Accidental (music)

In music, an accidental is a note of a pitch, not a member of the scale or mode indicated by the most applied key signature. In musical notation, the sharp and natural symbols, among others, mark such notes—and those symbols are called accidentals. In the measure where it appears, an accidental sign raises or lowers the following note from its normal pitch, overriding the key signature. A note is raised or lowered by a semitone, there are double sharps or flats, which raise or lower the indicated note by two semitones. Accidentals apply to all repetitions within the measure in which they appear, unless canceled by another accidental sign, or tied into the following measure. If a note has an accidental and the note is repeated in a different octave within the same measure the accidental is repeated, although this convention is far from universal; the modern accidental signs derive from the two forms of the lower-case letter b used in Gregorian chant manuscripts to signify the two pitches of B, the only note that could be altered.

The "round" b became the flat sign, while the "square" b diverged into the natural signs. Sometimes the black keys on a musical keyboard are called "accidentals", the white keys are called naturals. In most cases, a sharp raises the pitch of a note one semitone. A natural is used to cancel the effect of a sharp; this system of accidentals operates in conjunction with the key signature, whose effect continues throughout an entire piece, unless canceled by another key signature. An accidental can be used to cancel a previous accidental or reinstate the flats or sharps of the key signature Accidentals apply to subsequent notes on the same staff position for the remainder of the measure where they occur, unless explicitly changed by another accidental. Once a barline is passed, the effect of the accidental ends, except when a note affected by an accidental is tied to the same note across a barline. Subsequent notes at the same staff position in the second or bars are not affected by the accidental carried through with the tied note.

Under this system, the notes in the example above are: m. 1: G♮, G♯, G♯ m. 2: G♮, G♭, G♭ m. 3: G♭, G♯, G♮ Though this convention is still in use in tonal music, it may be cumbersome in music that features frequent accidentals, as is the case in atonal music. As a result, an alternative system of note-for-note accidentals has been adopted, with the aim of reducing the number of accidentals required to notate a bar. According to Kurt Stone, the system is as follows: Accidentals affect only those notes which they precede. Accidentals are not repeated on tied notes unless the tie goes from line to page to page. Accidentals are not repeated for repeated notes. If a sharp or flat pitch is followed directly by its natural form, a natural is used. Courtesy accidentals or naturals may be used to clarify ambiguities but are kept to a minimumBecause seven of the twelve notes of the chromatic equal-tempered scale are naturals this system can reduce the number of naturals required in a notated passage. An accidental may change the note by more than a semitone: for example, if a G♯ is followed in the same measure by a G♭, the flat sign on the latter note means it is two semitones lower than if no accidental were present.

Thus, the effect of the accidental must be understood in relation to the "natural" meaning of the note's staff position. In some atonal scores, an accidental is notated on every note, including natural notes and repeated pitches; this system was adopted for "the specific intellectual reason that a note with an accidental was not an inflected version of a natural note but a pitch of equal status." Double accidentals raise or lower the pitch of a note by two semitones, an innovation developed as early as 1615. This applies to the written note, ignoring key signature. An F with a double sharp applied raises it a whole step so it is enharmonically equivalent to a G. Usage varies on how to notate the situation in which a note with a double sharp is followed in the same measure by a note with a single sharp; some publications use the single accidental for the latter note, whereas others use a combination of a natural and a sharp, with the natural being understood to apply to only the second sharp.

The double accidental with respect to a specific key signature raises or lowers the notes containing a sharp or flat by a semitone. For example, when in the key of C♯ minor or E major, F, C, G, D contain a sharp. Adding a double accidental to F in this case only raises F♯ by one further semitone, creating G natural. Conversely, adding a double sharp to any other note not sharped or flatted in the key signature raises the note by two semitones with respect to the chromatic scale. For example, in the aforementioned key signature, any note, not F, C, G, D is raised by two semitones instead of one, so an A double sharp raises the note A natural to the enharmonic equivalent of B natural. In modern scores, a barline cancels an accidental, with the exception of tied notes. Courtesy accidentals called cautionary accidentals or reminder accidentals are used to remind the musician of the correct pitch if the same note occurs in th

High Society (Kottonmouth Kings album)

High Society is the second studio album by American hip hop group Kottonmouth Kings. It was released June 2000 under Suburban Noize Records and Capitol Records; the album peaked at number 65 on the Billboard 200 chart on July 15, 2000. The song "Peace Not Greed" peaked at number 37 on the Hot Modern Rock Tracks chart, with its accompanying music video being featured on MTV's Total Request Live as a "Close Call"; the song "Crucial" along with a short FMV were included in the PS1 game T. J. Lavin's Ultimate BMX. Daddy X - Vocals, Lyrics D-Loc - Vocals, Lyrics Johnny Richter - Vocals, Lyrics Lou Dogg - Drums, Percussion DJ Bobby B - DJ, Turntables, Programmer Dog Boy - Vocals, Lyrics Corporate Avenger - Vocals, Lyrics T. S. O. L. - Vocals, Lyrics Sen Dog - Vocals, Lyrics Insane Clown Posse - Vocals, Lyrics Grand Vanacular - Vocals, Lyrics Eric E-Man Adger - Producer

Miss Subways

"Miss Subways" was a title accorded to individual New York City women between 1941 and 1976. The woman, Miss Subways at any one time appeared on posters placed on New York City Subway trains, along with a brief description of her. In 1957, it was estimated that 5.9 million people viewed Miss Subways daily, using 14,000 placards within trains. The program was run by the New York Subways Advertising Company. Around 200 women held the title during the program's run; the method of selecting Miss Subways varied over time taking the form of a beauty contest with the general rule that to be eligible, a woman had to be a New York City resident and herself use the subway. "John Robert Powers, the head of the modeling agency, selected the winners" until 1961 or 1962 and "for some years, winners were chosen by the contest organizers."Before 1952, there were monthly selections of Miss Subways. From 1952 to 1957, candidates were picked every two months. Although "Mr. Powers once picked seven winners to reign side by side in the subway."

By 1957, they were all hand-picked based on how much they exuded a "girl next door" quality: All Miss Subways have one thing in common. They look – or are supposed to look – like the girl next door. About 400 wholesome young things enter each of the three yearly contests; the winners are picked by John Robert Powers model agency millionaire. Mr. Powers says he wants "no glamour gal types or hand-painted masterpieces." Professional models and entertainers are taboo. Anyone else over 17 may enter; the Misses Subways have been secretaries, service women, sales girls, receptionists. John Robert Powers was no longer involved in selection by 1963 when the contest changed to "public vote... by post card". The first winner of the public vote was Ann Napolitano, an executive secretary at the advertising agency Doyle, Dane & Bernbach; the New York Subways Advertising Company "redirected the contest to reflect the girl who works – what New York City is all about." Winners were given bracelets with gold-plated subway tokens."

Spaulding commented in 1971. It's personality and interest pursuits that count" and described how "each contest attracts between 300 and 400 entries, submitted by family and colleagues. About 30 are selected for a personal interview'to judge personality and make certain that the submitted picture is a good likeness.' Most of the winners have been stenographers, clerks and some have been teachers and stewardesses."Subsequent to the postcard system, winners were chosen by telephone-based voting, from among a group of nominees whose photos were all placed on the subways. Title holders were photographed by photographers such as James J. Kriegsmann who "specialized in pictures of stage and screen stars, but he photographed ordinary people, including the women who appeared in the Miss Subways promotion for more than 30 years." In 2004, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, in conjunction with the New York Post, brought back the program, now named "Ms. Subways", for one year only. A voting contest was held to determine Caroline Sanchez-Bernat, an actress.

Posters of "Ms. Subways" appeared with subway safety tips instead of biographical notes. Miss Subways began as a way for the John Robert Powers Agency "to promote his models and for the New York Subways Advertising Company'to increase eye traffic' for the adjoining... advertisements." "The contest provided the main plot device of Leonard Bernstein's 1944 musical On The Town, in which a smitten sailor on leave searched for'Miss Turnstiles.'"By 1945, the four-year anniversary of the contest was commemorated nationally in Life Magazine. "Unlike Miss America, these queens represented the full spectrum of their constituency Irish, Italian and Jewish. The first black winner reigned on the trains in 1947, the first Asian in 1949." Thelma Potter, studying at Brooklyn College at the time, was the first black Miss Subways. Potter stated, "It was progressive.... It stirred things up a bit.'"The New York Subway Advertising Company was owned by Walter O'Malley, who moved the Brooklyn Dodgers to Los Angeles in 1958.

Bernard Spaulding, the sales director for the New York Subways Advertising Company, said in 1971 that it "was a World War II pinup phenomenon and lost social significance." Miss Subways was of "mythic significance to many", with Mayor Ed Koch saying in 1979: Even now, I can sit in the subway, look up at the ads, close my eyes, there's Miss Subways", he said. "She wasn't the most beautiful girl in the world but she was ours. She was our own Miss America." In 1983, when there were public calls for the contest to continue, a Metropolitan Transportation Authority representative stated that it would be "irrelevant and unacceptable", thus not viable, to restart Miss Subways. Tn 2004, journalist Melanie Bush commented: posters were covertly feminist, sometimes shockingly so to, a child of the 70s. From the first to the last, they focused on women's ambitions, in the 1940s or the 70s or, that's a rare rose to find clamped in the teeth of mass advertising, yet there it was, there it more or less remained because the contest was structured during World War II, when more than three million women were offered paying work for the first time, were thus riding the subways, not to mention operating them, in much greater numbers than before.

The posters were at their most radical during the war years, reflect women's return to the home. Miss Subways' journey tracks a clear und