Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British Royal Family; the town is situated 21.7 miles west of Charing Cross, central London, 5.8 miles southeast of Maidenhead, 15.8 miles east of the county town of Reading. It is south of the River Thames, which forms its boundary with its smaller, ancient twin town of Eton; the village of Old Windsor, just over 2 miles to the south, predates what is now called Windsor by around 300 years. Windlesora is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; the name originates from winch by the riverside. By 1110, meetings of the Great Council, which had taken place at Windlesora, were noted as taking place at the Castle – referred to as New Windsor to indicate that it was a two-ward castle/borough complex, similar to other early castle designs, such as Denbigh. By the late 12th century the settlement at Windelsora had been renamed Old Windsor.
The early history of the site is unknown, although it was certainly settled some years before 1070 when William the Conqueror had a timber motte and bailey castle constructed. The focus of royal interest at that time was not the castle, but a small riverside settlement about 3 miles downstream established from the 7th century. From about the 8th century, high status people started to visit the site and this included royalty. From the 11th century the site's link with king Edward the Confessor is documented, but again, information about his use of the place is scant. After the Norman conquest of England, royal use of the site increased because it offered good access to woodlands and opportunities for hunting – a sport which practised military skills. Windsor Castle is noted in the Domesday Book under the entry for Clewer, the neighbouring manor to Windsor. Although this might seem strange, it occurred because plans for the castle had changed since 1070, more land had been acquired in Clewer on which to site a castle town.
This plan was not actioned until the early 12th century. Henry I – according to one chronicle – had rebuilt it, this followed the Norman kings' actions at other royal sites, such as Westminster, where larger and more magnificent accommodation was thought necessary for the new dynasty. King Henry married his second wife after the White Ship disaster; the settlement at Old Windsor transferred to New Windsor during the 12th century, although substantial planning and setting out of the new town did not take place until c. 1170, under Henry II, following the civil war of Stephen's reign. At about the same time, the present upper ward of the castle was rebuilt in stone. Windsor Bridge is the earliest bridge on the Thames between Staines and Reading, built at a time when bridge building was rare, it played an important part in the national road system, linking London with Reading and Winchester, but by diverting traffic into the new town, it underpinned the success of its fledgling economy. The town of New Windsor, as an ancient demesne of the Crown, was a privileged settlement from the start having the rights of a'free borough', for which other towns had to pay substantial fees to the king.
It had a merchant guild from the early 13th century and, under royal patronage, was made the chief town of the county in 1277, as part of its grant of royal borough status by Edward I's charter. Somewhat unusually, this charter gave no new rights or privileges to Windsor but codified the rights which it had enjoyed for many years. Windsor's position as chief town of Berkshire was short-lived, however, as people found it difficult to reach. Wallingford took over this position in the early 14th century; as a self-governing town Windsor enjoyed a number of freedoms unavailable to other towns, including the right to hold its own borough court, the right of membership and some financial independence. The town accounts of the 16th century survive in part, although most of the once substantial borough archive dating back to the 12th century was destroyed in the late 17th century. New Windsor was a nationally significant town in the Middle Ages one of the fifty wealthiest towns in the country by 1332.
Its prosperity came from its close association with the royal household. The repeated investment in the castle brought London merchants to the town in the late 13th century and provided much employment for townsmen; the development of the castle under Edward III, between 1350–68, was the largest secular building project in England of the Middle Ages, many Windsor people worked on this project, again bringing great wealth to the town. Although the Black Death in 1348 had reduced some towns' populations by up to 50%, in Windsor the building projects of Edward III brought money to the town, its population doubled: this was a'boom' time for the local economy. People came to the town from every part of the country, from continental Europe; the poet Geoffrey Chaucer held the honorific post of'Clerk of the Works' at Windsor Castle in 1391. The development of the castle continued in the late 15th century with the rebuilding of St G
Emperor of India
Emperor/Empress of India, styled as the King-Emperor or Queen-Empress, was a title used by British monarchs from 1 May 1876 to 22 June 1948. The Emperor/Empress's image was used to signify British government authority — his/her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, in government buildings, railway stations, courts, on statues etc. "God Save the King" was the former national anthem of British India. Oaths of allegiance were made to the Emperor/Empress and his/her lawful successors by the princes, commissioners in India in events such as Imperial Durbars; the Emperor/Empress took little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers were delegated from the Emperor/Empress, either by statute or by convention, to the Viceroy and Governor-General of India who were appointed by the Emperor/Empress, to offices such as the Secretary of State for India, exclusive of him/her personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by them, such as the Imperial Durbars depended upon decisions made elsewhere, such as the India Office.
Legislatures such as the Central Legislative Assembly, Imperial Legislative Council and Council of State were presided by the Viceroy and Governor-General on behalf of the Emperor/Empress, Governors of provinces, by and with the advice and consent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Government of India. Executive power was exercised by His/Her Imperial Majesty's Government in the presidencies and provinces, which comprised of ministers, the princely states, via suzerainty, they had the direction of the Armed Forces in India, such as the British Indian Army and Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service and other Crown Servants Secret Services. Judicial power was vested in the various Crown Courts in India, who by statute had judicial independence of the Government. Unlike the United Kingdom, the Church of England did not hold power in Indian matters as it would be deemed unacceptable to the religions of India. Powers independent of government were granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise.
After the nominal Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed at the conclusion of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the government of the United Kingdom decided to transfer control of British India and its princely states from the mercantile East India Company to the Crown, thus marking the beginning of the British Raj. The EIC was dissolved on 1 June 1874, the British Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, decided to offer Queen Victoria the title "Empress of India" shortly afterwards. Victoria accepted this style on 1 May 1876; the first Delhi Durbar was held in her honour eight months on 1 January 1877. The idea of having Victoria proclaimed Empress of India was not new, as Lord Ellenborough had suggested it in 1843 upon becoming the Governor-General of India. By 1874, Major-General Sir Henry Ponsonby, the Queen's Private Secretary, had ordered English charters to be scrutinised for imperial titles, with Edgar and Stephen mentioned as sound precedents; the Queen irritated by the sallies of the republicans, the tendency to democracy, the realisation that her influence was manifestly on the decline, was urging the move.
Another factor may have been that the Queen's first child, was married to Crown Prince Frederick, the heir to the German Empire. Upon becoming empress, the Princess Royal would outrank her mother. By January 1876, the Queen's insistence was so great that Benjamin Disraeli felt that he could procrastinate no longer. Victoria had considered the style "Empress of Great Britain and India", but Disraeli had persuaded the Queen to limit the title to India in order to avoid controversy. Many in the United Kingdom, regarded the assumption of the title as an obvious development from the 1858 Government of India Act, which resulted in the founding of the British Raj; the public were of the opinion that the title of "Queen" was no longer adequate for the ceremonial ruler of what was referred to informally as the Indian Empire. The new styling underlined the fact that the native states were no longer a mere agglomeration but a collective entity; when Edward VII ascended to the throne on 22 January 1901, he continued the imperial tradition laid down by his mother, Queen Victoria, by adopting the title "Emperor of India".
Three subsequent British monarchs followed in his footsteps, it continued to be used after India had become independent on 15 August 1947. It was not until 22 June 1948 that the style was abolished during the reign of George VI; when signing off Indian business, the reigning British king-emperors or queen-empresses used the initials R I or the abbreviation Ind. Imp. after their name. When a male monarch held the title, his wife used the style queen-empress, despite the fact that she was not a reigning monarch in her own right. British coins, as well as those of the Empire and the Commonwealth included the abbreviated title Ind. Imp.. Coins in India, on the other hand, were stamped with the word "Empress", "King-Emperor"; when India became independent in 1
High commissioner (Commonwealth)
In the Commonwealth of Nations, a high commissioner is the senior diplomat in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another. Instead of an embassy, the diplomatic mission is called a high commission. In the British Empire, high commissioners were envoys of the Imperial government appointed to manage protectorates or groups of territories not under the sovereignty of the British Crown, while Crown colonies were administered by a governor, the most significant possessions, large confederations and the self-governing dominions were headed by a governor-general. For example, when Cyprus came under British administration in 1878 it remained nominally under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; the representative of the British government and head of the administration was titled high commissioner until Cyprus became a Crown colony in 1925, when the incumbent high commissioner became the first governor. Another example were the high commissioners for Palestine. A high commissioner could be charged with the last phase of decolonisation, as in the Crown colony of the Seychelles, where the last governor became high commissioner in 1975, when self-rule under the Crown was granted, until 1976, when the archipelago became an independent republic within the Commonwealth.
As diplomatic residents were sometimes appointed to native rulers, high commissioners could be appointed as British agents of indirect rule over native states. Thus high commissioners could be charged with managing diplomatic relations with native rulers and their states, might have under them several resident commissioners or similar agents attached to each state. In regions of particular importance, a commissioner-general was appointed to have control over several high commissioners and governors, e.g. the commissioner-general for South-East Asia had responsibility for Malaya and British Borneo. The first high commissioner of India to London was appointed in 1920; the first agent of the Indian government was appointed to South Africa in 1927. Although not a dominion, the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia was represented in the United Kingdom by a high commission in London, while the United Kingdom had a high commission in Salisbury. Following the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the government of Ian Smith in 1965, the Rhodesian high commissioner, Andrew Skeen was expelled from London, while his British counterpart, Sir John Johnston, was withdrawn by the British government.
The role of high commissioner for Southern Africa was coupled with that of British governor of the Cape Colony in the 19th century, giving the colonial administrator in question responsibility both for administering British possessions and relating to neighbouring Boer settlements. The protectorates of Bechuanaland and Swaziland were administered as high commission territories by the Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, the British high commissioner for Bechuanaland and Swaziland until the 1930s, with various local representatives by the British high commissioner to South Africa, represented locally in each by a resident commissioner; the British governor of the Crown colony of the Straits Settlements, based in Singapore, doubled as high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, had authority over the resident-general in Kuala Lumpur, who in turn was responsible for the various residents appointed to the native rulers of the Malay states under British protection. The British Western Pacific Territories were permanently governed as a group of minor insular colonial territories, under one single, not full-time, Western Pacific high commissioner, an office attached first to the governorship of Fiji, subsequently to that of the Solomon Islands, represented in each of the other islands units: by a Resident Commissioner, Consul or other official.
The high commissioner to New Zealand ex officio is the governor of the Pitcairn Islands. The first dominion high commissioner was appointed by Canada as its envoy in London. Sir John Rose, 1st Baronet, a Canadian businessman resident in London and former Canadian finance minister, had acted as the personal representative of the Canadian prime minister Sir John A. Macdonald, from 1869 to 1874 and was given the title of Financial Commissioner from 1874 until 1880. Alexander Mackenzie, while he was prime minister, appointed Edward Jenkins a British Member of Parliament with links to Canada, to act as the government's representative in London as agents-general, followed by former Nova Scotia premier William Annand; when Macdonald returned to power in 1878 he requested to elevate the position of financial commissioner to resident minister, but was denied the request by the British government who instead offered to allow the designation of high commissioner. The Canadian government appointed Alexander Tilloch Galt as the first high commissioner of Canada to the United Kingdom in 1880.
New Zealand appointed a high commissioner in 1905, in place of a resident agent-general which have been appointed since 1871. Australia did the same in 1910, South Africa in 1911; the British government continued not to appoint high commissioners to the Dominions, holding that the British government was represented by the relevant governor-general or go
York is a historic walled city in North Yorkshire, England. At the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the historic county town of the historic county of Yorkshire. York Minster and a variety of cultural and sporting activities make it a popular tourist destination; the city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, of the kingdoms of Deira, Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained. In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre; the economy of York is now dominated by services. The University of York and National Health Service are major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy; the City of York local government district includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.
In 2011, it had a population of 198,051. The word York is derived from the Brittonic name Eburākon, a combination of eburos "yew-tree" and a suffix of appurtenance *-āko "belonging to-, place of-" meaning either "place of the yew trees"; the name Eboracum became the Anglian Eoforwic in the 7th century: a compound of Eofor-, from the old name, -wic a village by conflation of the element Ebor- with a Germanic root *eburaz. When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík; the Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as "Everwic" in works such as Wace's Roman de Rou. Jórvík, meanwhile reduced to York in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century; the form York was first recorded in the 13th century. Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Latinised Brittonic, Roman name; the 12th‑century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his fictional account of the prehistoric kings of Britain, Historia Regum Britanniae, suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus.
The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature. Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes; the Brigantian tribal area became a Roman client state, but its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber into Brigantian territory. The city was founded in 71 AD, when the Ninth Legion conquered the Brigantes and constructed a wooden military fortress on flat ground above the River Ouse close to its confluence with the River Foss; the fortress, whose walls were rebuilt in stone by the VI legion based there subsequent to the IX legion, covered an area of 50 acres and was inhabited by 6,000 legionary soldiers. The site of the principia of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns.
The Emperors Hadrian, Septimius Severus and Constantius I all held court in York during their various campaigns. During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, it is that it was he who granted York the privileges of a'colonia' or city. Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress. In 314 AD a bishop from York attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the province. While the Roman colonia and fortress were located on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss, the population reduced. York declined in the post-Roman era, was taken and settled by the Angles in the 5th century. Reclamation of parts of the town was initiated in the 7th century under King Edwin of Northumbria, York became his chief city; the first wooden minster church was built in York for the baptism of Edwin in 627, according to the Venerable Bede.
Edwin ordered the small wooden church be rebuilt in stone. In the following century, Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York, he had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York now known as St Peter's School, founded in 627 AD, as Charlemagne's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs. In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York. Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe; the last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred in his successful attempt to complete the unification
Royal Exchange, London
The Royal Exchange in London was founded in the 16th century by the merchant Sir Thomas Gresham on the suggestion of his factor Richard Clough to act as a centre of commerce for the City of London. The site was provided by the City of London Corporation and the Worshipful Company of Mercers, who still jointly own the freehold, it is trapezoidal in shape and is flanked by Cornhill and Threadneedle Street, which converge at Bank junction in the heart of the City. It lies in the ward of Cornhill; the building's original design was inspired by a bourse Gresham had seen in Antwerp, the Antwerp bourse, was Britain's first specialist commercial building. It has twice been subsequently rebuilt; the present building was designed by Sir William Tite in the 1840s. The site was notably occupied by the Lloyd's insurance market for nearly 150 years. Today the Royal Exchange contains a Courtyard Grand Cafe, Threadneedle Cocktail Bar, Sauterelle Restaurant, luxury shops, offices. Traditionally, the steps of the Royal Exchange is the place where certain royal proclamations are read out by either a herald or a crier.
Following the death or abdication of a monarch and the confirmation of the next monarch's accession to the throne by the Accession Council, the Royal Exchange Building is one of the locations where a herald proclaims the new monarch's reign to the public. Richard Clough suggested building the exchange in 1562, oversaw the importing of some of the materials from Antwerp: stone, slate and glass, for which he paid thousands of pounds himself; the Royal Exchange was opened on 23 January 1571 by Queen Elizabeth I who awarded the building its royal title and a licence to sell alcohol and valuable goods. Only the exchange of goods took place until the 17th century. Stockbrokers were not allowed into the Royal Exchange because of their rude manners, hence they had to operate from other establishments in the vicinity, such as Jonathan's Coffee-House. Gresham's original building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. A second complex was built on the site, designed by Edward Jarman and opened in 1669, but that burned down, on 10 January 1838.
It had been used by the Lloyd's insurance market, forced to move temporarily to South Sea House following the 1838 fire. The third Royal Exchange building, which still stands today, was designed by Sir William Tite and adheres to the original layout–consisting of a four-sided structure surrounding a central courtyard where merchants and tradesmen could do business; the internal works, designed by Edward I'Anson in 1837, made use of concrete—an early example of this modern construction method. It features pediment sculptures by Richard Westmacott, ornamental cast ironwork by Henry Grissell's Regent's Canal Ironworks, it was opened by Queen Victoria on 28 October 1844 though trading did not commence until 1 January 1845. In June 1844, just before the reopening of the Royal Exchange, a statue of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, was unveiled outside the building; the bronze used to cast it was sourced from enemy cannons captured during Wellington's continental campaigns. Paul Julius Reuter established the Reuters news agency at No.
1, Royal Exchange Buildings in 1851. It moved to Fleet Street; the western end of the building consists of a portico of eight Corinthian columns topped by a pediment containing a tympanum with a sculptured frieze by Richard Westmacott. The central figure represents Commerce, above an inscription from the Bible: "The Earth is the Lord's, the fulness thereof"; the Latin inscription states that the Exchange was founded in the thirteenth year of Queen Elizabeth, restored in the eighth of Queen Victoria. Two statues stand in niches in the central courtyard. Charles II a copy of 1792 by John Spiller after Grinling Gibbons' statue in the centre of the C17 courtyard, Queen Elizabeth I by M. L. Watson, 1844; the Charles II statue survived the fire of 1838. The Elizabeth I statue was commissioned as she was the monarch who had conferred the status "Royal" on the Exchange. From 1892, twenty-four scenes from London's history were painted on the first-floor walls by artists including Sir Frederick Leighton, Sir Frank Brangwyn and Stanhope Forbes.
The murals run as a sequence. With the outbreak of the Second World War, trading at the Royal Exchange ended. At the war's end, the building had survived the Blitz, albeit with some near misses. In 1982 the Royal Exchange was in disrepair – the glass roof was in danger of collapse; the newly-formed London International Financial Futures Exchange was the main tenant, using the courtyard for the trading floor, all done without touching the framework of the original building. Other tenants moved in and as a result of LIFFE's presence, not only did the City experience growth in trading and greater efficiency in pricing, but a boost to the area around the Royal Exchange which had hitherto been sleepy at best. In 2001 the Royal Exchange was once again extensively remodelled, this time by architects Aukett Fitzroy Robinson. Reconstruction of the courtyard created new boutiques and restaurants to add to the existing retailers on the perimeter; the Royal Exchange is now a retail centre with shops and restaurants.
The restaurants include Royal Exchange Grand Cafe, Threadneedle Cockatil Bar and Sauterelle Restaurant. Shops include Tiffany & Co.. In 2003 the Grand Café and Bar was completed the building. In Royal Exchange Buildings, a lane by the eastern entrance to the Royal Exchange
Coronation of the British monarch
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey. It corresponds to the coronations that took place in other European monarchies, all of which have abandoned coronations in favour of inauguration or enthronement ceremonies; the coronation takes place several months after the death of the previous monarch, as it is considered a joyous occasion that would be inappropriate while mourning continues. This interval gives the planners enough time to complete the elaborate arrangements required. For example, Queen Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953, having ascended the throne on 6 February 1952; the ceremony is performed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the most senior cleric in the Church of England, of which the monarch is supreme governor. Other clergy and members of the nobility have roles. Many other government officials and guests attend, including representatives of other countries.
The essential elements of the coronation have remained unchanged for the past thousand years. The sovereign is first presented to, acclaimed by, the people, he or she swears an oath to uphold the law and the Church. Following that, the monarch is anointed with holy oil, invested with regalia, crowned, before receiving the homage of his or her subjects. Wives of kings are anointed and crowned as queen consort; the service ends with a closing procession, since the 20th century it has been traditional for the royal family to appear on the balcony of Buckingham Palace, before attending a banquet there. The main elements of the coronation service and the earliest form of oath can be traced to the ceremony devised by Saint Dunstan for Edgar's coronation in 973 AD at Bath Abbey, it drew on ceremonies used by those used in the ordination of bishops. Two versions of coronation services, known as ordines or recensions, survive from before the Norman Conquest, it is not known if the first recension was used in England and it was the second recension, used by Edgar in 973 and by subsequent Anglo-Saxon and early Norman kings.
A third recension was compiled during the reign of Henry I and was used at the coronation of his successor, Stephen, in 1135. While retaining the most important elements of the Anglo-Saxon rite, it borrowed from the consecration of the Holy Roman Emperor from the Pontificale Romano-Germanicum, a book of German liturgy compiled in Mainz in 961, thus bringing the English tradition into line with continental practice, it remained in use until the coronation of Edward II in 1308 when the fourth recension was first used, having been compiled over several preceding decades. Although influenced by its French counterpart, the new ordo focussed on the balance between the monarch and his nobles and on the oath, neither of which concerned the absolutist French kings. One manuscript of this recension is the Liber Regalis at Westminster Abbey which has come to be regarded as the definitive version. Following the start of the reformation in England, the boy king Edward VI had been crowned in the first Protestant coronation in 1547, during which Archbishop Thomas Cranmer preached a sermon against idolatry and "the tyranny of the bishops of Rome".
However, six years he was succeeded by his half-sister, Mary I, who restored the Catholic rite. In 1559, Elizabeth I underwent the last English coronation under the auspices of the Catholic Church. Scottish coronations were traditionally held at Scone Abbey, with the king seated on the Stone of Destiny; the original rituals were a fusion of ceremonies used by the kings of Dál Riata, based on the inauguration of Aidan by Columba in 574, by the Picts from whom the Stone of Destiny came. A crown does not seem to have been used until the inauguration of Alexander II in 1214; the ceremony included the laying on of hands by a senior cleric and the recitation of the king's genealogy. Alexander III was the last Scottish king to be crowned in this way in 1249, since the Stone was captured by the English forces of Edward I in 1296, it was incorporated into the English Coronation Chair and its first certain use at an English coronation was that of Henry IV in 1399. Pope John XXII in a bull of 1329 granted the kings of Scotland the right to be crowned.
No record exists of the exact form of the medieval rituals, but a account exists of the coronation of the 17-month-old infant James V at Stirling Castle in 1513. The ceremony was held in a church, since demolished, within the castle walls and was conducted by the Bishop of Glasgow, because the Archbishop of St Andrews had been killed at the Battle of Flodden, it is that the child would have been knighted before the start of the ceremony. The coronation itself started with a sermon, followed by the anointing and crowning the coronation oath, in this case taken for the child by an unknown noble or priest, an oath of fealty and acclamation by the congregation. James VI had been crowned in The Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, in 1567 and inherited the English crown in 1603. Charles I travelled north for a Scottish coronation at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh in 1633, but caused consternation amongst the Presbyterian Scots by his insistence on elaborate
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen was Queen of the United Kingdom and Queen of Hanover as the wife of King William IV. Adelaide was the daughter of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, Luise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, is named after her. Adelaide was born on 13 August 1792 at Meiningen, Germany, the eldest child of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, she was titled Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony with the style Serene Highness from her birth until the Congress of Vienna, when the entire House of Wettin was raised to the style of Highness. She was baptised at the castle chapel on 19 August, her godparents numbered twenty-one, including her mother, the Holy Roman Empress, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Crown Princess of Saxony, the Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Weimar, the Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld. Saxe-Meiningen was a small state.
It was the most liberal German state and, unlike its neighbours, permitted a free press and criticism of the ruler. At the time, no statute existed which barred a female ruling over the small duchy and it was not until the birth of her brother, Bernhard, in 1800, that the law of primogeniture was introduced. By the end of 1811, King George III was incapacitated and, although still King in name, his heir-apparent and eldest son George was Prince Regent. On 6 November 1817 Princess Charlotte, died in childbirth. Princess Charlotte was second in line to the throne: had she outlived her father and grandfather, she would have become queen. With her death, the King was left with no legitimate grandchildren; the Prince Regent was estranged from his wife, forty-nine years old, thus there was little likelihood that he would have any further legitimate children. To secure the line of succession, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, the other sons of George III sought quick marriages with the intent of producing offspring who could inherit the throne.
William had ten children by the popular actress Dorothea Jordan, being illegitimate, they were barred from the succession. Considerable allowances were to be voted by Parliament to any royal duke who married, this acted as a further incentive for William to marry. Adelaide was a princess from an unimportant German state, but William had a limited choice of available princesses and, after deals with other candidates fell through, a marriage to Adelaide was arranged; the allowance proposed was slashed by Parliament, the outraged Duke considered calling off the marriage. However, Adelaide seemed the ideal candidate: amiable, home-loving, willing to accept William's illegitimate children as part of the family; the arrangement was settled and William wrote to his eldest son, "She is doomed, poor dear innocent young creature, to be my wife."Adelaide's dowry was set at 20,000 florins, with additional three separate annuities being promised by her future husband, the English regent, the State of Saxe-Meiningen.
Adelaide married William in a double wedding with William's brother, Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, his bride Victoria, Dowager Princess of Leiningen, on 11 July 1818, at Kew Palace in Surrey, England. They had only met for the first time about a week earlier, on 4 July at Grillon's Hotel in Bond Street. Neither William nor Adelaide had been married before, William was twenty-seven years her senior. Despite these unromantic circumstances, the couple settled amicably in Hanover, by all accounts were devoted to each other throughout their marriage. Adelaide improved William's behaviour. Observers thought them parsimonious, their lifestyle simple boring. William accepted the reduced increase in his allowance voted by Parliament. On the Continent, Adelaide became pregnant, but in her seventh month of pregnancy, she caught pleurisy and gave birth prematurely on 27 March 1819 during the illness, her daughter, lived only a few hours. Another pregnancy in the same year caused William to move the household to England so his future heir would be born on British soil, yet Adelaide miscarried at Calais or Dunkirk during the journey on 5 September 1819.
Back in London, they moved into Clarence House, but preferred to stay at Bushy House near Hampton Court where William had lived with Dorothea Jordan. She became pregnant again, a second daughter, was born on 10 December 1820. Elizabeth seemed strong but died less than three months old on 4 March 1821 of "inflammation in the Bowels". William and Adelaide had no surviving children. Twin boys were stillborn on 8 April 1822, a possible brief pregnancy may have occurred within the same year. Princess Victoria of Kent came to be acknowledged as William's heir presumptive, as Adelaide had no further pregnancies. While there were rumours of pregnancies well into William's reign, they seem to have been without basis. At the time of their marriage, William was not heir-presumptive to the throne, but became so when his brother Frederick, Duke of York, died childless in 1827. Given the small likelihood of his older brothers producing heirs, William's relative youth and good health, it had long been considered likely that he would become king in due course.
In 1830, on the death of his elder brother, George IV, Wil