Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
The Yardbirds are an English rock band, formed in London in 1963. The band's core lineup featured vocalist and harmonica player Keith Relf, drummer Jim McCarty, rhythm guitarist/bassist Chris Dreja and bassist/producer Paul Samwell-Smith; the band is known for starting the careers of three of rock's most famous guitarists, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page and Jeff Beck, all of whom ranked in the top five of Rolling Stone magazine's list of 100 greatest guitarists. The band had a string of hits throughout the mid-1960s, including "For Your Love", "Heart Full of Soul", "Shapes of Things" and "Over Under Sideways Down". A blues-based band noted for their signature "rave-up" instrumental breaks, the Yardbirds broadened their range into pop, pioneering psychedelic rock and early hard rock; the band's influence on both the music of the times and genres to come was great, they inspired a host of imitators such as the Count Five and The Shadows of Knight. Some rock critics and historians credit the Yardbirds with contributing to, if not inventing, "the birth of psychedelic music" and sowing the seeds of punk rock, progressive rock and heavy metal, among other genres.
Following the band's split in 1968, Relf and McCarty formed Renaissance and guitarist Jimmy Page formed what became Led Zeppelin. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992, they were included as No. 89 in Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", ranked No. 37 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. The Yardbirds reformed in the 1990s, featuring drummer Jim McCarty and rhythm guitarist/bassist Chris Dreja as the only original members of the band. Dreja left the band in 2012, leaving McCarty as the sole original member of the band present in the lineup; the band formed in the south-west London suburbs in 1963. Relf and Samwell-Smith were in a band named the Metropolitan Blues Quartet. After being joined by Dreja, McCarty and Top Topham, they performed at Kingston Art School in late May 1963 as a backup band for Cyril Davies. Following a couple of gigs in September 1963 as the Blue-Sounds, they changed their name to The Yardbirds, either an expression for hobos hanging around rail yards or prisoners hanging around a prison yard or a reference to seminal jazz saxophonist Charlie "Yardbird" Parker.
The quintet achieved notice on the burgeoning British rhythm and blues scene when they took over as the house band at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, succeeding the Rolling Stones. Their repertoire drew from the Chicago blues of Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Bo Diddley, Sonny Boy Williamson II and Elmore James, including "Smokestack Lightning", "Good Morning Little School Girl", "Boom Boom", "I Wish You Would", "Rollin' and Tumblin'", "Got Love if You Want It" and "I'm a Man". Original lead guitarist Topham left and was replaced by Eric Clapton in October 1963. Crawdaddy Club impresario Giorgio Gomelsky became the Yardbirds manager and first record producer. Under Gomelsky's guidance the Yardbirds toured Britain as the back-up band for blues legend Sonny Boy Williamson II in December 1963 and early 1964, recording live tracks on 8 December and other dates; the recordings would be released two years during the height of the Yardbirds popularity on the album Sonny Boy Williamson and The Yardbirds.
After the tours with Williamson, the Yardbirds signed to EMI's Columbia label in February 1964, recorded more live tracks 20 March at the legendary Marquee Club in London. The resulting album of rhythm and blues covers, Five Live Yardbirds, would not be released by Columbia for another nine months, it failed to enter the UK albums charts. Over time Five Live gained stature as one of the few quality live recordings of the era, as a historical document of both the British "rock and roll boom" in the 1960s and Clapton's time in the band; the Clapton line-up recorded two singles, the blues "I Wish You Would" and "Good Morning, School Girl", before the band scored its first major hit with the overtly pop "For Your Love", a Beatles-influenced Graham Gouldman composition built around a four-chord progression played on a harpsichord by Brian Auger. "For Your Love" hit the top of the charts in the UK and Canada and reached No. 6 in the United States, but it displeased Clapton, a blues purist whose vision extended beyond three-minute singles.
Frustrated by the commercial approach, he abruptly left the band on 25 March 1965, the day the single was released. Soon Clapton joined John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, but not before he recommended Jimmy Page, a prominent young session guitarist, to replace him. Content with his lucrative sessions work, worried about both his health and the politics of Clapton's departure, Page in turn recommended his friend Jeff Beck. Beck played his first gig with the Yardbirds only two days after Clapton's departure. Beck's explorations of fuzz tone, feedback, sustain and hammer-on soloing fitted well into the raw style of British beat music; the Yardbirds began to experiment with eclectic arrangements reminiscent of Gregorian chants and various European and Asian styles while Beck infused a pervasive Middle Eastern influence into the mix. Beck was voted No. 1 lead guitarist of 1966 in the British music magazine Beat Instrumental. The Beck-era Yardbirds produced a number of groundbreaking recordings; these included the hit singles "Heart Full of Soul", "Evil Hearted You"/"Still I'm Sad", a cover of Bo Diddley's "I'm a Man", "Shapes of Things" and "Over Under Sideways Down", the Yardbirds album.
Beck's fuzz-tone guitar riff on "Heart Full of Soul" introduced Indian raga-style guitar to the pop charts in the summer of 1965. The fol
Edward Christopher Sheeran, is an English singer, guitarist, record producer, actor. He attended the Academy of Contemporary Music in Guildford as an undergraduate from the age of 18 in 2009. In early 2011, Sheeran independently released No. 5 Collaborations Project. After signing with Asylum Records, his debut album, +, was released in September 2011, it topped the UK and Australian charts, reached number five in the US, has since been certified seven-times platinum in the UK. The album contains the single "The A Team", which earned him the Ivor Novello Award for Best Song Musically and Lyrically. In 2012, Sheeran won the Brit Awards for British Breakthrough Act. "The A Team" was nominated for Song of the Year at the 2013 Grammy Awards, where he performed the song with Elton John. His second studio album, x, was released in June 2014, it peaked at number one in the UK and the US. In 2015, x won the Brit Award for Album of the Year, he received the Ivor Novello Award for Songwriter of the Year from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors.
His single from x, "Thinking Out Loud", earned him two Grammy Awards at the 2016 ceremony: Song of the Year and Best Pop Solo Performance. In May 2016, x was named the second-best-selling album worldwide of 2015. Sheeran's third album, ÷, was released in March 2017; the album debuted at number one in the US and other major markets. The first two singles from the album, "Shape of You" and "Castle on the Hill", were released in January 2017 and broke records in a number of countries, including the UK, Australia and Germany, by debuting in the top two positions of the charts, he became the first artist to have two songs debut in the US top 10 in the same week. By March 2017, Sheeran had accumulated ten top 10 singles from ÷ on the UK Singles Chart, breaking the record for most top 10 UK singles from one album, his fourth single from ÷, "Perfect", reached number one in the US, Australia and the UK, where it became the Christmas number one in 2017. In April 2018, ÷ was named the best-selling album worldwide of 2017.
Sheeran has sold more than 150 million records worldwide, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists. Two of his albums are in the list of the best-selling albums in UK chart history: x at number 20, ÷ at number 34. An alumnus of the National Youth Theatre in London, as an actor Sheeran has portrayed a recurring role on The Bastard Executioner, in 2019, he will appear in the Richard Curtis/Danny Boyle film Yesterday. Sheeran was born in Halifax, West Yorkshire on 17 February 1991; when he was a child, he moved with his family from Hebden Bridge to Framlingham in Suffolk. He has an older brother named Matthew. Sheeran's parents and Imogen, are from London, his paternal grandparents are Irish, Sheeran has stated that his father is from a "very large" Catholic family. John is an art curator and lecturer, Imogen is a culture publicist turned jewellery designer, his parents ran Sheeran Lock, an independent art consultancy, from 1990 to 2010. Sheeran sang in a local church choir from the age of four, learned to play the guitar during his time at Rishworth School, began writing songs while at Thomas Mills High School in Framlingham.
He was accepted at the National Youth Theatre in London as a teenager. He auditioned for Youth Music Theatre UK in 2007 and joined their production of Frankenstein in Plymouth, he is a patron of Youth Music Theatre UK and of Access to Music, where he studied Artist Development. Sheeran is a second cousin of Northern Irish broadcaster Gordon Burns, who hosted the British game show The Krypton Factor. Sheeran began recording music in 2004, independently released his first collection of work, Spinning Man, he has been friends with fellow English singer, since he was 15, with the two playing on the same gig in Cambridge. He moved to London in 2008, began playing in small venues. In 2008, he auditioned for Britannia High, he opened for Nizlopi in Norwich in April 2008, after being one of their guitar technicians. He released another EP in 2009, You Need Me, just before going on tour with Just Jack, he did a few collaborations with Essex singer, Leddra Chapman, including CeeLo Green's "Fuck You". In February 2010, Sheeran posted a video through SB.
TV, rapper Example invited Sheeran to tour with him. In the same month, he released his critically acclaimed Loose Change EP, which featured his future debut single, "The A Team". In the autumn of 2009, Sheeran began studying music at the Academy of Contemporary Music in Guildford, Surrey as an undergraduate, though it is not clear how long he remained at the college. Sheeran began to be seen by more people over the internet through YouTube and his fan-base grew, with him receiving praise from The Independent newspaper and Elton John, he played a Station Session in St. Pancras International in June 2010; the episode is unavailable from the official Station Sessions channel. Sheeran self-released two other EPs in 2010, Ed Sheeran: Live at the Bedford and Songs I Wrote with Amy, a collection of love songs he wrote in Wales with Amy Wadge. In 2010 he was in Los Angeles and was invited to perform at The Foxxhole, a club run by actor Jamie Foxx, which ended with an invitation to stay at Foxx's home.
On 8 January 2011, Sheeran released another independent EP, No. 5 Collaborations Project, featuring grime artists such as Wiley, Devlin and Ghetts. With this EP, Sheeran gained mainstream attention for reaching number 2 in the iTunes chart without any promotion or label, selling over 7,000 copies
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
Chetham's School of Music
Chetham's School of Music is an independent co-educational music school in Manchester, England. Chetham's educates students between the ages of 18, all of whom enter via musical auditions. Students receive a full academic education alongside individual music tuition. Chetham's offers a year-round programme of concerts at the school, Manchester Cathedral, the Royal Northern College of Music, Band on the Wall and Bridgewater Hall. Recitals take place in churches and community spaces, at festivals and internationally, its senior ensembles, Chetham's Symphony Orchestra and Big Band, alongside many individual students, have won awards for their music, many alumni have progressed to successful careers as professional musicians or in other sectors. The music school was established in 1969 from Chetham's Hospital School, founded as a charity school by Humphrey Chetham in 1653. After becoming a boys' grammar school in 1952, the school turned to music as its speciality, at the same time becoming an independent school and accepting its first female students.
There are 300 students on roll, including a large sixth form making up around half of the school. Two-thirds of students board on site, with others travelling in as day students from around Greater Manchester; the oldest parts of the school date to the 1420s, when the building was constructed as a residence for priests of the church, now Manchester Cathedral. These parts are listed buildings housing Chetham's Library, the oldest free public reference library in the English-speaking world. Academic and music teaching moved into a new, purpose-designed building in 2012. A 482-seat concert hall, Stoller Hall, opened within the new school building in 2017 as a home for both school and professional music and other genres of performance; the school is built on the site of Manchester Castle, a fortified manor house owned by the Grelleys after the Norman Conquest, at the confluence of the River Irwell and the River Irk. Medieval Manchester grew around the manor house and the parish church, which became Manchester Cathedral.
In the early 14th century, the de la Warre family acquired the land through marriage. Thomas de la Warre refounded the church as a collegiate church in 1421. De la Warre gave the site of his manor house for the construction of a college, where eight priests, four clerks and six lay choristers lived in the care of a warden, it is that building began between 1424 and 1429, the main hall and cloister rooms finished by 1458. It remains the most complete building of its kind in the country, at the time of its construction, was the second largest building in Manchester, surpassed only by the church; the college was dissolved during the English Reformation in 1547, purchased by Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby. It was re-founded by Queen Mary, before Elizabeth I refounded it as'Christ's College' in 1578; this arrangement lasted until the foundation of Manchester Cathedral in 1847. The college buildings remained the property of the Stanleys, wardens lived on the premises with their families and servants.
During the English Civil War, the college was used as a gunpowder factory and a prison and was left damaged by powder and overrun by pigs. Lord James Stanley, a Royalist, was executed in 1651, Parliament confiscated his property, including the college. Humphrey Chetham was an unmarried and childless financier and cloth merchant from Manchester. In the 1640s he provided money for the maintenance and education of fourteen poor boys from Manchester, six from Salford, two from Droylsden. In March 1649 he wrote to the Earl of Derby about his intention to establish a school, he attempted unsuccessfully to acquire the buildings, which were "spoyld and ruin'd and become like a dunghill", to provide a hospital and library. In his will, Chetham left over £8,000 from his estate to establish a hospital school for 40 poor local boys, between the ages of six and ten and from "honest" families, who should be taught and cared for until they were 14, his executors obtained the lease of the college in 1654 to house both library.
After repairs to the college were completed in mid-1656, the first admissions were made. The first headmaster, Richard Dutton, was appointed in 1655, in 1665 the institution became an incorporated charity; the number of pupils grew, with admissions rising to 100 by the 1870s. Boys were admitted based on the parish they lived in, on need and background of the family. Illegitimate boys were not admitted, all boys had to be able to read to a certain standard that meant they were not hard to teach. In 1878, a new schoolroom designed by architect Alfred Waterhouse was built in a Tudor style; the number of boys admitted was reduced to 75 in 1908 to save money, though three years admissions increased again to 99. In 1916, no boys were admitted due to lack of funding caused by World War I, in 1918 the number was limited to 70. Successful public appeals resulted in the numbers rising to 97 in 1929. In 1926 a scheme was set up which allowed boys to apply for scholarships to join a grammar school, which meant that while they lived at Chetham's, they were educated elsewhere during the day.
Further, they would stay at grammar school until at least the age of 16 and sometimes 18. During World War II, the boys were evacuated to the seaside town of Cleveleys, where they shared accommodation with a primary school. Chetham's was damaged by an explosion in December 1940, when most of the windows w
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music known as dance music, club music, or dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made for nightclubs and festivals. It is produced for playback by disc jockeys who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In Europe, EDM is more called'dance music', or simply'dance'. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, following the emergence of raving, pirate radios and an upsurge of interest in club culture, EDM achieved widespread mainstream popularity in Europe. In the United States at that time, acceptance of dance culture was not universal. There was a perceived association between EDM and drug culture, which led governments at state and city level to enact laws and policies intended to halt the spread of rave culture. Subsequently, in the new millennium, the popularity of EDM increased globally in Australia and the United States.
By the early 2010s, the term "electronic dance music" and the initialism "EDM" was being pushed by the American music industry and music press in an effort to rebrand American rave culture. Despite the industry's attempt to create a specific EDM brand, the initialism remains in use as an umbrella term for multiple genres, including house, trance and bass and dubstep, as well as their respective subgenres. Various EDM genres have evolved for example. Stylistic variation within an established EDM genre can lead to the emergence of what is called a subgenre. Hybridization, where elements of two or more genres are combined, can lead to the emergence of an new genre of EDM. In the late 1960s bands such as Silver Apples created electronic music, intended to be danced to. Other early examples of music that influenced electronic dance music include Jamaican dub music during the late 1960s to 1970s, the synthesizer-based disco music of Italian producer Giorgio Moroder in the late 1970s, the electro-pop of Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Author Michael Veal considers dub music, a Jamaican music stemming from roots reggae and sound system culture that flourished between 1968 and 1985, to be one of the important precursors to contemporary electronic dance music. Dub productions were remixed reggae tracks that emphasized rhythm, fragmented lyrical and melodic elements, reverberant textures; the music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Scientist. Their productions included forms of tape editing and sound processing that Veal considers comparable to techniques used in musique concrète. Dub producers made improvised deconstructions of existing multi-track reggae mixes by using the studio mixing board as a performance instrument, they foregrounded spatial effects such as reverb and delay by using auxiliary send routings creatively. The Roland Space Echo, manufactured by Roland Corporation, was used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo and psychedelic electronic effects, it featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep bass lines and harmonic sounds. Techniques such as a long echo delay were used. Hip hop music has played a key role in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx, his parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, at the point where a track featured a break.
This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was called a break beat. Turntablism has origins in the invention of the direct-drive turntable, by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables; the most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972. In the 1980s and 1990s hip-hop DJs used turntables as musical instruments in their own right and virtuosic use developed into a creative practice called turntablism. In 1974, George McCrae's early disco hit "Rock Your Baby" was one of the first records to use a drum machine, an early Roland rhythm machine, its use of a drum machine was anticipated by Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair", which anticipated the sound of disco, with its rhythm echoed in "Rock Your Baby".
The use of drum machines in "Family Affair" and Timmy Thomas' "Why Can't We Live Together", which used a 1972 Roland rhythm machine, influenced the adoption of drum machines by disco artists. Disco producer Biddu used synthesizers in several disco songs from 1976 to 1977, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest, "Soul Coaxing", and
University of Central Oklahoma
The University of Central Oklahoma referred to as UCO or Central, is a coeducational public university located in Edmond, Oklahoma. The university is the third largest in Oklahoma, with more than 17,000 students and 434 full-time and 400 adjunct faculty. Founded in 1890, the University of Central Oklahoma was one of the first institutions of higher learning to be established in what would become the state of Oklahoma, making it one of the oldest universities in the southwest region of the United States, it is home to the American branch of the British Academy of Contemporary Music in downtown Oklahoma City. The University of Central Oklahoma was founded on December 24, 1890, when the Territorial Legislature voted to establish the Territorial Normal School, making UCO the oldest public institution of higher education in Oklahoma. Classes were first held in November 1891. By comparison, Oklahoma A&M College held its first classes in December 1891 and the University of Oklahoma began in fall 1892.
The Territorial Legislature located the new school in Edmond, provided. First, Oklahoma County had to donate $5,000 in bonds, Edmond had to donate 40 acres of land within one mile of the town. Ten of those acres had to be set aside for the new school; the remaining land had to be divided into lots which would be sold to raise money for the new school. On October 1, 1891 Richard Thatcher was elected the 1st President of Territorial Normal School of Oklahoma; the conditions all were met, with the city of Edmond donating an additional $2,000 in bonds. The first class, a group of 23 students, met for the first time Nov. 1, 1891, in the Epworth League Room, located in the unfurnished First Methodist Church. A marker of Oklahoma granite was placed in 1915 near the original site by the Central Oklahoma Normal School Historical Society, it can be seen at Second Street. Old North was the first building constructed in the summer of 1892 on the campus of what was Territorial Normal School, it was the first building constructed in Oklahoma Territory for the purpose of higher education.
Occupancy began January 3, 1893. The school first operated as a normal school with two years of college work and a complete preparatory school. In 1897, the first graduating class—two men and three women—received their Normal School diplomas. In 1904, Territorial Normal became Central State Normal School. Statehood was still three years away. On Dec. 29, 1919, the State Board of Education passed a resolution making Central a four-year teachers’ college conferring bachelor's degrees. From 1901 until 1961, Central housed a laboratory school in which local elementary schoolchildren were schooled by Central's faculty and soon-to-be teaching graduates. Two years the Class of 1921 had nine members, the first graduates to receive the four-year degrees. Two decades in 1939, the Oklahoma Legislature authorized the institution to grant both Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. With the expanded offerings came a new name, Central State College. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the school was affected by state politics.
Presidents and sometimes faculty members, were changed with changes in state governors. In 1950, President Max W. Chambers banned solicitations of campaign donations from faculty members; this resulted in more stability of the school administration. On March 11, 1941, Central State became part of a coordinated state system of post-secondary education overseen by the Oklahoma Regents for Higher Education, joined institutions with similar missions as a regional institution. In 1954, the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education gave Central permission to offer the Master of Teaching Degree, which became the Master of Education in 1969. In 1971, the college was authorized to grant the Master of Arts in English and the Master of Business Administration degrees. On April 13, 1971, the state legislature changed the institution's name to Central State University. Old North Tower was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. On May 18, 1990, during the university's Centennial Year, legislation was passed changing the name to the University of Central Oklahoma, though many of the students still refer to the University as "Central", many alumni as "Central State."
Since 1891, the University of Central Oklahoma has had two acting presidents. The University of Central Oklahoma in 2009 was ranked in the top 10% on the Forbes Magazine list of America's Best Colleges out of over 4,000 colleges and universities in the United States; the University of Central Oklahoma School of Music Jazz Division is the largest in the state and one of the largest in the region. UCO is composed of eight schools and colleges: The UCO Jazz Lab is home for the celebrated Jazz Studies Division of the University of Central Oklahoma School of Music; the Jazz Program was started in 1974 by Dr. Kent Kidwell. Since 1974, the Jazz program grew to. Current Jazz faculty include Lee Rucker, Brian Gorrell, the Head of the Jazz Studies Division, is the director of the 1st Jazz Ensemble. Mr. Gorrell teaches Applied Saxophone, Applied Jazz Piano and is the Jazz Graduate Advisor. Jeff Kidwell teaches applied trombone. Other faculty include Clint Rohr, Dr. Ryan Sharp, Dr. Michael Geib, Dr. David Hardman and Zachary Lee.
The UCO Jazz Lab is located on Littler St. in Edmond, Oklahoma. The Jazz Lab was built in 2001, it was built with a stage, Hideaway Pizza and the Jazz Lab Recording Studio. Students utilize the Jazz Lab on a daily basis; the UCO Jazz Studies D