The garden strawberry is a grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries. It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit; the fruit is appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, pies, ice creams and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are widely used in many products like lip gloss, hand sanitizers and many others; the garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, brought from Chile by Amédée-François Frézier in 1714. Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century; the strawberry is not, from a botanical point of view, a berry. Technically, it is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries.
Each apparent "seed" on the outside of the fruit is one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it. In 2016, world production of strawberries was 9.2 million tonnes, led by China with 41% of the total. The first garden strawberry was grown in Brittany, during the late 18th century. Prior to this, wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit; the strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 14th century. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 15th century western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts; the strawberry is found in Italian and German art, in English miniatures. The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses. By the 16th century, references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common.
People began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began naming the different species. In England the demand for regular strawberry farming had increased by the mid-16th century; the combination of strawberries and cream was created by Thomas Wolsey in the court of King Henry VIII. Instructions for growing and harvesting strawberries showed up in writing in 1578. By the end of the 16th century three European species had been cited: F. vesca, F. moschata, F. viridis. The garden strawberry was transplanted from the forests and the plants would be propagated asexually by cutting off the runners. Two subspecies of F. vesca were identified: F. sylvestris alba and F. sylvestris semperflorens. The introduction of F. virginiana from Eastern North America to Europe in the 17th century is an important part of history because this species gave rise to the modern strawberry. The new species spread through the continent and did not become appreciated until the end of the 18th century.
When a French excursion journeyed to Chile in 1712, it introduced the North American strawberry plant with female flowers that resulted in the common strawberry that we have today. The Mapuche and Huilliche Indians of Chile cultivated the female strawberry species until 1551, when the Spanish came to conquer the land. In 1765, a European explorer recorded the cultivation of the Chilean strawberry. At first introduction to Europe, the plants produced no fruit, it was discovered in 1766 that the female plants could only be pollinated by plants that produced large fruit: F. moschata, F. virginiana, F. ananassa. This is when the Europeans became aware that plants had the ability to produce male-only or female-only flowers; as more large-fruit producing plants were cultivated the Chilean strawberry decreased in population in Europe, except for around Brest where the Chilean strawberry thrived. The decline of the Chilean strawberry was caused by F. ananassa. Strawberry cultivars vary in size, flavor, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.
On average, a strawberry has about 200 seeds on its external membrane. Some vary in foliage, some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female. For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners and, in general, distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models—annual plasticulture, or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds. Greenhouses produce a small amount of strawberries during the off season; the bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development.
At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground. Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings. However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for estab
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. It is the part of the pistil which holds the ovule and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals; the pistil may be made up of one carpel or of several fused carpels, therefore the ovary can contain part of one carpel or parts of several fused carpels. Above the ovary is the style and the stigma, where the pollen lands and germinates to grow down through the style to the ovary, for each individual pollen grain, to fertilize one individual ovule; some wind pollinated flowers have much modified ovaries. A fruit is ovaries -- together with seeds -- from one or more flowers; the fruits of a plant are responsible for dispersing the seeds that contain the embryo and protecting the seeds as well. In many species, the fruit incorporates some surrounding tissues, or is dispersed with some non-fruit tissues. Locules are chambers within the ovary of fruits.
The locules contain the ovules, may or may not be filled with fruit flesh. Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruits can be classified as uni-locular, bi-locular, tri-locular or multi-locular; some plants have septa between the carpels. The ovules are attached to parts of the interior ovary walls called the placentae. Placental areas occur in various positions, corresponding to various parts of the carpels that make up the ovary. See Ovule#Location within the plant. An obturator is present in the ovary of some plants, near the micropyle of each ovule, it is an outgrowth of the placenta, important in nourishing and guiding pollen tubes to the micropyle. The ovary of some types of fruit is dehiscent. There is the position of the septa; the terminology of the positions of ovaries is determined by the insertion point, where the other floral parts come together and attach to the surface of the ovary. If the ovary is situated above the insertion point, it is superior. A superior ovary is an ovary attached to the receptacle above the attachment of other floral parts.
A superior ovary is found in types of fleshy fruits such as true berries, etc. A flower with this arrangement is described as hypogynous. Examples of this ovary type include the legumes. A half-inferior ovary is surrounded by the receptacle; this occurs in flowers of the Lythraceae family. Such flowers are termed half-epigynous. In some classifications, half-inferior ovaries are not recognized and are instead grouped with either the superior or inferior ovaries. More a half-inferior ovary has nearly equal portions of ovary above and below the insertion point. Other varying degrees of inferiority can be described by other fractions. For instance, a "one-fifth inferior ovary" has one fifth of its length under the insertion point. Only one quarter portion of a "three-quarters inferior ovary" is above the insertion. An inferior ovary lies below the attachment of other floral parts. A pome is a type of fleshy fruit, cited as an example, but close inspection of some pomes will show that it is a half-inferior ovary.
Flowers with inferior ovaries are termed epigynous. Some examples of flowers with an inferior ovary are orchids, banana and the pepo of the squash and gourd family. Fruit anatomy
An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are indehiscent. Achenes contain a single seed that does not adhere to it. In many species, what is called the "seed" is an achene, a fruit containing the seed; the seed-like appearance is owed to the hardening of the fruit wall, which encloses the solitary seed so as to seem like a seed coat. The fruits of buttercup, caraway, quinoa and cannabis are typical achenes; the achenes of the strawberry are sometimes mistaken for seeds. The strawberry is an aggregate fruit with an aggregate of achenes, what is eaten is accessory tissue. A rose produces an aggregate of achene fruits that are encompassed within an expanded hypanthium, a structure where basal portions of the calyx, the corolla, the stamens unite with the receptacle to form a cup-shaped tube. A winged achene, such as in maple, is called a samara; some achenes have accessory hair-like structures that cause them to tumble in the wind in a manner similar to a tumbleweed.
This type sometimes is called diaspore. An example is Anemone virginiana. A caryopsis or grain is a type of fruit that resembles an achene, but differs in that the pericarp is fused to the thin seed coat in the grain. An utricle is like an achene. Fruits of sedges are sometimes considered achenes although their one-locule ovary is a compound ovary; the fruit of the family Asteraceae is so similar to an achene that it is considered to be one, although it derives from a compound inferior ovary. A special term for the Asteraceae fruit is cypsela. For example, the white-gray husks of a sunflower "seed" are the walls of the cypsela fruit. Many cypselas have calyx tissue attached that functions in biological dispersal of the seed. Botanical Glossary
Drift seeds and drift fruits are seeds and fruits adapted for long distance dispersal by water. Most are produced by tropical trees, they can be found on distant beaches after drifting thousands of miles through ocean currents; this method of propagation has helped many species of plant such as the Coconut colonize and establish themselves on barren islands. Drift seeds and fruits are of interest to scientists who study these currents. In botanical terminology, a drift fruit is a kind of diaspore, drift seeds and fruits are disseminules. Caesalpinia bonduc – grey nickernut Caesalpinia major – yellow nickernut Carapa guianensis – crabwood Entada gigas – seaheart, Entada rheedii – snuff box sea bean, from the tropics of the Indian Ocean Erythrina fusca – bucayo Erythrina variegata – tiger claw Mucuna spp. – ox-eye bean, hamburger seed, deer-eye bean Ormosia spp. – horse-eye bean, from the tropics Terminalia catappa – tropical almond, from the tropics of Asia Barringtonia asiatica – box fruit, from Polynesia Cocos nucifera – coconut, from the tropics Grias cauliflora – anchovy pear, from the tropics of the New World Heritiera littoralis – puzzle fruit, from Southeast Asia Lodoicea maldivica – coco de mer, from the Seychelles Manicaria saccifera – sea coconut, from South America Pandanus spp. – screw pines, from the Old World tropics Enthusiasts founded an annual convention in 1996, the International Sea-bean Symposium, dedicated to the display and dissemination of information concerning drift seeds and other flotsam
In botany, a pome is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae. The word pome entered English in the late 14th century, referred to an apple or an apple-shaped object, it derived from the Old French word pome "apple", which in turn derived from the Late Latin or Vulgar Latin word poma "apple" the plural of Latin pomum "fruit" "apple". A pome is an accessory fruit composed of one or more carpels surrounded by accessory tissue; the accessory tissue is interpreted by some specialists as an extension of the receptacle and is referred to as "fruit cortex", by others as a fused hypanthium. It is the most edible part of this fruit; the carpels of a pome are fused within the "core". Although the epicarp and endocarp of some other fruit types look much like the skin and core of a pome, they are parts of the carpel; the epicarp and mesocarp of a pome may be fleshy and difficult to distinguish from one another and from the hypanthial tissue. The endocarp forms a leathery or stony case around the seed, corresponds to what is called the core.
Pome-type fruit with stony rather than leathery endocarp may be called a polypyrenous drupe. The shriveled remains of the sepals and stamens can sometimes be seen at the end of a pome opposite the stem, the ovary is therefore described as inferior in these flowers; the best-known example of a pome is the apple. Other examples of plants that produce fruit classified as a pome are Cotoneaster, loquat, pear, quince, rowan and whitebeam; some pomes may have a mealy texture. Nut
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture
A syconium is the type of inflorescence borne by figs, formed by an enlarged, hollow receptacle with multiple ovaries on the inside surface. In essence, it is a fleshy stem with a number of flowers, so it is considered both a multiple and accessory fruit; the term syconium comes from the Ancient Greek word συκον, meaning "fig". The syconium is an urn-shaped receptacle which contains between 50 to 7000 simplified uniovulate flowers or florets on its inner surface, it is closed off from most organisms by the ostiole, fringed by scale-like bracts. Syconia can be monoecious or functionally dioecious: the former contain female flowers with variable style length and few male flowers, produce seeds and pollen; the latter have male and female forms in different plants: seed figs contain female flowers with long styles and produce seeds. Once pollinated, the florets develop into achenes or drupes, in which the seeds are enclosed by a layer of endocarp. From this perspective, the fig is an enclosure with tens to thousands of fruits within it.
Formation of the syconium begins with the initial growth of bracts, which curve to form a receptacle. When the outer bracts meet, they form the ostiole by interlock. Syconia may develop lateral, basal, or peduncular bracts. There is a relationship between the morphology of the pollinating wasp; the tight ostiolar enclosure at the apex of syconia makes them pollinator-specific. When receptive to pollen, the ostiole loosens, allowing the specialized wasps to enter through it; the wasps lose their wings in the process, once inside they pollinate female flowers as they lay their eggs in some ovules, which form galls. The wasps die and larvae develop in the galls, while seeds develop in the pollinated flowers. 4–6 weeks after egg laying, the wingless males emerge, mate with the females still in their galls, cut a tunnel out of the syconium. As the females emerge, they collect pollen from male flowers. After the wasps emerge, chemical changes in the fig follow as the fig develops into'fruit'; the syconium is thought to have first evolved 83 million years ago in the Cretaceous from an entomophilic clade including tribe Castilleae and genus Ficus, as the bracts protecting the inflorescence tightened to form the ostiole increasing the pollinator specificity of the plant and initiating a long and complex history of coevolution between figs and their pollinating wasps