The Vltava is the longest river within the Czech Republic, running southeast along the Bohemian Forest and north across Bohemia, through Český Krumlov, České Budějovice and Prague, merging with the Elbe at Mělník. It is referred to as the "Bohemian sea" and the "Czech national river"; the Vltava river is 430.3 kilometres long and drains an area 28,090 square kilometres in size, over half of Bohemia and about a third of the Czech Republic's entire territory. As it runs through Prague, the river is crossed by 18 bridges and covers 31 kilometres within the city; the water from the river was used for drinking until 1912, when the Vinohrady Water Tower ceased pumping operations. It is, the source of drinking water in case of failures/repairs to the water supply from the Želivka and Kárané sources; the Podolí water processing plant is on standby for such cases with the long section of the river upstream of the Podolí plant under the stricter, second degree of pollution prevention regulations. Several dams were built on it in the 1950s.
The Orlík Dam supports the largest reservoir on the Vltava by volume, while the Lipno Dam in the Bohemian Forest retains the largest reservoir by area. South of Prague the Štěchovice Reservoir has been built over the site of the St John's Rapids; the river features numerous locks and weirs that help mitigate its flow from 1,172 metres in elevation at its source near the German border to 155 metres at its mouth in Mělník. The height difference from source to mouth is about 1,016 metres and the largest stream at the source is named Černý Potok; the Vltava itself originates by a confluence of two streams, the Warm Vltava, longer, the Cold Vltava, sourcing in Bavaria. Along its course, Vltava receives many tributaries, the biggest being Otava and Berounka from the left and Lužnice and Sázava from the right side, its section around Český Krumlov is a popular destination of water tourism. Both the Czech name Vltava and the German name Moldau are believed to originate from the old Germanic words *wilt ahwa.
In the Annales Fuldenses it is called Fuldaha. In the Chronica Boemorum it is attested for the first time in its Bohemian form as Wlitaua; the Vltava basin has flooded multiple times throughout recorded history. Markers have been created along the banks denoting the water line for notable floods in 1784, 1845, 1890, 1940, the highest of all in 2002. In August of that year, the basin was affected by the 2002 European floods when the flooded river killed several people and caused massive damage and disruption along its length, including in Prague, it left the oldest bridge in Prague, Charles Bridge weakened, requiring years of work to repair. Prague was again flooded in 2013. Many locations within the Vltava and Elbe basins were left under water, including the Prague Zoo, but metal barriers were erected along the banks of the Vltava to help protect the historic city centre. Nine hydroelectric dams have been built on the Vltava to regulate the water flow and generate hydroelectric power. Beginning at the headwaters, these are: Lipno, Lipno II, Hněvkovice, Kořensko, Orlík, Kamýk, Slapy, Štěchovice and Vrané.
One of the best-known works of classical music by a Czech composer is Bedřich Smetana's Vltava called The Moldau in English. It is from the Romantic era of classical music and is a musical description of the river's course through Bohemia. A minor planet 2123 Vltava discovered in 1973 by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh is named after the river. Smetana's symphonic poem inspired a song of the same name by Bertolt Brecht. An English version of it, by John Willett, features the lyrics Deep down in the Moldau the pebbles are shifting / In Prague three dead emperors moulder away. Moldavite Geographic data related to Vltava at OpenStreetMap
Ivan Olbracht, born Kamil Zeman was a Czech writer and translator of German prose. The son of writer Antal Stašek, Olbracht studied philosophy in Prague and Berlin, he left before graduation, choosing the career of a journalist. In 1905, he first began editing a social-democratic workers' newspaper in Vienna, where he worked until 1916; when he first began publishing fiction, he focused on stories and novels with a psychological theme. This phase of his writing life coincided with the First World War, his works after the War are an experimentation in blending fiction with real events. He became an editor in Prague. In 1920, he spent six months living in the Soviet Union; the following year, he joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and began working for Rudé právo. He was twice imprisoned due to his communist views, first in 1926 and in 1928. In 1929, together with six other writers, Olbracht signed a protest statement against the new leadership of the Communist Party; this resulted in his expulsion from the loss of his editorial post.
Without political obligations or a job, he turned his attention toward writing. The ensuing years were some of his most productive. Beginning in 1931, he started to travel to Carpathian Ruthenia, in the east of Czechoslovakia; the region, inhabited by Rusyn peasants and Jews, created a deep impression on him. His experiences there inspired some of his best works, his novel, Nikola Šuhaj loupežník, published in 1933 was based on a real person. The story spoke of a peasant Robin Hood; the book acquired the status of a folktale. In 1934, he co-wrote the screenplay for Marijka nevěrnice; the following year, he published Hory a staletí, a combination of political ethnography and criticism of what he perceived as the Czechoslovak government's colonialist policies in Podkarpatská Rus. In 1937, his book Golet v údolí was published; the book consisted of three interwoven stories about Orthodox Jews. The longest, best, of the stories was "Smutné oči Hany Karadžičové", a sad tale of a Jewish girl, ostracized by her village for marrying an atheist Jew.
"Golet in the Valley" was the last of his works. His books set in Carpathian Ruthenia are regarded as his best, reflecting his gift of combining documentary realism and fictional drama. Fear of persecution drove him to the small town of Stříbřec during World War II. There he was active in the resistance, he worked for a while in the Ministry of Information after the war. His writings during that period were limited to adaptations, including the retelling of Bible stories for children. Anna the Proletarian The Strange Friendship of Jesenius the Actor Nikolai Schuhaj, Highwayman Grilled mirror Olbracht & Kolochava, director: Sergey Gubsky, Video on YouTube, Video on YouTube
European League of Institutes of the Arts
ELIA is a globally connected European network that provides a dynamic platform for professional exchange and development in higher arts education. With over 250 members in 47 countries, it represents some 300.000 students in all art disciplines. Its cross-disciplinary quality makes ELIA unique as a network. ELIA advocates for higher arts education by empowering and creating new opportunities for its members and facilitating the exchange of good practices, its aim is to stimulate critical thinking. As a knowledge platform, we organise events and initiate and support projects that are in line with our strategic focus. ELIA’s offer is inclusive and diverse – it serves the needs of art schools throughout all levels, from academic staff and international officers to students and upper management. ELIA emerged from a conference organized in Amsterdam in 1990, Imagination and Diversity, aimed to promote cooperation in art education around Europe; the organiser of the conference and founder of ELIA, Carla Delfos, is the organization's Executive Director.
She was knighted Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres in 1993, received honorary doctorates from Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen in 2001, Columbia College Chicago in 2009. In 1991, ELIA helped founding the European Forum for Heritage. In the same year, a conference in Budapest, in the wake of the fall of the Iron Curtain, opened up vistas for collaboration with Eastern Europe. At ELIA's second General Assembly in Strasbourg 1992, the Manifesto for Arts Education in Europe was approved. A new version was approved in 2000. In 1996, ELIA was designated to organize a ‘Thematic Network for Higher Arts Education’ as part of the SOCRATES programme. Thematic Networks for closer collaboration and research have since been central to ELIA's activities. Following the Bologna Declaration in 1999, these networks have been crucial in facilitating discussion and taking a position on the implications of the Bologna Process for higher arts education. To this end, ELIA has been cooperating with the European Association of Conservatoires, publishing four position papers together.
In 2008, ELIA received a European grant for Art Futures. It was renewed in 2011. In 2015, ELIA launched a 3-year Creative Europe co-funded project NXT Making a Living from the Arts, which ended in April 2018; the main branches of the organization:ELIA members participate in various ELIA projects and events. They are encouraged to network and share information not only during ELIA events, but with the network via the ELIA website; the Representative Board consists of a maximum of 21 members elected during the General Assembly from and by registered full members of the organisation, ensuring a proportional representation of disciplines and regions. The Representative Board elects the Treasurer; the tenure is for a period of two years. The Executive Board, including the President, comprises a maximum of nine members chosen from the Representative Board; the Executive Office residing in Amsterdam, coordinates daily affairs, project manages the events in cooperation with local partners and handles all membership requests and related inquiries.
The ELIA members are represented by the Representative Board, max. 21 members, elected by the General Assembly. From this Representative Board, an Executive Group of 5-9 members is elected, which monitors the activities carried out by the office and various steering groups; the Executive Group includes the President, Vice-President and Executive Director. Board members are elected for a period of two years. Members of the Board and Executive Group can be re-elected up to a maximum of ten years. ELIA has three types of membership: full and non-European. Full members have the right vote during the General Member's Assembly at the ELIA Biennial. Non-European members have all rights equal except the right to vote. Associate members are institutions that do not fulfill the requirements to be full members and to natural as well as legal persons. ELIA has over 300 members in 47 countries, it represents some 300,000 students in all art disciplines around the world. On a regular bases ELIA offers the following activities and services to its members: Organises three core events and multiple small-scale regional events to address relevant topics and issues within higher arts education across all disciplines, such as digitality in teaching and learning, resilience in arts education and society at large.
Helps the higher arts education sector take the next steps on content issues such as artistic research and art in education Advocates for higher arts education on a European level by participating in the discussion with policymakers and relevant stakeholders in Brussels. Matchmakes and connects its members to facilitate cooperation on national projects. Initiates and supports European funded projects relevant to its members. Offers an online knowledge platform with regular updates on funding opportunities and job adverts, initiatives and news of its members. Publishes conference proceedings, position papers and materials on topics that are important to the sector and its members. Together with its member institutions, ELIA initiates conferences, symposia and research projects, targeting all sectors of the higher arts education community - artists, leaders and students - as well as the wider public. Highlights of these events include: The ELIA Biennial Conference - a world-class event profiling current developments in higher arts education and facilitating dialogue.
The ELIA Academy - an international platform for i
Věra Chytilová was an avant-garde Czech film director and pioneer of Czech cinema. Banned by the Czechoslovak government in the 1960s, she is best known for her Czech New Wave film, Sedmikrásky, her subsequent films screened at international film festivals, including Vlčí bouda, which screened at the 37th Berlin International Film Festival, A Hoof Here, a Hoof There, which screened at the 16th Moscow International Film Festival, The Inheritance or Fuckoffguysgoodday, which screened at the 18th Moscow International Film Festival. For her work, she received the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, Medal of Merit and the Czech Lion award. Chytilová was born in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia on 2 February 1929, she had a strict Catholic upbringing, which would come to influence many of the moral questions presented in her films. While attending college, Chytilová studied philosophy and architecture, but abandoned these fields, she worked as a draftsman, a fashion model and as a photo re-toucher before working as a clapper girl for the Barrandov Film Studios in Prague.
She sought a recommendation from Barrandov Film Studios to study film production, but was denied. Undeterred by the rejection, she would be accepted into the Film and TV School of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague at the age of 28. While attending FAMU, she studied underneath renowned film director Otakar Vavra, before graduating in 1962. Upon graduation from FAMU both of Chytilová's short films had a theoretical release throughout Czechoslovakia. In 1963 Chytilová released her first feature film entitled Something Different. Chytilová is best known for her once controversial film Sedmikrásky –. Daisies is known for its un-sympathetic characters, lack of a continuous narrative and abrupt visual style. Chytilová states that she structured Daisies to “restrict feeling of involvement and lead him to an understanding of the underlying idea or philosophy”; the film was banned within Czechoslovakia upon its initial release in 1966 until 1967 due to its depictions and imagery of wasting food, but in 1966 the film won the Grand Prix at the Bergamo Film Festival in Italy.
Daisies cemented Chytilová's career both internationally. After Daisies the government made it difficult for Chytilová to find work within Czechoslovakia though she was never classified as a'blacklisted' director, her follow-up film Ovoce stromů rajských jíme was her last film before the Soviet Union invasion of 1968. After the Soviet Union invasion it was impossible for Chytilová to find work and she resorted to directing commercials under her husband’s name, Jaroslav Kučera. In 1976, due to the low cinema attendance Chytilová was approached by the government to begin directing films through one of the state run production companies, Short Film Studios. At the same time the United States was assembling a'Year of Women' Film Festival and contacted Chytilová to gain permission to screen Daisies as their opening film. Chytilová informed the festival that the only non-censored prints of the film could be found in Paris and Brussels, she informed the festival that her government would not allow her to attend the festival, nor were they allowing her to direct films.
The festival began to apply international pressure upon the Czechoslovakian government by petitioning on Chytilová’s behalf. In accordance with this international pressure Chytilová wrote a letter directly to President Gustáv Husák detailing her career and her personal beliefs in socialism. Due to the success of the international pressure, Chytilová’s personal appeal to President Husak, Chytilová began production of Hra o jablko; the Apple Game was completed and was screened at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, won the Silver Hugo and the Chicago International Film Festival. After the release of The Apple Game Chytilová was allowed to continue making films, but was continually met with controversy and heavy censorship by the Czechoslovakian government. Věra Chytilová’s last film was released in 2006, she has taught directing at FAMU. Chytilová described herself as a control freak and, “An overheated kettle that you can’t turn down”. Chytilová’s ‘overheated’ attitude made it difficulties for her to gain work within the Soviet Union controlled film industry.
She was known as being critical of the Soviet Union, stating that “My critique is in the context of the moral principles you preach, isn’t it? A critical reflection is necessary”, she would cause havoc and ‘hysterical scenes’ in order to attempt to make films that were loyal to her vision regardless of the heavy censorship, imposed. Chytilová embodied a unique cinematographic language and style that does not rely on any literary or verbal conventions, but rather utilizes various forms of visual manipulations to create meaning within her films. Chytilová used observations of everyday life in accordance with allegories and surreal contexts to create a personalized film style, influenced by the French New Wave, Italian neorealism. Chytilová used a filmic style, similar to cinéma vérité in order to allow the audience to gain an outside perspective of the film, her use of cinéma vérité is best illustrated in her 1966 film Daises in which these techniques create a “philosophical documentary, of diverting the spectator from the involvement, destroying psychology and accentuates the humor”.
Through these manipulations Chytilová created a disjunctive viewing experience for her audience forcing them to question the meaning of her films. Chytilová is cited as a militant feminist filmmaker. Josef Škvorecký states that
Jan Němec was a Czech filmmaker whose most important work dates from the 1960s. Film historian Peter Hames has described him as the "enfant terrible of the Czech New Wave." Němec's career as a filmmaker started in the late 1950s when he attended FAMU, the most prestigious institution for film training in Czechoslovakia. At that time, Czechoslovakia was a communist state subservient to the USSR, artistic and public expression was subject to censorship and government review. However, thanks to the failure of purely propagandist cinema in the early 1950s and the presence of important and powerful people such as Jan Procházka within the Czechoslovak film industry, the 1960s led to an internationally acknowledged creative surge in Czechoslovak film that became known as the Czech New Wave, in which Němec played a part. For graduation, Němec adapted a short story by Arnošt Lustig based on the author's experience of the Holocaust. Němec would return to Lustig's writing to direct the influential film Diamonds of the Night based on the Holocaust.
That film follows the fate of two boys. It is noted for its dramatic subjectivization of the experience of the Holocaust using experimental techniques including flashbacks, simulated hallucinations, an unusual double ending that leaves the viewer in doubt as to the fate of its protagonists, it was his first major success, while it passed the censors' reviews, it helped lay the foundation for the political movement, coming. The film has since been called an aesthetic and technical milestone in the exploration of human experience under extreme conditions, his best known work is A Report on the Guests. Its plot revolves around a group of friends on a picnic who are invited to a bizarre banquet by a charismatic sadist, played by Ivan Vyskočil, who bullies most of them into blind conformity and brutality while those who resist are hunted down; the film received a bad reception from the authorities as Vyskočil in the film had a remarkable likeness to Lenin, though according to Peter Hames this was accidental.
Moreover, the cast consisted of various dissident Czechoslovak intellectuals of the day, including Josef Škvorecký. The film was viewed as being so subversive to the Communist state that Antonín Novotný, the president, was said to "climb the walls" on viewing it and Němec's arrest for subversion was considered. However, before the political fallout from this was able to take effect, he managed to have one more feature approved: Martyrs of Love. In consideration of the previous troubles he had suffered, the film was apolitical, but its surrealist lyrical style did not endear it to the authorities, Němec was forced to work outside the government-approved system, producing the film Mother and Son, which won an award at the Oberhausen Film Festival, his next important feature was a documentary, Oratorio for Prague, of the Soviet-led invasion of Prague in 1968 that ended the liberal Prague Spring. It received standing ovations in New York in the fall of 1968; the film was banned, but Němec's footage would be used by countless international news organizations as stock footage of the invasion.
Philip Kaufman's film adaptation of The Unbearable Lightness of Being used footage from the film. He left Czechoslovakia after 1968, but upon his return he was not allowed to make films, he attempted to leave the country soon after but was not able to do so until 1974. He was given a warning by the government that "... if he came back, they would find some legal excuse to throw him in jail." From 1974 to 1989, he traveled to Germany, the Netherlands and the United States. He stayed in the United States for twelve years. Unable to work in traditional cinema, he was a pioneer in using video cameras to record weddings, including documenting the nuptials of the Swedish royal family. After the fall of communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989, he returned to his native country, where he had made several films, including Code Name Ruby and Late Night Talks with Mother, which won the Golden Leopard at Locarno, he had been a professor at his alma mater, FAMU, since 1996. In 2014, he protested against the president of the Czech Republic Miloš Zeman by returning the medals given to him by the first president of the Czech Republic Václav Havel.
He married costume designer and screenwriter Ester Krumbachová in 1963. In 1970 he married singer Marta Kubišová, he married his third wife Veronica Baumann, a Czech language teacher, in 1984. He married film editor Iva Ruszelakova shortly after. In May 2003, Němec became a father. Nemec died of an illness on 18 March 2016. Diamonds of the Night Pearls of the Deep A Report on the Party and the Guests Martyrs of Love Oratorio for Prague The Flames of Royal Love Code Name: Ruby Late Talks with my Mother Landscape of My Heart Toyen The Ferrari Dino Girl Heart Beat 3D The Wolf from Royal Vineyard Street Facebook Profile Jan Němec on IMDb Czech Film: Jan Nemec's post-1989 films Interview with Němec Jan Němec: Interviews 1964–2014
Theatre of the Czech Republic
Theatre of the Czech Republic has rich tradition in all genres, including drama, opera and dance, puppet theatre, black light theatre etc. The Czech theatre played an important role in the history of theatre since the Middle Ages. In the 19th century, the theatre was an integral part of the Czech National Revival. In the 20th century, many notable theatre makers influenced the European theatre art. Between 1739-1783 the Divadlo v Kotcích, a theatre and opera venue on v Kotcích street in Prague, enjoyed its heyday as the second public opera theatre in Prague; the opera theatre of Franz Anton von Sporck was a notable public theatre in the city at this time. The Estates Theatre was built with the intention of producing German dramas and Italian operas, but works in other languages were staged. Czech productions were first staged in 1785 in order to reach a broader Czech audience but by 1812 they became a regular feature of Sunday and holiday matinees; the somewhat political nature of these performances led to idea of founding a National Theatre after 1848 with the defeat of the revolution and the departure of J.
K. Tyl. Many of the founding Czech dramatists were involved in the Estates Theatre, such as the brothers Thám, J. K. Tyl, Ján Kollár, so on. Before the early 1860s all cultural institutions in Prague, including theatre and opera, was in Austrian hands. Bohemia was a province of the Habsburg Empire, under that regime's absolutist rule most aspects of Czech culture and national life had been discouraged or suppressed. Absolutism was formally abolished by a decree of the Emperor Franz Josef on 20 October 1860, which led to a Czech cultural revival; the Bohemian Diet had acquired a site in Prague on the banks of the Vltava, in 1861 announced a public subscription, which raised a sum of 106,000 gulden. This covered the costs of building a small 800-seat theatre, which would act as a home for production of Czech drama and opera while longer-term plans for a permanent National Theatre could be implemented; the Provisional Theatre opened on 18 November 1862, with a performance of Vítězslav Hálek's tragic drama King Vukašín.
The drama of the First Czechoslovak Republic followed the same stylistic evolution as poetry and prose — expressionism, followed by a return to realistic, civilian theatre. Avantgarde theatre flourished, focusing on removing the barriers between actors and audience, breaking the illusion of the unity of a theatrical work. In the 1930s, Karel Čapek wrote his most politically charged plays in response to the rise of fascist dictators. Václav Havel found employment in Prague's theatre world as a stagehand at Prague's Theatre ABC – Divadlo ABC, at the Theatre On Balustrade – Divadlo Na zábradlí, he was a student of dramatic arts by correspondence at the Theatre Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague. His first own full-length play performed in public, besides various vaudeville collaborations, was The Garden Party. Presented in a series of Theatre of the Absurd, at the Theatre on Balustrade, this play won him international acclaim; the play was soon followed by The Memorandum, one of his best known plays, The Increased Difficulty of Concentration, all at the Theatre on Balustrade.
In 1968, The Memorandum was brought to The Public Theater in New York, which helped to establish Havel's reputation in the United States. The Public Theater continued to produce his plays in the following years. After 1968, Havel's plays were banned from the theatre world in his own country, he was unable to leave Czechoslovakia to see any foreign performances of his works. Alfréd Radok Otomar Krejča Jan Kačer Petr Lébl Jan Antonín Pitínský Jan Nebeský Jiří Chlup Josef Svoboda Jaroslav Malina Jan Tříska David Prachař Karel Roden Miroslav Táborský Jiří Ornest Tomáš Töpfer Daniela Kolářová Marie Málková Iva Janžurová Karel-Romana Dutkovski Národní divadlo Prague State Opera National Marionette Theatre Spejbl and Hurvínek Theater – country's first professional puppet theater Theatre of European regions Theatre Plzeň Mateřinka Summer Shakespeare Holiday International Festival Zero Point Alfréd Radok Awards Thalia Awards Academy of Performing Arts in Prague Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts Czech literature
Valentin Perko, Slovenian cinematographer and director of photography, was born April 8, 1950, Ljubljana. He is the son of the painter Lojze Perko, brother of painter Tomaž Perko and psychologist Andrej Perko. Perko obtained a degree in photography in 1977 at FAMU in Prague, Czech Republic, his career took off as a cinematographer of documentary and commercial films, while being active in television production. His works include many short and feature films with various directors. Perko's cinematographical expressive style is evident in the following films: Dih, Maja in vesoljček, Do konca in naprej, Morana, ekspres and television film Pet majskih dni, he is the cinmeatographer of awarded experimental film Valcer za Tavžentarjeva dva, followed by Učna leta izumitelja Polža, Nobeno sonce, Sonce za dva, Cpprnica Zofka, Napisan list, Director of Photography in Petelinji zajtrk. Television films include Vaški učitelj, Steber and 5 episodes TV series Novi svet. Since 2009 Valentin Perko has worked as a senior lecturer at AGRFT and is Dean of Camera Department.
1980, Special award Metoda Badjura, Celje 1988, Award Metoda Badjura with degree, Celje 1991, Golden award Metoda Badjura, Celje 1993, silver award Metoda Badjura, Portorož 1997, Award for cinematography for Herzog and Ekspres, Portorož 1997, Kodak award for cinematography, Portorož 2007, Jože Babič award, RTV Slovenia Enciklopedija Slovenije.. Book 16. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. "Katedra za kamero". AGRFT. Pridobljeno dne 17.3.2015. "sodelavci visokošolski učitelji in sodelavci". 17.3.2015. AGRFT. IMDB Festival evropskega in mediteranskega filma Praška filmska škola