SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Acadians

The Acadians are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, many of whom are descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region. The colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces, as well as part of Quebec, present-day Maine to the Kennebec River. Acadia was a distinctly separate colony of New France, it was administratively separate from the French colony of Canada. As a result, the Acadians and Québécois developed two distinct cultures; the settlers whose descendants became Acadians came from many areas in France, but northern and central regions such as Île-de-France, Brittany and Aquitaine. During the French and Indian War, British colonial officers suspected that Acadians were aligned with France, after finding some Acadians fighting alongside French troops at Fort Beauséjour. Though most Acadians remained neutral during the French and Indian War, the British, together with New England legislators and militia, carried out the Great Expulsion of the Acadians during the 1755–1764 period.

They deported 11,500 Acadians from the maritime region. One-third perished from disease and drowning; the result was what one historian described as an ethnic cleansing of the Acadians from Maritime Canada. Most Acadians were deported to various British American colonies, where many were forced into servitude or marginal lifestyles; some Acadians were deported to England, to the Caribbean, some were deported to France. After being expelled to France, many Acadians were recruited by the Spanish government to migrate to present-day Louisiana, under Spanish rule since the British victory in the Seven Years War, their descendants developed what became known as Cajun culture. In time, some Acadians returned to the Maritime provinces of Canada to New Brunswick; the British prohibited them from resettling their villages in what became Nova Scotia. Before the US Revolutionary War, the Crown settled Protestant European immigrants and New England Planters in former Acadian communities and farmland. After the war, it made land grants in Nova Scotia to Loyalists.

British policy was to establish a majority culture of Protestant religions, to assimilate Acadians with the local populations where they resettled. Acadians speak. Many of those in the Moncton area speak English; the Louisiana Cajun descendants speak. Many speak Cajun French, a close relative of Acadian French from Canada, but influenced by Spanish and the West African languages of Louisiana and the peoples they mixed with. During the early 1600s, about sixty French families were established in Acadia, they developed friendly relations with the peoples of the Wabanaki Confederacy, learning their hunting and fishing techniques developed for local conditions. The Acadians lived in the coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy. Living in a contested borderland region between French Canada and the British territories on New England and the coast, the Acadians became entangled in the conflict between the powers, their competition in Europe played out in North America as well. Over a period of seventy-four years, six wars took place in Acadia and Nova Scotia, in which the Confederacy and some Acadians fought to keep the British from taking over the region.

While France lost political control of Acadia in 1713, the Mí'kmaq did not concede land to the British. Along with some Acadians, the Mi'kmaq from time to time used military force to resist the British; that was evident in the early 1720s during Dummer's War, but hostilities were brought to a close by a treaty signed in 1726. The British had conquered Acadia in 1710. Over the next 45 years, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. Many were influenced by Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre, who from his arrival in 1738 until his capture in 1755, preached against the'English devils'. Acadians took part in various militia operations against the British and maintained vital supply lines to the French Fortress of Louisbourg and Fort Beausejour. During the French and Indian War, the British sought to neutralize any military threat posed by the Acadians and to interrupt the vital supply lines which they provided to Louisbourg by deporting Acadians from Acadia; the British founded the town of Halifax and fortified it in 1749 in order to establish a base against the French.

The Mi'kmaq resisted the increased number of British settlements by making numerous raids on Halifax, Dartmouth and Lunenburg. During the French and Indian War, the Mi'kmaq assisted the Acadians in resisting the British during the Expulsion of the Acadians. Many Acadians might have signed an unconditional oath to the British monarchy had the circumstances been better, while other Acadians would not sign because they were anti-British; the French and British competition had a long history, including opposing Christian established religions: Catholic in France and its colonies, Protestant in England. Acadians had numerous reasons against signing an oath of loyalty

Emma Bonney

Emma Bonney is an English world champion player of English billiards, snooker player. She has won the women's world billiards title a record thirteen times. Bonney was born on 13 July 1976 in Portsmouth. Bonney has won the women's world billiards title a record thirteen times. Bonney won the first of her world billiards championship titles in 2000, having been runner-up in 1998. On 8 April 2010, she won her fifth World Ladies Billiards title at the Hall Green Stadium, beating Chitra Magimairaj of India 269–220 in the final. Bonney won her 13th world billiards championship, sixth consecutive victory, in 2018; the 2019 World Women's Billiards Championship was held in Australia, Bonney did not participate. Bonney has been the runner-up in the World Women's Snooker Championship three times, she lost the final of the 2006 championship to Reanne Evans 3-5. In 2011 she again to Evans, 1-5. In 2015 Bonney lost 2-6 to Ng On Yee 6–2. Bonney won two women's ranking tournaments in the South Coast Classic and the British Open.

She won her third ranking tournament in 2012, the Southern Women's Classic championship, using a cue that she had bought and had only used for five hours of practice before the competition. She was runner-up to Evans in the 2008 European Snooker Championships, her highest ranking in women's snooker was second. Billiards Snooker World Ladies Billiards Champions World Billiards Player Profile – Emma Bonney Women's World Snooker

Pronator drift

In medicine, pronator drift refers to a pathologic sign seen during a neurological examination. Jean Alexandre Barré is credited with having first described it. A positive result indicates spasticity; this sign can appear due to an upper motor neuron lesion or various other conditions which include spasticity as a symptom. Assessing for pronator drift helps to detect mild upper limb weakness in a patient who's awake and able to follow directions. Ask the patient to close the eyes to stretch out both arms in the appropriate position: extend the arms 90 degrees or 45 degrees; the palms should be facing up. The patient should maintain this position for 20 to 30 seconds. Observe both arms. If the motor pathway is intact, the arms should remain in this position equally. Patients with a slight weakness in one arm won't be able to keep the affected arm raised, the palm may begin to pronate. Pronator drift indicates abnormal function of the corticospinal tract in the contralateral hemisphere. In some patients, the arm may remain supinated but drop lower than the unaffected arm, the fingers and elbow might flex.

The patient is asked to hold both arms extended at shoulder level in front of them, with the palms upwards, hold the position. If they are unable to maintain the position the result is positive. Closing the eyes accentuates the effect, because the brain is deprived of visual information about the position of the body and must rely on proprioception. Tapping on the palm of the outstretched hands can accentuate the effect; this is a test of upper motor neuron disease. If a forearm pronates, with or without downward motion the person is said to have pronator drift on that side reflecting a contralateral pyramidal tract lesion. In the presence of an upper motor neuron lesion, the supinator muscles in the upper limb are weaker than the pronator muscles, as a result, the arm drifts downward and the palm turns toward the floor. A lesion in the ipsilateral cerebellum or ipsilateral dorsal column produces a drift upward, along with slow pronation of the wrist and elbow. Picture of pronator drift test position - pediatricneurology.com