Acanthocephala is a phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines, which it uses to pierce and hold the gut wall of its host. Acanthocephalans have complex life cycles, involving at least two hosts, which may include invertebrates, amphibians and mammals. About 1420 species have been described; the Acanthocephala were thought to be a discrete phylum. Recent genome analysis has shown that they are descended from, should be considered as modified rotifers; this unified taxon is known as Syndermata. The earliest recognisable description of Acanthocephala – a worm with a proboscis armed with hooks – was made by Italian author Francesco Redi. In 1771, Joseph Koelreuter proposed the name Acanthocephala. Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller independently called them Echinorhynchus in 1776. Karl Rudolphi in 1809 formally named them Acanthocephala. Acanthocephalans are adapted to a parasitic mode of life, have lost many organs and structures through evolutionary processes.
This makes determining relationships with other higher taxa through morphological comparison problematic. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S ribosomal gene has revealed that the Acanthocephala are most related to the rotifers, they are closer to the two rotifer classes Bdelloidea and Monogononta than to the other class, producing the names and relationships shown in the cladogram below. The three rotifer classes and the Acanthocephala make up a clade called Syndermata; this clade is placed in the Platyzoa. The phylum is divided into four classes – Palaeacanthocephala, Archiacanthocephala, Polyacanthocephala and Eoacanthocephala; the monophyletic Archiacanthocephala are the sister taxon of a clade comprising Eoacanthocephala and the monophyletic Palaeacanthocephala. A study of the gene order in the mitochondria suggests that Seisonidea and Acanthocephala are sister clades and that the Bdelloidea are the sister clade to this group. There are several morphological characteristics that distinguish acanthocephalans from other phyla of parasitic worms.
Acanthocephalans lack a mouth or alimentary canal. This is a feature they share with the cestoda, although the two groups are not related. Adult stages live in the intestines of their host and uptake nutrients which have been digested by the host, through their body surface; the most notable feature of the acanthocephala is the presence of an anterior, protrudible proboscis, covered with spiny hooks. The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged in horizontal rows, it is by means of these hooks that the animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host; the hooks may be of two or three shapes longer, more slender hooks are arranged along the length of the proboscis, with several rows of more sturdy, shorter nasal hooks around the base of the proboscis. The proboscis is used to pierce the gut wall of the final host, hold the parasite fast while it completes its life cycle. Like the body, the proboscis is hollow, its cavity is separated from the body cavity by a septum or proboscis sheath.
Traversing the cavity of the proboscis are muscle-strands inserted into the tip of the proboscis at one end and into the septum at the other. Their contraction causes the proboscis to be invaginated into its cavity; the whole proboscis apparatus can be, at least withdrawn into the body cavity, this is effected by two retractor muscles which run from the posterior aspect of the septum to the body wall. Some of the acanthocephalans can insert their proboscis in the intestine of the host and open the way to the abdominal cavity; the size of these animals varies some are measured to be a few millimetres in length to Gigantorhynchus gigas, which measures from 10 to 65 centimetres. The body surface of the acanthocephala is peculiar. Externally, the skin has a thin tegument covering the epidermis, which consists of a syncytium with no cell walls; the syncytium is traversed by a series of branching tubules containing fluid and is controlled by a few wandering, amoeboid nuclei. Inside the syncytium is an irregular layer of circular muscle fibres, within this again some rather scattered longitudinal fibres.
In their micro-structure the muscular fibres resemble those of nematodes. Except for the absence of the longitudinal fibres the skin of the proboscis resembles that of the body, but the fluid-containing tubules of the proboscis are shut off from those of the body; the canals of the proboscis open into a circular vessel. From the circular canal two sac-like projections called the lemnisci run into the cavity of the body, alongside the proboscis cavity; each consists of a prolongation of the syncytial material of the proboscis skin, penetrated by canals and sheathed with a muscular coat. They seem to act as reservoirs into which the fluid, used to keep the proboscis "erect" can withdraw when it is retracted, from which the fluid can be driven out when it is wished to expand the proboscis; the central ganglion of the nervous system lies behind septum. It innervates the projects two stout trunks posteriorly which supply the body; each of these trunks is surrounded by muscles, this nerve-muscle complex is called a retinaculum.
In the male at least there is a genital ganglion. Some scattered papillae may be sense-organs; the Acanthocephala are dioecious. There is a structure called the geni
The Romania national football team represents the nation of Romania in international association football. It is fielded by the Romanian Football Federation and competes as a member of Union of European Football Associations, which encompasses the countries of Europe; the team played its first official international match on 8 June 1922 against Yugoslavia. Since its first competitive match, 802 players have made at least one international appearance for the team. Of them, 89 have served as captain of the national team; this list contains football players who have served as captain of the Romanian national team and is listed according to their number of matches captained. Appearances and matches captained are composed of FIFA World Cup, UEFA European Football Championship, each competition's required qualification matches, as well as numerous international friendly tournaments and matches. Players are listed by number of matches captained. If there's an equal number of matches captained the player who captained the national team first is listed first.
Statistics correct as of 8 October 2016
Monkey Grip is a 1982 Australian drama film directed by Ken Cameron. It is based on the novel titled Monkey Grip, by Helen Garner, it was screened in the 1982 Cannes Film Festival. The film was produced by stars Noni Hazelhurst and Colin Friels. Nora, a single-mother in her thirties living in Melbourne is engaged in an on-again off-again relationship with the heroin addict Javo, who can never quite decide whether he wants his freedom, or romantic commitment; the further their relationship progresses, the harder they find it to let go. Noni Hazlehurst as Nora Colin Friels as Javo Alice Garner as Gracie Harold Hopkins as Willie Candy Raymond as Lillian Michael Caton as Clive Tim Burns as Martin Christina Amphlett as Angela Don Miller-Robinson as Gerald Lisa Peers as Rita Cathy Downes as Eve Justin Ridley as Roaster Pearl Christie as Juliet Vera Plevnik as Jessie Jamie Fonti as Ramondo Ken Cameron tried to get up a film version of Helen Garner's novel in early 1979 but could not raise the budget of $553,000.
Shooting was postponed. However, by costs had risen so much the film had to be made for $1 million; the film was shot in early 1981. The story is set in Melbourne but only one week of filming took place there, with Sydney standing in for the location; the Fitzroy Pool was recreated in Sydney's Ryde pool. The iconic Deep Water Aqua Profonda sign, at the Fitzroy public swimming pool, was economically reused as the album cover in the film. Monkey Grip grossed $451,000 at the box office in Australia, equivalent to $1,312,410 in 2009 dollars; however it struggled to find distribution overseas. The film received mixed reviews. Helen Garner, who wrote the novel upon which the film was based, had a problem with the casting of Colin Friels as a heroin addict, she stated: "I just can't believe they cast Colin Friels as the junkie. That was such a terrible mistake, he was so healthy, a great big bouncing muscly surfing guy". Monkey Grip on IMDb Monkey Grip at Oz Movies
Syria Direct or Syria:direct, founded in 2013, is an independent news organization based in Amman, that provides news coverage on Syria's war and politics, trains journalists. They have been funded by an American organization, the Global Peace and Development Charitable Trust, as well as by the US State Department and several embassies in Amman. Syria Direct is published in Arabic; the articles are for readers who are knowledgeable about Syria but want more detailed information. Syria Direct employs a small team of Syrian and international reporters who talk to Syrian activists and civilians on both sides of the conflict every day by Skype. Syrian journalists write the stories in Arabic; the stories are translated to English, fact-checked and edited translated back to Arabic. Their website receives about 50,000 page views every month, their Facebook page has 77,000 followers. Thousands of people follow their Twitter account. Syria Direct has a training program for journalists from Syria. In the past, the training program has received funding from the US Embassy Amman's Public Affairs Section, the Syria-Iraq office of the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung organization, the Canadian Embassy in Amman.
Every six months they train twelve new Syrian journalists. The trainees' stories have been published in USA Today, CNN.com, Radio Free Europe, international new organizations like Le Monde and The Toronto Globe and Mail. Syria Direct had, as of September 2016, trained 70 journalists, some of whom have since started their own news organizations. By April 2018, this number had risen to 150 journalists from 10 cohorts, made possible by a grant from the US State Department. Syria Direct website Parker-Magyar, Katherine. "Remote Control: Journalistic Objectivity from Abroad". Www.cpcjmedia2015.com
Tarabya was king of Ava for about seven months in 1400. He was the heir apparent from 1385 to 1400 during his father King Swa Saw Ke's reign, he was a senior commander in Ava's first three campaigns against Hanthawaddy Pegu in the Forty Years' War. He was assassinated seven months into his rule by Gov. Thihapate of Tagaung; the court executed the usurper, gave the throne to Tarabya's half-brother Min Swe. Tarabya is remembered as the Mintara nat spirit in the Burmese official pantheon of nats; the future king was born in Ava on 22 December 1368 to King Swa Saw Ke of Ava and Queen Shin Saw Gyi. Because he was born on the same day as the birth of a white elephant, considered propitious symbol of Burmese monarchs, he was given the title "Hsinbyushin"; the name was retained. His nickname was Min Na-Kye, he had four full siblings. Swa Saw Ke groomed his eldest surviving son, but Tarabya saw his two younger half-siblings, Min Swe and Theiddat who were Swa's sons by a concubine as rivals. Because Tarabya kept picking on his half-siblings, the king had to send his two younger sons away from the Ava Palace in 1381/82.
Nonetheless, c. April 1385, the king appointed Hsinbyushin his heir-apparent, married him to Min Hla Myat, the only daughter of the powerful Gov. Thilawa of Yamethin; the only extant record of his years as the heir-apparent concerns his military service in the first part of Forty Years' War. The war was Swa's attempt to take over a divided Mon-speaking kingdom in Lower Burma, its young king Razadarit controlled only the province, was facing two rebellions in Martaban and in the Irrawaddy delta. Tarabya was the overall commander of the 1385 -- 86 campaign; the Ava forces missed their opportunity to finish off Razadarit as Min Swe, the commander of the Second Army, disobeyed Tarabya's order. Tarabya was second-in-command in the next Hanthawaddy campaigns, his army did not achieve any meaning battlefield successes in either of those campaigns. The war entered a hiatus in early 1391 as the two sides agreed to a truce. In April 1400, King Swa died, Tarabya succeeded, but Tarabya's reign was short. According to the chronicles, he became insane five months into his reign after a hunting trip to Aung Pinle.
The king was convinced that the beautiful fairy he made love to in the forest was a representation of Angel Thuyathadi. The king's behavior became erratic, the court now entertained the murmurs of replacing him. Pretenders to the throne began circling. One such pretender, Gov. Yazathingyan of Sagaing had amassed a force to take over the Ava throne before dying in a freak accident as he disembarked from his war boat at the Ava harbor; the king, oblivious to the surroundings, was assassinated by his one-time tutor Gov. Thihapate of Tagaung. Thihapate, known by his given name Nga Nauk Hsan, proclaimed himself king, but the court led by Chief Minister Min Yaza of Wun Zin did not accept the usurper, executed him. The court gave the throne to Min Swe, who ascended the throne on 25 November 1400; because of his violent death, Tarabya entered the official pantheon of nats as the Mintara nat. He is portrayed sitting on a throne, wearing his royal garments with a fan in his right hand and his left hand resting on his knee.
Tarabya had two children both by his chief queen Min Hla Myat. His elder child, Min Nyo became king of Ava from 1425 to 1426, his daughter Min Hla Htut was the first wife of Prince Thihathu of Ava, the chief consort of Gov. Saw Shwe Khet of Prome. Tarabya was descended from Pagan and Sagaing royal lines. Hla Thamein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Archived from the original on 2006-06-24. Retrieved 2010-08-28. Harvey, G. E.. History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. Htin Aung, Maung. A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. Kala, U. Maha Yazawin. 1–3. Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. Maha Sithu. Myint Swe. Yazawin Thit. 1–3. Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. Pan Hla, Nai. Razadarit Ayedawbon. Yangon: Armanthit Sarpay. Royal Historians of Burma. U Hla Tin. Zatadawbon Yazawin. Historical Research Directorate of the Union of Burma. Royal Historical Commission of Burma. Hmannan Yazawin. 1–3. Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. Sandalinka, Shin. Mani Yadanabon.
Yangon: Seit-Ku Cho Cho. Than Tun. "History of Burma: A. D. 1300–1400". Journal of Burma Research Society. XLII
The British Georgian Chamber of Commerce was founded in London by Lord Cromwell and Mako Abashidze in March 2007, as a non-political trade body to facilitate business growth and contacts at senior levels between Britain and Georgia. Both the Georgian Ambassador to the United Kingdom and the British Ambassador to Georgia are honorary members of the organization's advisory council. BGCC offers two types of membership: "founding members". Founding members of the BGCC include Abashidze as directors; as a bilateral company, BGCC carries out activity in the territories of the Georgia. Its head office is located in London; the British Georgian Chamber of Commerce was founded in London by Lord Cromwell and Mako Abashidze in March 2007, as a non-political trade body, to facilitate business growth and contacts at senior levels between Britain and Georgia. The inaugural event of the Chamber was held in London on 27 June 2007. Ambassadors Denis Keef and Gela Charkviani were present along with Giorgi Badridze, the Deputy Head of Mission, outgoing Ambassador to the UK, as well as founding and business members, companies which expressed their support and interest in the formation and development of BGCC's activities.
The opening event in Georgia was held in Tbilisi on 10 September 2007. The main objectives of BGCC is to advise companies in the UK and Georgia on the business and financial markets each respective country, in order to establish contacts and facilitate business between each country, it hopes to achieve this goal through gathering relevant information efficiently and and by establishing and nurturing contacts. The British Georgian Chamber of Commerce official site