Accounting or accountancy is the measurement and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants; the terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are used as synonyms. Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, external auditing, tax accounting and cost accounting. Accounting information systems are designed to support related activities. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information, including the preparation of financial statements, to the external users of the information, such as investors and suppliers; the recording of financial transactions, so that summaries of the financials may be presented in financial reports, is known as bookkeeping, of which double-entry bookkeeping is the most common system.
Although accounting has existed in various forms and levels sophistication throughout many human societies, the double-entry accounting system in use today was developed in medieval Europe in Venice, is attributed to the Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli. Today, accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and professional bodies. Financial statements are audited by accounting firms, are prepared in accordance with accepted accounting principles. GAAP is set by various standard-setting organizations such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board in the United States and the Financial Reporting Council in the United Kingdom; as of 2012, "all major economies" have plans to converge towards or adopt the International Financial Reporting Standards. The history of accounting is thousands of years old and can be traced to ancient civilizations; the early development of accounting dates back to ancient Mesopotamia, is related to developments in writing and money.
By the time of Emperor Augustus, the Roman government had access to detailed financial information. Double-entry bookkeeping was pioneered in the Jewish community of the early-medieval Middle East and was further refined in medieval Europe. With the development of joint-stock companies, accounting split into financial accounting and management accounting; the first published work on a double-entry bookkeeping system was the Summa de arithmetica, published in Italy in 1494 by Luca Pacioli. Accounting began to transition into an organized profession in the nineteenth century, with local professional bodies in England merging to form the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales in 1880. Both the words accounting and accountancy were in use in Great Britain by the mid-1800s, are derived from the words accompting and accountantship used in the 18th century. In Middle English the verb "to account" had the form accounten, derived from the Old French word aconter, in turn related to the Vulgar Latin word computare, meaning "to reckon".
The base of computare is putare, which "variously meant to prune, to purify, to correct an account, hence, to count or calculate, as well as to think."The word "accountant" is derived from the French word compter, derived from the Italian and Latin word computare. The word was written in English as "accomptant", but in process of time the word, always pronounced by dropping the "p", became changed both in pronunciation and in orthography to its present form. Accounting has variously been defined as the keeping or preparation of the financial records of an entity, the analysis and reporting of such records and "the principles and procedures of accounting". Accountancy refers to the occupation or profession of an accountant in British English. Accounting has several subfields or subject areas, including financial accounting, management accounting, auditing and accounting information systems. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information to external users of the information, such as investors, potential investors and creditors.
It calculates and records business transactions and prepares financial statements for the external users in accordance with accepted accounting principles. GAAP, in turn, arises from the wide agreement between accounting theory and practice, change over time to meet the needs of decision-makers. Financial accounting produces past-oriented reports—for example the financial statements prepared in 2006 reports on performance in 2005—on an annual or quarterly basis about the organization as a whole; this branch of accounting is studied as part of the board exams for qualifying as an actuary. These two types of professionals and actuaries, have created a culture of being archrivals. Management accounting focuses on the measurement and reporting of information that can help managers in making decisions to fulfill the goals of an organization. In management accounting, internal measures and reports are based on cost-b
"Esse Cara Sou Eu" is an extended play released by Brazilian singer Roberto Carlos in 2012. The EP has sold over 1.7 million copies in Brazil. Among the four present tracks, two are new: the title track, a romantic ballad, "Furdúncio", a funk melody written in partnership with Erasmo Carlos. Both tracks were included on the soundtrack of the Rede Globo's telenovela Salve Jorge in 2012; the CD version includes the song "A Volta", re-recording an old success of Os Vips, composed by Roberto to the duo in 1966, included on the soundtrack of the Globo's telenovela América. The song "A Mulher Que Eu Amo" was featured in the telenovela Viver a Vida broadcast by the same station in 2009; the title track won the Latin Grammy Award for Best Brazilian Song and received a nomination for Song of the Year at the 14th awards ceremony in 2013. In 2014, a Spanish-language version of the EP, Ese Tipo Soy Yo, was released targeting the Latin American market
Stoughton is an MBTA Commuter Rail station in downtown Stoughton, Massachusetts. It is the current terminus of the Stoughton Branch of the Providence/Stoughton Line; the station has a parking lot to serve local riders and those driving from further south, as Stoughton is close to the Massachusetts Route 24 expressway. Stoughton has one platform serving one track; the original station house was built in 1888 for the Old Colony Railroad and has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since January 21, 1974. In December 2018, the administration of Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker announced a $75,000 grant to a restoration project of the original station house. Stoughton station is proposed to be reconstructed as part of Phase 2 of the South Coast Rail project, which would extend the Stoughton Branch south to several South Coast cities in 2030. A second track would be added through the station to support increased bidirectional service. Due to a sharp curve, full-length high-level platforms were thought not to be feasible.
Under newer plans, the tracks would be moved west south of Wyman Street, so that full-length high-level platforms will be built a block south at Brock Street, connected with an overhead pedestrian bridge. A new parking area with nearly twice the number of spaces would be built; the town of Stoughton opposes the plan because it would increase rail traffic though grade crossings in downtown Stoughton. National Register of Historic Places listings in Norfolk County, Massachusetts List of Old Colony Railroad stations Media related to Stoughton station at Wikimedia Commons MBTA - Stoughton Historic American Engineering Record for Stoughton depot: 1969 and 1982 Station from Google Maps Street View