Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants, Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has called the Athens of the Middle Ages. A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, from 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. The Historic Centre of Florence attracts 13 million tourists each year and it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture, the city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florences artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, in 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy.
Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe, the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still is, accepted as the Italian language. Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War and they similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European historys most important noble families, Lorenzo de Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century, Leo X, catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France.
Marie de Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII, the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de Medici in 1737. The Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole and it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century, Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital. The population began to again and commerce prospered
Benvenuto Cellini was an Italian goldsmith, draftsman, soldier and artist who wrote a famous autobiography and poetry. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism, Benvenuto Cellini was born in Florence, in present-day Italy. His parents were Giovanni Cellini and Maria Lisabetta Granacci and they were married for eighteen years before the birth of their first child. Benvenuto was the child of the family. At the age of sixteen, Benvenuto had already attracted attention in Florence by taking part in an affray with youthful companions and he was banished for six months and lived in Siena, where he worked for a goldsmith named Fracastoro. From Siena he moved to Bologna, where he became an accomplished flute player. After a visit to Pisa and two periods of living in Florence, he moved to Rome, at the age of nineteen. His first works in Rome were a silver casket, silver candlesticks, and a vase for the bishop of Salamanca, which won him the approval of Pope Clement VII. Another celebrated work from Rome is the medallion of Leda and the Swan executed for the Gonfaloniere Gabbriello Cesarino.
He took up the flute again, and was appointed one of the court musicians. In the attack on Rome by Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, according to his own accounts, he himself shot and injured Philibert of Châlon, prince of Orange. His bravery led to a reconciliation with the Florentine magistrates, from Florence he went to the court of the duke of Mantua, and back to Florence. On returning to Rome, he was employed in the working of jewellery and in the execution of dies for private medals, in 1529 his brother Cecchino killed a Corporal of the Roman Watch and in turn was wounded by an arquebusier, dying of his wound. Soon afterward Benvenuto killed his brothers killer – an act of blood revenge, Cellini fled to Naples to shelter from the consequences of an affray with a notary, Ser Benedetto, whom he had wounded. Through the influence of cardinals, Cellini obtained a pardon. He found favor with the new pope, Paul III, notwithstanding a fresh homicide during the three days after the death of Pope Clement VII in September 1534.
The fourth victim was a goldsmith, Pompeo of Milan. The plots of Pier Luigi Farnese led to Cellinis retreat from Rome to Florence and Venice, at the age of 37, upon returning from a visit to the French court, he was imprisoned on a charge of having embezzled the gems of the popes tiara during the war
Accademia delle Arti del Disegno
The Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, or Academy of the Arts of Drawing, is an academy of artists in Florence, Italy. The Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno, or academy and company of the arts of drawing, was founded on 13 January 1563 by Cosimo I de Medici and it was called the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno. Artists including Michelangelo Buonarroti, Lazzaro Donati, Francesco da Sangallo, Agnolo Bronzino, Benvenuto Cellini, Giorgio Vasari, Bartolomeo Ammannati, most members of the Accademia were male, Artemisia Gentileschi was the first woman to be admitted. Its declared purposes are the promotion and diffusion of the arts, and it organises conferences, book presentations and exhibitions, and elects noted artists from all over the world to honorary membership. The first Accademia delle Arti del Disegno was founded by Cosimo I de Medici on 13 January 1563 and it was called the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno. At first, the Academy met in the cloisters of the Santissima Annunziata, in 1784 Pietro Leopoldo, Grand Duke of Tuscany, combined all the schools of drawing in Florence into one institution, the new Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze, or academy of fine arts.
The Accademia delle Arti del Disegno was thus suppressed and transformed in the collegio dei professori dellAccademia and painting became separate classes under a new statute of 1953. Since 1971 the Accademia has occupied Palazzo dellArte dei Beccai, in via Orsanmichele, the current statute of the organisation was published by decree of the President of the Republic of Italy, and is dated 17 May 1978. Since the statute of 1978 the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno has been divided into five classes, sculpture, history of art, there are four classes of membership, ordinary and honorary. The Accademia awards the title of Accademico dOnore, or honorary member, to those it considers notable in culture and it lists 138 such honorary members. Past Accademici dOnore include Giulio Andreotti, Alberto Ronchey, the Nobel Prize winner Rita Levi-Montalcini, notizie intorno alla Regia Accademia delle Arti del Disegno di Firenze. LAccademia di Belle Arti di Firenze, lAccademia medicea del Disegno a Firenze nel Cinquecento.
Cenni storici sullAccademia delle Arti del Disegno), paola Barocchi, I Fondatori dellAccademia del Disegno. Gli statuti dellAccademia delle Arti del Disegno, the Florentine Academy and the Early Modern State. Enrico Sartoni, Da Michelangelo alla Contemporaneità, storia di un primato mondiale 450 anni dellAccademia delle Arti del Disegno
Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia
The Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia is a public tertiary academy of art in Venice, Italy. The Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia was founded on 24 September 1750, the first director was Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, Gianbattista Tiepolo became the first president after his return from Würzburg. The academy was at first housed in a room on the floor of the Fonteghetto della Farina. The space was insufficient, and students and teachers had to contend with the noise and dust of the market, antonio Canova studied at the academy in the 1770s. In 1807, the academy was re-founded by Napoleonic decree
Giambologna — born Jean Boulogne — was a Flemish sculptor based in Italy, celebrated for his marble and bronze statuary in a late Renaissance or Mannerist style. Giambologna was born in Douai, Flanders, in 1529, after youthful studies in Antwerp with the architect-sculptor Jacques du Broeucq, he moved to Italy in 1550, and studied in Rome. Giambologna made detailed study of the sculpture of classical antiquity and he was much influenced by Michelangelo, but developed his own Mannerist style, with perhaps less emphasis on emotion and more emphasis on refined surfaces, cool elegance and beauty. Pope Pius IV gave Giambologna his first major commission, the colossal bronze Neptune, Giambologna spent his most productive years in Florence, where he had settled in 1553. He was interred in a chapel he designed himself in the Santissima Annunziata, Giambologna became well known for a fine sense of action and movement, and a refined, differentiated surface finish. Among his most famous works are the Mercury, poised on one foot, the god raises one arm to point heavenwards, in a gesture borrowed from the repertory of classical rhetoric that is characteristic of Giambolognas maniera.
His other most famous work is the Rape of the Sabine Women a marble sculpture which is featured prominently in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florences Piazza della Signoria and this impressive sculpture which includes three full figures was carved from a single piece of marble. Giambologna carved it without a subject in mind, and the name Rape of the Sabine Women was given after it was in place in the Loggia, the sculpture was produced for Francesco Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Another of his marbles, Hercules Slaying a Centaur was placed in the Loggia dei Lanzi in 1599 and he created allegories strongly promoting Medicean political propaganda, such as Florence defeating Pisa and, less overtly, Samson Slaying a Philistine, for Francesco de Medici. The equestrian statue of Cosimo I de Medici in Florence, was completed by his studio assistant Pietro Tacca. Giambologna provided as well as sculptures for garden grottos and fountains in the Boboli Gardens of Florence and at Pratolino. For the grotto of the Villa Medicea of Castello he sculpted a series of studies of animals, from life.
Small bronze reductions of many of his sculptures were prized by connoisseurs at the time and ever since, italian Art, Giunti Gruppo Editoriale,2000, ISBN 88-09-01771-4. Giambologna, 1529-1608, sculptor to the Medici, an exhibition organised by the Arts Council of Great Britain etc. catalogue edited by Charles Avery, Arts Council of Great Britain,1978, ISBN 0-7287-0180-4. Biography with a portrait on kfki. hu Giambologna on mega. it Model of a River God, archived from the original on 2009-07-09. Archived from the original on 2011-03-12, a Tour of the location of Giambolognas major works in Florence
The Accademia Albertina delle Belle Arti is an institution of higher education in Turin, Italy. Its precursor dated to the first half of the 17th century, in 1678 the academy was formally founded as the Academy of Painters and Architects by Marie Jeanne of Savoy. Turin became a centre of visual arts during the mid-20th century. The academy is home to a gallery, which was founded to serve in the training of the academys students, the Pinacoteca has been open to the public since 1996
David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504 by Michelangelo. It is a 5. 17-metre marble statue of a male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David, a subject in the art of Florence. The eyes of David, with a glare, were turned towards Rome. The statue was moved to the Galleria dellAccademia, Florence, in 1873, the history of the statue begins before Michelangelos work on it from 1501 to 1504. In 1410 Donatello made the first of the statues, a figure of Joshua in terracotta, a figure of Hercules, in terracotta, was commissioned from the Florentine sculptor Agostino di Duccio in 1463 and was made perhaps under Donatellos direction. Eager to continue their project, in 1464, the Operai contracted Agostino to create a sculpture of David, a block of marble was provided from a quarry in Carrara, a town in the Apuan Alps in northern Tuscany. Agostino only got as far as beginning to shape the legs and his association with the project ceased, for reasons unknown, with the death of Donatello in 1466, and ten years Antonio Rossellino was commissioned to take up where Agostino had left off.
Rossellinos contract was terminated soon thereafter, and the block of marble remained neglected for 25 years, all the while exposed to the elements in the yard of the cathedral workshop. This was of concern to the Opera authorities, as such a large piece of marble not only was costly but represented a large amount of labour. In 1500, an inventory of the cathedral workshops described the piece as a figure of marble called David, badly blocked out. A year later, documents showed that the Operai were determined to find an artist who could take this piece of marble. They ordered the block of stone, which they called The Giant, raised on its feet so that an experienced in this kind of work might examine it. Though Leonardo da Vinci and others were consulted, it was Michelangelo, only 26 years old, on 16 August 1501, Michelangelo was given the official contract to undertake this challenging new task. He began carving the statue early in the morning on 13 September and he would work on the massive statue for more than two years.
They convened a committee of 30 Florentine citizens that comprised many artists, including Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli, while nine different locations for the statue were discussed, the majority of members seem to have been closely split between two sites. Another opinion, supported by Botticelli, was that the sculpture should be situated on or near the cathedral. In June 1504, David was installed next to the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, replacing Donatellos bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes and it took four days to move the statue the half mile from Michelangelos workshop into the Piazza della Signoria
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, Leopold was a moderate proponent of enlightened absolutism. In 1753, he was engaged to Maria Beatrice dEste, heiress to the Duchy of Modena, the marriage never materialised, Maria Beatrice instead married Leopolds brother, Archduke Ferdinand. On the death of his brother, Charles, in 1761, it was decided that he should succeed to his fathers grand duchy of Tuscany. This settlement was the condition of his marriage on 5 August 1764 with Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain, daughter of Charles III of Spain, on the death of his father, Francis I, he succeeded to the grand duchy. Leopold was famous in Florence for his numerous extra-marital affairs, among his lovers was Countess Cowper, wife of the 3rd Earl Cowper, who in compensation for being cuckolded was given honours by Leopolds brother, Joseph II.
For five years, he exercised little more than nominal authority, in 1770, he made a journey to Vienna to secure the removal of this vexatious guardianship and returned to Florence with a free hand. During the twenty years which elapsed between his return to Florence and the death of his eldest brother Joseph II in 1790, he was employed in reforming the administration of his small state. As he had no army to maintain, and as he suppressed the small naval force kept up by the Medici, Leopold was never popular with his Italian subjects. His disposition was cold and retiring, but his steady and intelligent administration, which advanced step by step, brought the grand duchy to a high level of material prosperity. His ecclesiastical policy, which disturbed the deeply rooted convictions of his people and he was unable to secularize the property of the religious houses or to put the clergy entirely under the control of the lay power. However, his abolition of capital punishment was the first permanent abolition in modern times, Leopolds concept of this was based on respect for the political rights of citizens and on a harmony of power between the executive and the legislative.
However, Leopold developed and supported social and economic reforms. Smallpox inoculation was made available, and an early institution for the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents was founded. Leopold introduced reforms to the system of neglect and inhumane treatment of those deemed mentally ill. On 23 January 1774, the legge sui pazzi was established, a few years Leopold undertook the project of building a new hospital, the Bonifacio Hospital. He used his skill at choosing collaborators to put a young physician, Vincenzo Chiarugi and he and Joseph II were tenderly attached to one another and met frequently both before and after the death of their mother. The portrait by Pompeo Batoni in which appear together shows that they bore a strong personal resemblance to one another
Artemisia Gentileschi was an Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation following that of Caravaggio. In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the community or patrons. She painted many pictures of strong and suffering women from myth and her best-known work is Judith Slaying Holofernes, which shows the decapitation of Holofernes, a scene of horrific struggle and blood-letting. That she was a painting in the seventeenth century and that she was raped and participated in the prosecution of the rapist long overshadowed her achievements as an artist. For many years she was regarded as a curiosity, today she is regarded as one of the most progressive and expressive painters of her generation. Artemisia was introduced to painting in her fathers workshop, showing much more talent than her brothers and she learned drawing, how to mix color, and how to paint. Since her fathers style took inspiration from Caravaggio during that period and her approach to subject matter was different from her fathers, however, as her paintings are highly naturalistic, where Orazios are idealized.
At the same time, Artemisia had to resist the traditional attitude and psychological submission to this brainwashing, by doing so, she gained great respect and recognition for her work. The first work of the young seventeen-year-old Artemisia was the Susanna e i Vecchioni, at the time some, influenced by the prevailing misconceptions, suspected that she was helped by her father. The painting shows how Artemisia assimilated the realism of Caravaggio without being indifferent to the language of the Bologna school and it is one of the few paintings on the theme of Susanna showing the sexual accosting by the two Elders as a traumatic event. During this tutelage, Tassi raped Artemisia, another man, Cosimo Quorlis, was involved. After the rape, Artemisia continued to have relations with Tassi, with the expectation that they were going to be married and with the hope to restore her dignity. Tassi reneged on his promise to marry Artemisia, nine months after the rape, when he learnt that Artemisia and Tassi were not going to be married, Orazio pressed charges against Tassi.
Orazio claimed that Tassi stole a painting of Judith from the Gentileschi household, the major issue of this trial was the fact that Tassi had taken Artemisias virginity. If Artemisia had not been a virgin before Tassi raped her, during the ensuing seven-month trial, it was discovered that Tassi had planned to murder his wife, had engaged in adultery with his sister-in-law, and planned to steal some of Orazio’s paintings. During the trial, Artemisia was subjected to a gynecological examination, at the end of the trial Tassi was sentenced to imprisonment for one year, although he never served the time. The trial influenced the feminist view of Artemisia Gentileschi during the twentieth century. Artemisia was surrounded mainly by the presence of males since the loss of her mother at age 12, when Artemisia was 17, Orazio rented the upstairs apartment of their home to a female tenant, Tuzia
Agnolo di Cosimo, usually known as Bronzino, or Agnolo Bronzino, was a Florentine Mannerist painter. His sobriquet, Bronzino, in all probability refers to his dark skin. He lived all his life in Florence, and from his late 30s was kept busy as the painter of Cosimo I de Medici. He was mainly a portraitist but painted religious subjects, and a few allegorical subjects. Many portraits of the Medicis exist in several versions with varying degrees of participation by Bronzino himself and they have often been found cold and artificial, and his reputation suffered from the general critical disfavour attached to Mannerism in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Recent decades have been appreciative of his art. Bronzino was born in Florence, the son of a butcher, according to his contemporary Vasari, Bronzino was a pupil first of Raffaellino del Garbo, and of Pontormo, to whom he was apprenticed at 14. Pontormo is thought to have introduced a portrait of Bronzino as a child one of his series on Joseph in Egypt now in the National Gallery.
Pontormo exercised a dominant influence on Bronzinos developing style, and the two were to remain collaborators for most of the formers life, an early example of Bronzinos hand has often been detected in the Capponi Chapel in the church of Santa Felicita by the Ponte Vecchio in Florence. Pontormo designed the interior and executed the altarpiece, the masterly Deposition from the Cross, Bronzino apparently was assigned the frescoes on the dome, which have not survived. Of the four empanelled tondi or roundels depicting each of the evangelists and his style is so similar to his masters that scholars still debate the specific attributions. Towards the end of his life, Bronzino took a prominent part in the activities of the Florentine Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, of which he was a founding member in 1563. The painter Alessandro Allori was his pupil, and Bronzino was living in the Allori family house at the time of his death in Florence in 1572. Bronzino spent the majority of his career in Florence and it was not long before he became, and remained for most of his career, the official court painter of the Duke and his court.
His portrait figures—often read as static and stylish exemplars of unemotional haughtiness and these well known paintings exist in many workshop versions and copies. In addition to images of the Florentine elite, Bronzino painted idealized portraits of the poets Dante, Bronzinos best known works comprise the aforementioned series of the duke and duchess and Eleonora, and figures of their court such as Bartolomeo Panciatichi and his wife Lucrezia. These paintings, especially those of the duchess, are known for their attention to the detail of her costume. Indeed, the dress itself has been the object of scholarly debate