venice Film Festival; the award was given to Lucasfilm's founder George Lucas. Pixar got its start in 1974 when New York Institute of Technology's founder Alexander Schure, the owner of a traditional animation studio, established the Computer Graphics Lab, recruited computer scientists who shared his ambitions about creating the world's first computer-animated film. Edwin Catmull and Malcolm Blanchard were the first to be hired and were soon joined by Alvy Ray Smith and David DiFrancesco some months which were the four original members of the Computer Graphics Lab.
Schure kept pouring money into the computer graphics lab, an estimated $15 million, giving the group everything they desired and driving NYIT into serious financial troubles. The group realized they needed to work in a real film studio in order to reach their goal. Francis Ford Coppola invited Smith to his house for a three-day media conference, where Coppola and George Lucas shared their visions for the future of digital moviemaking; when Lucas approached them and offered them a job at his studio, six employees decided to move over to Lucasfilm. During the following months, they resigned from CGL, found temporary jobs for about a year to avoid making Schure suspicious, before they joined The Graphics Group at Lucasfilm; the Graphics Group, one-third of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm, was launched in 1979 with the hiring of Catmull from NYIT, where he was in charge of the Computer Graphics Lab. He was reunited with Smith, who made the journey from NYIT to Lucasfilm, was made the director of The Graphics Group.
At NYIT, the researchers pioneered many of the CG foundation techniques—in particular the invention of the alpha channel. Years the CGL produced a few frames of an experimental film called The Works. After moving to Lucasfilm, the team worked on creating the precursor to RenderMan, called REYES and developed a number of critical technologies for CG—including "particle effects" and various animation tools. In 1982, the team began working on special effects film sequences with Industrial Magic. After years of research, key milestones such as the Genesis Effect in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and the Stained Glass Knight in Young Sherlock Holmes, the group, which numbered 40 individuals, was spun out as a corporation in February 1986 by Catmull and Smith. Among the 38 remaining employees, there were Malcolm Blanchard, David DiFrancesco, Ralph Guggenheim, Bill Reeves, part of the team since the days of NYIT. Tom Duff an NYIT member, would join Pixar after its formation. With Lucas' 1983 divorce, which coincided with the sudden dropoff in revenues from Star Wars licenses following the release of Return of the Jedi, they knew he would most sell the whole Graphics Group.
Worried that the
Jeffrey Katzenberg is an American film executive, film producer and media proprietor. He became well known for his tenure as chairman of Walt Disney Studios from 1984 to 1994, during which the studio reinvigorated its live-action and animation divisions, as well as producing some of its biggest hits, including The Little Mermaid and the Beast and The Lion King. After departing Disney, he was a co-founder and CEO of DreamWorks Animation, where he oversaw the production of such animated franchises as Shrek, Kung Fu Panda, Monsters vs. Aliens and How to Train Your Dragon, he has since founded. Katzenberg has been involved in politics. With his active support of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, he was called "one of Hollywood's premier political kingmakers and one of the Democratic Party's top national fundraisers." Katzenberg was born in New York City, to a Jewish family, the son of Anne, an artist, Walter Katzenberg, a stockbroker. He attended the Ethical Culture Fieldston School, graduating in 1969.
When he was 14, Katzenberg volunteered to work on Republican John Lindsay's successful New York mayoral campaign. He received the nickname "Squirt" and attended as many meetings as he could. Katzenberg began his career as an assistant to producer David Picker in 1974 he became an assistant to Barry Diller, the Chairman of Paramount Pictures. Diller moved Katzenberg to the marketing department, followed by other assignments within the studio, until he was assigned to revive the Star Trek franchise, which resulted in Star Trek: The Motion Picture, he continued to work his way up and became president of production under Paramount's president, Michael Eisner. In 1984, Michael Eisner became Chief Executive Officer at The Walt Disney Company. Eisner brought Katzenberg with him to take charge of Disney's motion picture division. Katzenberg was responsible for reviving the studio which, at the time, ranked last at the box office among the major studios, he focused the studio on the production of adult-oriented comedies through its Touchstone Pictures banner, including films such as Down and Out in Beverly Hills, Three Men and a Baby, Good Morning and Dead Poets Society.
By 1987, Disney had become the number-one studio at the box office. Katzenberg oversaw Touchstone Television, which produced such hit TV series as The Golden Girls and Home Improvement. Katzenberg was charged with turning around Disney's ailing Feature Animation unit, creating some intrastudio controversy when he edited twelve minutes out of a completed Disney animated feature, The Black Cauldron, shortly after joining the company. Under his management, the animation department began creating some of Disney's most critically acclaimed and highest grossing animated features; these films include Who Framed Roger Rabbit, The Little Mermaid and the Beast —which was the first animated feature to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Picture—Aladdin, The Lion King. In addition, Katzenberg sealed the deal that created the successful partnership between Pixar and Disney and the deal that brought Miramax Films into Disney. Concerns arose internally at Disney from Roy E. Disney, about Katzenberg taking too much credit for the success of Disney's early 1990s releases.
In 1993, Katzenberg had lobbied to become Eisner's second in command, which would have meant moving Frank Wells from president to vice chairman, to which Eisner replied that Wells would feel "hurt" in that scenario and according to Katzenberg, assured him, "If for any reason Frank is not here … you are the number-two person and I want you to have the job." After Wells died in a helicopter crash in 1994, Eisner assumed Wells' duties instead of promoting Katzenberg to the vacated position of president. Eisner recalled that "Roy E. Disney, who did not like him at all — I forget the reason, but Jeffrey did not treat him the way that Roy would have wanted to be treated — said to me,'If you make him the president, I will start a proxy fight.'" Disney board member Stanley Gold said Katzenberg had been brought low by "his ego and pathological need to be important." Tensions between Katzenberg and Disney resulted in Katzenberg being forced to resign from the company that October. Katzenberg launched a lawsuit against Disney to recover money he felt he was owed and settled out of court for an estimated $250 million.
In 1994, Katzenberg co-founded DreamWorks SKG with Steven Spielberg and David Geffen, with Katzenberg taking primary responsibility for animation operations. He was credited as executive producer on the DreamWorks animated films The Prince of Egypt, The Road to El Dorado and Joseph: King of Dreams, Shrek in 2001, Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron in 2002, Shrek 2 in 2004. After DreamWorks Animation suffered a $125 million loss on the traditionally animated Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas, Katzenberg believed that telling traditional stories using traditional animation was a thing of the past, the studio switched to all computer-generated animation. Since DreamWorks' animated feature films have been successful financially and critically with several Annie Awards and Academy Awards nominations and wins. In 2004, DreamWorks Animation was spun off from DreamWorks as a separate company headed by Katzenberg in an IPO and has recorded profitable quarters since then; the live-action DreamWorks movie studio was sold to Viacom in December 2005.
In 2008, the live-action D
Shrek is a 2001 American computer-animated, comedy film loosely based on the 1990 fairytale picture book of the same name by William Steig. Directed by Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson in their directorial debuts, it stars Mike Myers, Eddie Murphy, Cameron Diaz, John Lithgow as the voices of the lead characters; the film parodies other films adapted from fairy tale storylines aimed at animated Disney films. In the story, Shrek finds his swamp overrun by fairy tale creatures who have been banished by a corrupt Lord Farquaad aspiring to be king. Shrek makes a deal with Farquaad to regain control of his swamp in return for rescuing Princess Fiona, whom he intends to marry. With the help of Donkey, Shrek embarks on his quest but soon falls in love with the princess, hiding a secret that will change his life forever; the rights to Steig's book were purchased by Steven Spielberg in 1991. He planned to produce a traditionally-animated film based on the book, but John H. Williams convinced him to bring the film to the newly-founded DreamWorks in 1994.
Jeffrey Katzenberg began active development of the film in 1995 following the studio's purchase of the rights from Spielberg. Chris Farley was cast as the voice for the title character, recording nearly all of the required dialogue. After Farley died in 1997 before the work was finished, Mike Myers stepped in to voice the character, changed to a Scottish accent in the process; the film was intended to be motion-captured, but after poor results, the studio decided to hire Pacific Data Images to complete the final computer animation. Shrek premiered at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival, where it competed for the Palme d'Or, making it the first animated film since Disney's Peter Pan to receive that honor, it was acclaimed as an animated film that featured adult-oriented humor and themes, while catering to children at the same time. The film was theatrically released in the United States on May 18, 2001, grossed $484.4 million worldwide against production budget of $60 million. Shrek won the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature and was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay.
It earned six award nominations from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts winning Best Adapted Screenplay. The film's success helped establish DreamWorks Animation as a prime competitor to Pixar in feature film computer animation, three sequels were released—Shrek 2, Shrek the Third, Shrek Forever After —along with two holiday specials, a spin-off film, a stage musical that kickstarted the Shrek franchise. A planned fifth film was cancelled in 2009 prior to the fourth film's release, but it has since been revived and has entered development. Shrek, a mean and territorial green ogre who loves the solitude of his swamp, finds his life interrupted when countless fairytale creatures are exiled there by the fairytale-hating and vertically-challenged Lord Farquaad of Duloc. Angered, he decides to ask Farquaad to exile them elsewhere. Shrek brings along a talking Donkey, the only fairytale creature willing to guide him to Duloc. Meanwhile, Farquaad tortures the Gingerbread Man for the location of the remaining fairytale creatures.
His guards rush in with something: the Magic Mirror. He asks the Mirror if his kingdom is the fairest of them all but is told that he is not a king, as he isn't descended from royalty. To become a king, he must marry a princess. Unwilling to perform the task himself, he organizes a tournament wherein the winner gets the "privilege" of rescuing Fiona for him. Shrek and Donkey arrive during the tournament, ignorantly defeat Farquaad's knights. Farquaad proclaims them the champions, compels them under threat of death to rescue Fiona, promising to move the fairytale creatures from Shrek's swamp if he succeeds. Shrek and Donkey travel to the castle to find Fiona, they are noticed by Dragon. In desperation, he sweet-talks the beast. Dragon carries him to her chambers. Meanwhile, Shrek finds Fiona, appalled at his lack of romanticism and surprised he had not slain Dragon, they leave after rescuing Donkey, Fiona is thrilled to be rescued but is disappointed when Shrek reveals he is an ogre. Despite her demands that Farquaad come get her in person, Shrek forcibly carries her as he ventures back to Duloc with Donkey.
The three encounter Robin Hood on their way back, where it is revealed that Fiona is an expert martial artist. Shrek and Fiona find they begin to fall in love; when the trio is at Duloc, Fiona takes shelter in a windmill for the evening. Donkey investigates, finding Fiona transformed into an ogress. Fiona reveals that she was cursed during childhood to transform every night, that only her true love's kiss will change her to "love's true form". Meanwhile, Shrek is about to confess his feelings to Fiona, but overhears part of their conversation and becomes upset after mistaking her comment about being an "ugly beast" as disgust toward him. At Donkey's suggestion, Fiona vows to tell Shrek about her curse, but sees that Shrek has brought Lord Farquaad to the windmill. Confused and hurt by Shrek's sudden disposition towards her, Fiona accepts Farquaad's marriage proposal and requests they be married before nightfall; the couple return to Duloc, while Shrek angrily abandons Donkey and returns to his now-vacated swamp.
Angered, Donkey confronts a still upset Shrek. After a minor argument, Donkey tells Shrek that Fiona was talkin
Up (2009 film)
Up is a 2009 American 3D computer-animated comedy-drama buddy adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The film centers on an elderly widower named an earnest boy named Russell. By tying thousands of balloons to his house, Carl sets out to fulfill his dream to see the wilds of South America and complete a promise made to his late wife, Ellie; the film was directed by Pete Docter and co-directed by Bob Peterson, who wrote the film's screenplay, as well as the story with Tom McCarthy, with music composed by Michael Giacchino. Docter began working on the story in 2004, based on fantasies of escaping from life when it becomes too irritating, he and eleven other Pixar artists spent three days in Venezuela gathering inspiration. The designs of the characters were caricatured and stylized and animators were challenged with creating realistic cloth. Up was Pixar's first film to be presented in Disney Digital 3-D, it was released on May 29, 2009, opened the 2009 Cannes Film Festival, becoming the first animated and 3D film to do so.
The film grossed over $735 million, received universal acclaim, with critics commending the humor and heart of the film. Asner's vocal performance was praised, as was his wife Ellie aging together; the film received five Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, making it the second animated film in history to receive such a nomination, following Beauty and the Beast. In the 1930s, shy eight-year-old Carl Fredricksen idolizes famous explorer Charles F. Muntz; when Muntz is accused of fabricating the skeleton of a giant exotic bird he says he discovered at Paradise Falls, he vows not to return until he captures one alive. One day, Carl befriends a girl named Ellie a Muntz fan, she confides to Carl her desire to move her "clubhouse"—an abandoned house in the neighborhood—to a cliff overlooking Paradise Falls. Carl and Ellie marry and live in the restored house. After Ellie suffers a miscarriage and they are told they cannot have a child, the couple remembers their childhood dream of visiting Paradise Falls.
They save for the trip, but have to spend the money on more pressing needs. The now elderly Carl arranges for the trip but Ellie falls ill, is hospitalized, dies. Years in the present day, Carl still lives in the house by stubbornly holding out while the neighborhood homes are torn down and replaced by skyscrapers; when he accidentally injures a construction worker, the court deems him a public menace and orders him to move to a retirement home. However, Carl resolves to keep his promise to Ellie by turning his house into a makeshift airship using thousands of helium balloons. Russell, a young "Wilderness Explorer" who visits Carl in his effort to earn his final merit badge for assisting the elderly, becomes an accidental stowaway; the flying house ends up high above South America. The house lands on a tepui opposite Paradise Falls. Carl and Russell harness themselves to the still-buoyant house and begin to walk it across the mesa, hoping to reach the falls before the balloons deflate. Russell encounters a tall, colorful flightless bird whom he names "Kevin".
They meet a Golden Retriever named Dug, who wears a special collar that allows him to speak and who vows to take the bird to his master. The next day, they encounter a pack of aggressive dogs led by Alpha, a Doberman Pinscher, are taken to their master, who turns out to be Charles Muntz. Muntz invites Carl and Russell aboard his dirigible, where he explains to them that he is still searching for the giant bird he promised to bring back; when Russell notes the bird's similarity to Kevin, Muntz becomes hostile, believing they are attempting to capture the bird themselves. Carl flees with Kevin and Dug, but Muntz captures Kevin and starts a fire beneath Carl's house, forcing him to choose between saving it or Kevin. Carl saves the house and reaches the falls, but Russell is upset at Carl for abandoning Kevin. Carl looks through Ellie's childhood scrapbook and is surprised to find that she has filled in the blank pages with photos of their marriage, along with a note written from her hospital bed, thanking him for the "adventure" and encouraging him to have a new one.
The repentant Carl goes outside, only to see Russell sailing off with some balloons and a propulsive leaf blower to rescue Kevin. By throwing out his furniture and keepsakes, Carl lightens the house enough to follow. Russell is captured by Muntz, but Carl manages to board the dirigible, tether the house, free Russell and Kevin. Dug saddles Alpha with the cone of shame and thereby unexpectedly becomes the dogs' new leader. Muntz determinedly pursues them around the airship and manages to disable Carl's house, but snags his foot on some loose balloon lines and falls to his death; the house, having lost too many balloons to fly, descends out of sight through the clouds. Carl and Russell fly the dirigible back home. Russell receives his'Assisting the Elderly' badge, Carl presents Russell with his own badge: a grape soda cap that Ellie gave to Carl when they first met. Meanwhile, unknown to Carl, his house has landed on the cliff beside Paradise Falls, fulfilling his promise to Ellie. Ed Asner as Carl Fredricksen: Docter and Rivera noted Asner's television alter ego, Lou Grant, had been helpful in writing for Carl because it guided them in balancing likable and unlikable aspects of the curmudgeonly character.
When they met Asner and presented him with a model of his character, he joked, "I don't look anything like that." (The appearance of Carl is meant to resemble Spencer Tracy as he appeared in his final film, Guess Who's Coming
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches; the roster of the Academy's 6,000 motion picture professionals is a "closely guarded secret". While the great majority of its members are based in the United States, membership is open to qualified filmmakers around the world; the Academy is known around the world for its annual Academy Awards and popularly known as "The Oscars". In addition, the Academy holds the Governors Awards annually for lifetime achievement in film; the Academy plans to open the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles in 2019. The notion of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences began with Louis B. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, he said he wanted to create an organization that would mediate labor disputes without unions and improve the industry's image.
He met with actor Conrad Nagel, director Fred Niblo, the head of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, Fred Beetson to discuss these matters. The idea of this elite club having an annual banquet was discussed, but no mention of awards at that time, they established that membership into the organization would only be open to people involved in one of the five branches of the industry: actors, writers and producers. After their brief meeting, Mayer gathered up a group of thirty-six people involved in the film industry and invited them to a formal banquet at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on January 11, 1927; that evening Mayer presented to those guests what he called the International Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Everyone in the room that evening became a founder of the Academy. Between that evening and when the official Articles of Incorporation for the organization were filed on May 4, 1927, the "International" was dropped from the name, becoming the "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences".
Several organizational meetings were held prior to the first official meeting held on May 6, 1927. Their first organizational meeting was held on May 11. At that meeting Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. was elected as the first president of the Academy, while Fred Niblo was the first vice-president, their first roster, composed of 230 members, was printed. That night, the Academy bestowed its first honorary membership, to Thomas Edison; the Academy was broken down into five main groups, or branches, although this number of branches has grown over the years. The original five were: Producers, Directors and Technicians; the initial concerns of the group had to do with labor." However, as time went on, the organization moved "further away from involvement in labor-management arbitrations and negotiations." One of several committees formed in those initial days was for "Awards of Merit," but it was not until May 1928 that the committee began to have serious discussions about the structure of the awards and the presentation ceremony.
By July 1928 the board of directors had approved a list of 12 awards to be presented. During July the voting system for the Awards was established, the nomination and selection process began; this "award of merit for distinctive achievement" is. The initial location of the organization was 6912 Hollywood Boulevard. In November 1927, the Academy moved to the Roosevelt Hotel at 7010 Hollywood Boulevard, the month the Academy's library began compiling a complete collection of books and periodicals dealing with the industry from around the world. In May 1928, the Academy authorized the construction of a state of the art screening room, to be located in the Club lounge of the hotel; the screening room was not completed until April 1929. With the publication of Report on Incandescent Illumination in 1928, the Academy began a long history of publishing books to assist its members. Another early initiative concerned training Army Signal Corps officers. In 1929, Academy members in a joint venture with the University of Southern California created America's first film school to further the art and science of moving pictures.
The school's founding faculty included Fairbanks, D. W. Griffith, William C. deMille, Ernst Lubitsch, Irving Thalberg, Darryl F. Zanuck.1930 saw another move, to 7046 Hollywood Boulevard, in order to accommodate the enlarging staff, by December of that year the library was acknowledged as "having one of the most complete collections of information on the motion picture industry anywhere in existence." They would remain at that location until 1935, when further growth would cause them to move once again. This time, the administrative offices would move to one location, to the Taft Building at the corner of Hollywood and Vine, while the library would move to 1455 North Gordon Street. In 1934, the Academy began publication of the Screen Achievement Records Bulletin, which today is known as the Motion Picture Credits Database; this is a list of film credits up for an Academy Award, as well as other films released in Los Angeles County, using research materials from the Academy's Margaret Her