Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist; the concertina and bandoneón are related. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open, which allow air to flow across strips of brass or steel, called reeds; these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instrument's reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block; the performer plays the melody on buttons or keys on the right-hand manual, the accompaniment, consisting of bass and pre-set chord buttons, on the left-hand manual. The accordion is spread across the world. In some countries it is used in popular music, whereas in other regions it tends to be more used for dance-pop and folk music and is used in folk music in Europe, North America and South America.
In Europe and North America, some popular music acts make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, jazz music and in both solo and orchestral performances of classical music; the piano accordion is the official city instrument of California. Many conservatories in Europe have classical accordion departments; the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning "harmonic, musical". Today, native versions of the name accordion are more common; these names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, which concerned "automatically coupled chords on the bass side". Accordions have many types. What may be technically possible to do with one accordion could be impossible with another: Some accordions are bisonoric, producing different pitches depending on the direction of bellows movement. Others produce the same pitch in both directions; the pitch depends on its size. Some use a chromatic buttonboard for the right-hand manual.
Others use a diatonic buttonboard for the right-hand manual. Yet others use a piano-style musical keyboard for the right-hand manual; some can play in different registers. Craftsmen and technicians may tune the same registers differently, "personalizing" the end result, such as how an organ technician might voice a particular instrument or tune celeste ranks; the bellows is the most recognizable part of the instrument, the primary means of articulation. Similar to a violin's bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player; the bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal. It is used to create pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibrations, applied pressure increases the volume; the keyboard touch is not expressive and does not affect dynamics: all expression is effected through the bellows. Bellows effects include: Volume control and fade Repeated change of direction, popularized by musicians such as Renato Borghete and Luiz Gonzaga, extensively used in Forró, called resfulengo in Brazil Constant bellows motion while applying pressure at intervals Constant bellows motion to produce clear tones with no resonance Using the bellows with the silent air button gives the sound of air moving, sometimes used in contemporary compositions for this instrument The accordion's body consists of two wooden boxes joined together by the bellows.
These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals. Each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, to allow the sound to project better; the grille for the right-hand manual is larger and is shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment; the size and weight of an accordion varies depending on its type and playing range, which can be as small as to have only one or two rows of basses and a single octave on the right-hand manual, to the standard 120-bass accordion and through to large and heavy 160-bass free-bass converter models. The accordion is an aerophone; the manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it: The term accordion covers a wide range of instruments, with varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format. Not all have switches; the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, used for many musical genres.
Another type of accordion is the button accordion, used in several musical traditions, including Cajun and Tejano music and Austro-German Alpine music, Argentinian tango music. Different systems exist for the right-hand manual of an accordion, used for playing the melody; some use a button layout arranged in another, while others use a piano-style keyboard. Each system has different claimed benefits by those, they are used to define one accordion or another as a different "type": Chromatic button accordions and the bayan, a Russian variant, use a buttonboard where notes are arranged chromatically. Two major syst
Sindh Land Alienation Bill of 1947 was a piece of legislation introduced by the British Sindh Assembly, with the aim of returning the mortgaged land to the owners, Similar to the Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900. The great economic depression caused by the World War I brought miseries to the rural people of Sindh as they were unable to pay taxes and purchase day-to-day needs, other than grain, the only source of survival produced by themselves, thus from the year 1917-1942, all agricultural land-owners drowned in the heavy debts by mortgaging their lands with the urban traders Hindus. As this economic depression spread over the upcoming decades and another great war broke out among the European and Asian powers the more and more people mortgaged their lands and as debts could not be repaid, the lands were transferred to the money lenders by the civil courts and who by year 1947 owned 40% of agricultural land in Sindh; the Sind Provincial Legislative Assembly was established in 1937 under the India Act of 1935.
Muhammad Hashim Gazdar, a member from Karachi tabled the Land Alienation bill in Legislative Assembly. Assembly passed that bill recommending returns of the mortgaged lands to owners, who had thus lost them between 1917 and 1947, free of compensation, on the plea that money lenders had made more money than the original amount and thus repayment was not justified; this created Muslim members of the assembly. The bill for restoring the mortgaged lands to the owners was not allowed to become operative as a law by the newly-formed Government of Pakistan; the bill awaited formal assent of the Indian Viceroy in 1947, to go into effect as a law but the newly arrived Indian Viceroy left the decision of the implementation of the bill to the upcoming government of Pakistan. After the formation of Pakistan, alienation bill came up for the required assent before Jinnah as Governor General of Pakistan but was turned down by the Jinnah on the advice of Liaquat Ali Khan. Thereby, the 40% agricultural land transferred in the possession of outgoing Hindus in the rural areas of Sindh, lost by the Muslim Sindhi farmers due to mortgages, was allotted to the immigrants from India.
Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900
RPS Rajah Soliman was a destroyer escort/frigate that served with the Philippine Navy between 1960 and 1964. A Buckley-class destroyer escort, it was named USS Bowers during its previous service with the United States Navy, it was the first destroyer escort to be operated by the Philippine Navy, is the only member of its class operated by the service. Rajah Soliman was the flagship of the Philippine Navy during its time in commission, which ended with the sinking of the vessel in 1964; the ex-USS Bowers was transferred to the Philippine Navy on 31 October 1960, as a loan under the terms of the Military Assistance Program. Rajah Soliman served as the Philippine Navy's flagship during its entire time service. In June 1964, the ship entered a refit period at the Bataan National Shipyard, located in Mariveles, for repairs to its engines. On 29 June 1964, Typhoon Winnie known as Typhoon Dading, hit the Bataan Peninsula; the storm battered the ship's superstructure and starboard side against the pier, causing Rajah Soliman to capsize and sink at the dock.
The effects of the storm caused the wreck to fill with mud and other debris. After the storm, an attempt to salvage the ship was made by the Philippine Navy; the United States Navy agreed to salvage the ship as a training exercise, between December 1964 and January 1965, two U. S. Navy salvage ships, USS Grasp and USS Bolster, used the parbuckle salvage technique to raise Rajah Soliman's wreck from the harbor floor. After the vessel had been raised, it was towed to the Ship Repair Facility at Subic Naval Base, located nearby. A survey of the raised Rajah Soliman found. Designated for disposal, the hulk was sold for scrapping on 31 January 1966 to Mitsubishi International Corp. Philippine Defense Forum