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Acetaldehyde

Acetaldehyde is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO. It is one of the most important aldehydes, occurring in nature and being produced on a large scale in industry. Acetaldehyde occurs in coffee and ripe fruit, is produced by plants, it is produced by the partial oxidation of ethanol by the liver enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and is a contributing cause of hangover after alcohol consumption. Pathways of exposure include air, land, or groundwater, as well as drink and smoke. Consumption of disulfiram inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde, thereby causing it to build up in the body; the International Agency for Research on Cancer has listed acetaldehyde as a Group 1 carcinogen. Acetaldehyde is "one of the most found air toxins with cancer risk greater than one in a million". Acetaldehyde was first observed by the Swedish pharmacist/chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. In 1835, Liebig named it "aldehyde".

In 2003, global production was about 1 million tonnes. Before 1962, ethanol and acetylene were the major sources of acetaldehyde. Since ethylene is the dominant feedstock; the main method of production is the oxidation of ethylene by the Wacker process, which involves oxidation of ethylene using a homogeneous palladium/copper system: 2 CH2=CH2 + O2 → 2 CH3CHOIn the 1970s, the world capacity of the Wacker-Hoechst direct oxidation process exceeded 2 million tonnes annually. Smaller quantities can be prepared by the partial oxidation of ethanol in an exothermic reaction; this process is conducted over a silver catalyst at about 500–650 °C. CH3CH2OH + ​1⁄2 O2 → CH3CHO + H2OThis method is one of the oldest routes for the industrial preparation of acetaldehyde. Prior to the Wacker process and the availability of cheap ethylene, acetaldehyde was produced by the hydration of acetylene; this reaction is catalyzed by mercury salts: C2H2 + Hg2+ + H2O → CH3CHO + HgThe mechanism involves the intermediacy of vinyl alcohol, which tautomerizes to acetaldehyde.

The reaction is conducted at 90–95 °C, the acetaldehyde formed is separated from water and mercury and cooled to 25–30 °C. In the wet oxidation process, iron sulfate is used to reoxidize the mercury back to the mercury salt; the resulting iron sulfate is oxidized in a separate reactor with nitric acid. Traditionally, acetaldehyde was produced by the partial dehydrogenation of ethanol: CH3CH2OH → CH3CHO + H2In this endothermic process, ethanol vapor is passed at 260–290 °C over a copper-based catalyst; the process was once attractive because of the value of the hydrogen coproduct, but in modern times is not economically viable. The hydroformylation of methanol with catalysts like cobalt, nickel, or iron salts produces acetaldehyde, although this process is of no industrial importance. Noncompetitive, acetaldehyde arises from synthesis gas with modest selectivity. Like many other carbonyl compounds, acetaldehyde tautomerizes to give an enol: CH3CH=O ⇌ CH2=CHOH ∆H298,g = +42.7 kJ/molThe equilibrium constant is 6×10−7 at room temperature, thus that the relative amount of the enol form in a sample of acetaldehyde is small.

At room temperature, acetaldehyde is more stable than vinyl alcohol by 42.7 kJ/mol: Overall the keto-enol tautomerization occurs but is catalyzed by acids. Photo-induced keto-enol tautomerization is viable under stratospheric conditions; this photo-tautomerization is relevant to the earth's atmosphere, because vinyl alcohol is thought to be a precursor to carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. Acetaldehyde is a common electrophile in organic synthesis. In condensation reactions, acetaldehyde is prochiral, it is used as a source of the "CH3C+H" synthon in aldol and related condensation reactions. Grignard reagents and organolithium compounds react with MeCHO to give hydroxyethyl derivatives. In one of the more spectacular condensation reactions, three equivalents of formaldehyde add to MeCHO to give pentaerythritol, C4. In a Strecker reaction, acetaldehyde condenses with cyanide and ammonia to give, after hydrolysis, the amino acid alanine. Acetaldehyde can condense with amines to yield imines; these imines can be used to direct subsequent reactions like an aldol condensation.

It is a building block in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. In one example, it converts, to 5-ethyl-2-methylpyridine. Three molecules of acetaldehyde condense to form "paraldehyde", a cyclic trimer containing C-O single bonds. Condensation of four molecules of acetaldehyde give the cyclic molecule metaldehyde. Paraldehyde can be produced in good yields. Metaldehyde is only obtained in a few percent yield and with cooling using HBr rather than H2SO4 as the catalyst. At -40 °C in the presence of acid catalysts, polyacetaldehyde is produced. Acetaldehyde forms a stable acetal upon reaction with ethanol under conditions that favor dehydration; the product, CH3CH2, is formally named 1,1-diethoxyethane but is referred to as "acetal". This can cause confusion as "acetal" is more used to describe compounds with the functional groups RCH2 or RR'C2 rather than referring to

2016 The Republicans (France) presidential primary

The Republicans held a presidential primary election called the open primary of the right and centre, to select a candidate for the 2017 French presidential election. It took place on 20 November 2016, with a runoff on 27 November since no candidate obtained at least 50% of the vote in the first round, it was the first time an open primary had been held for its predecessors. In the first round of the Republicans primary on November 20, François Fillon won an upset victory with 44% of the vote, while Alain Juppé - long held by most opinion polls as the favorite to win the nomination - came in a distant second with 29%. Nicolas Sarkozy, projected to come in second behind Juppé, was eliminated with just under 21% of the vote. In the runoff round, Fillon won by an larger margin with nearly twice as many votes as Juppé. Of the five departments won by Sarkozy in the first round, all but one switched to Fillon in the runoff. Of the thirteen departments that voted for Juppé, nine switched to Fillon in the second round.

Unlike previous Union for a Popular Movement primaries, this was the first primary to be open to the general public. The first round of voting took place on 20 November 2016. Voting booths were open from 7am to 8pm. A runoff was held on 27 November after no candidate obtained at least 50% of the vote in the first round. All registered voters were allowed to vote in the primary, as well as minors whose 18th birthday was before April 23, 2017. 10,228 voting booths were established with each person on the voting register attached to an office. To receive a ballot, a voter must pay 2 euros. People abroad who wanted to vote in The Republicans party were given electronic voting machines to do so. Candidates from The Republicans had to obtain the support of 20 MPs, 2,500 party members and 250 elected representatives to participate. For candidates from other parties, the party themselves would decide the conditions for their submission into the primary. Seven candidates were accepted by the High Authority on September 6, 2016: Xavier Bertrand, President of the Regional Council of Hauts-de-France since 2016, former Mayor of Saint-Quentin from 2010-2016.

Sarkozy, projected to come in second behind Juppé, was eliminated with just under 21% of the vote. In his concession speech, Sarkozy endorsed Fillon and vowed to "embark on a life with more private passions and fewer public passions." This led to some media outlets declaring that "Sarkozy's political career been ended."In the runoff round, Fillon won by an larger margin with nearly twice as many votes as Juppé. Of the five departments won by Sarkozy in the first round, all but one switched to Fillon in the runoff. Of the thirteen departments that voted for Juppé, nine switched to Fillon in the second round. Socialist Party presidential primary, 2017 Official website and results

James Graves (antiquarian)

James Graves was an Irish clergyman and archaeologist of the Victorian era. A native of Kilkenny, James's father, Richard Graves, kept a school in the city, James himself was born on St Canice's day, 11 October, he stated his nurse, regretted he had not been named Kenny, after the patron saint to whom he thus had a double allegiance. He went to Trinity College, Dublin in 1834, from where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1839. Appointed curate to Skeirke in Co. Laois, he obtained preferment, as curate of St Patrick's Kilkenny, was attached as Treasurer to St Canice's Cathedral, before gaining a living in the county. Although married, he had no children, his fame rests in his antiquarian and archaeological interests, rather than in his clerical pursuits. A close friend of John O'Donovan, he was acquainted with George Petrie, like them devoted his life towards the preservation of the antiquities of his native country, his main point of interest however was the architecture of his own city and county, his interests therefore were focussed not on the pre-Norman period of Irish history but on the period from circa 1169 onward.

In particular, he was responsible for the careful conservation work on St Canice's cathedral in Kilkenny city, while he was treasurer, in the 1860s and 1870s he worked through the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, of which he was himself a founding member, towards the conservation of several important ruined medieval churches. Although he is never accorded the degree of fame as a founding father of Irish archaeology, given to Petrie, his effort towards the preservation of medieval Irish buildings was significant. In particular, as a respectable Anglican clergyman, he was able to gain the ear of the establishment more than some of his Catholic contemporaries; this proved of importance after the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland left many ruinous church sites in an ambiguous position, rectified by their being taken into state care as National Monuments. Graves, James; the history and antiquities of the cathedral church of St. Canice, Kilkenny. Grafton Street, Dublin: Hodges, Smith, & co.

Royal Society of Antiquaries. "A Sketch of the Life and Labours of the Late Rev. James Graves, in the Cause of Irish History and Archæology"; the Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. 7: 467–469. JSTOR 25506961. Waddell, John. Foundation Myths: The beginnings of Irish archaeology. Bray: Wordwell. ISBN 978-1-869857-98-1

Infrastructure-based development

Infrastructure-based economic development called infrastructure-driven development, combines key policy characteristics inherited from the Rooseveltian progressivist tradition and Neo-Keynesian economics in the United States, France's Gaullist and Neo-Colbertist centralized economic planning, Scandinavian social democracy as well as Singaporean and Chinese state capitalism: it holds that a substantial proportion of a nation’s resources must be systematically directed towards long term assets such as transportation and social infrastructure in the name of long term economic efficiency and social equity. While the benefits of infrastructure-based development can be debated, the analysis of US economic history shows that at least under some scenarios infrastructure-based investment contributes to economic growth, both nationally and locally, can be profitable, as measured by higher rates of return; the benefits of infrastructure investment are shown both for old-style economies as well as for the new age.

According to a study by D. A. Aschauer, there is a positive and statistically significant correlation between investment in infrastructure and economic performance. Furthermore, the infrastructure investment not only increases the quality of life, based on the time series evidence for the post-World War II period in the United States, infrastructure has positive impact on both labor and multifactor productivity; the multifactor productivity can be defined as the variable in the output function not directly caused by the inputs and public capital. Thus, the impact of infrastructure investment on multifactor productivity is important because the higher multifactor productivity implies higher economic output and hence higher growth. In addition to Aschauer’s work, Munnell’s paper supports the point that infrastructure investment improves productivity. Munell demonstrates that the decrease in multifactor productivity growth during the 1970s and 1980s relative to the 1950s and 1960s is due to the decrease of public capital stock rather than the decline in technological progress.

By showing that public capital plays an important role in private sector production, Munnell helps Aschauer establish that infrastructure investment was a key factor to “the robust performance of the economy in the ‘golden age’ of the 1950s and 1960s.”To prove his point, Aschauer builds a model, using the data for the time period from 1953 to 1988, to simulate the effect of higher public investment on the aggregate economy. His simulation shows that, on net, the increased investment in core infrastructure might have improved the performance of the economy. Aschauer uses the production function Y = F = Z K α G β N 1 − α − β, where: Y = level of output K = private fixed capital G = level of government productive services N = population or labor force Z = index of technological progress α and β are constants determined by available technology, he estimates the production function relation using the average data from 1965 to 1983 for the 50 states. This enables Aschauer to conclude that the level of per capita output is positively and related to core infrastructure investments, in other words an increase in the core infrastructure investments leads to an increase in the level of per capita output.

However, infrastructure has positive impact not just on the national level. By implementing the cross-sectional study of communities in one state, Janet Rives and Michael Heaney confirm “the links identified in national level studies between infrastructure and economic development” are present locally; because infrastructure enters the production function and increases the value of urban land by attracting more firms and house construction, the core infrastructure has a positive effect on economic development locally. According to an overview of multiple studies by Louis Cain, the infrastructure investments have been profitable. For example, Fogel estimated the private rate of return on the Union Pacific Railroad at 11.6%, whereas the social rate that accounts for social benefits, such as improved firm efficiencies and government subsidies, was estimated at 29.9%. In another study and Wallis estimated that the first 500 miles of railroad in a given state led to major increases in property values between 1850 and 1910.

They calculated the revenue gain from the land appreciation to be $33,000-$200,000 per mile, while construction costs were $20,000-$40,000 per mile. Hence, on average the revenue from construction of a new railroad outweighed the costs. While initial construction returns were high, the profitability diminished after the first 500 miles. Though the revenue streams on infrastructure construction investment fall due to diminishing returns, Edward Gramlich indicates that the rate of return on new construction projects was estimated at 15%. Furthermore, the rate of return on maintenance of current highways was estimated at 35%, it means that without further new construction, the investment in the maintenance of the core infrastructure is profitable. Roller and Waverman, utilizing data for 21 OECD countries, including US, over a 20-year period, from 1970 to 1990, examined the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure investments a

Black Beat

Black Beat was a South Korean boy band formed by SM Entertainment. The five-member group released an album Volume 1 - Black Beat #2002 in 2002, they have not promoted as a group since SM Town 2006. Several members are active as vocal trainers for other SM Entertainment artists. In 2007, lead vocalist Jang Jin-young teamed up with Kim Sung-pil ByJinSung. Black Beat used to be a one-member group when they debuted in 2000, they debuted as a seven-member group during Lee Ji-hun's Dream Concert 2000 as back-up vocalists and dancers. Before 2002, Black Beat members performed as dancers for other artists, they have all performed as dancers for S. E. S.' "Dreams Come True" performances. After joining SM Entertainment, Black Beat has appeared in many music videos and performances for other artists S. E. S.. Other artists include BoA, H. O. T. Shinhwa, Fly to the Sky, Shinvi and Lee Ji-hun as dancers, backup vocals and rappers. A video clip of member Jae-won dancing with Hyoyeon, a member of girl group Girls' Generation, has garnered a lot of attention.

Lee So-min Hwang Sang-hoon Jung Ji-hoon Shim Jae-won Jang Jin-young All seven members Shinhwa's "All Your Dreams"Yoo Hyun-jae, Jung Ji Hun, Hwang Sang Hun, Shim Jae-won BoA's "ID Peace B" BoA's "Sara"Yoo Hyun-jae and Shim Jae-won S. E. S.' "Twilight Zone"Yoo Hyun-jae S. E. S.' "Noreul Saranghae"Shim Jae-won H. O. T.'s "We Are the Future" TVXQ's "Why" TVXQ's "I Don't Know" TVXQ's "Superstar" BoA's "Only One"Jang Jin-young Shinhwa's "Wedding March" Volume 1 - Black Beat #2002 - The First Performance #001 Intro The Fan 날개 Lover In The Sky Black Beat Dangerous 회상 Y 헤어지기전 Shine Night Fever 친구 In The Sky (Bonus Track Summer Vacation in SMTown.com June 10, 2002 2002 Winter Vacation in SMTown.com - My Angel My Light December 6, 2002 2003 Summer Vacation in SMTown.com June 18, 2003 2004 Summer Vacation in SMTown.com July 2, 2004 2006 Summer SMTown June 20, 2006 2006 Winter SMTown - Snow Dream December 12, 2006 Black Beat Official Site SM Entertainment's Official Site Black Beat on empas people

CrimethInc.

CrimethInc. Known as CWC, which stands for either "CrimethInc. Ex-Workers Collective" or "CrimethInc Ex-Workers Ex-Collective", is a decentralized anarchist collective of autonomous cells. CrimethInc. Emerged in the mid-1990s as the hardcore zine Inside Front, began operating as a collective in 1996, it has since published read articles and zines for the anarchist movement and distributed posters and books of its own publication. CrimethInc. Cells have published books, released records, organized national campaigns against globalization and representative democracy in favor of radical community organizing. Less public splinter groups have carried out direct action, hosted international conventions and other events, maintained local chapters, sparked riots, toured with multimedia performance art or hardcore anarcho-punk musical ensembles; the collective has received national media and academic attention, as well as criticism and praise from other anarchists for its activities and philosophy. CrimethInc. has an association with the North American anarcho-punk scene due to its relationship with artists in the genre and its publishing of Inside Front as well as more the contemporary anti-capitalist movement.

Activities by CrimethInc. Cells have toured with hardcore anarcho-punk musical ensembles. In 2002, a cell in Olympia, Washington staged a five-day film festival with skill-sharing workshops and screenings. Cells have supported various large-scale campaigns with publicity work, including the "Unabomber for President" and the "Don't Just Vote" election campaigns as well as the protests against the Free Trade Area of the Americas of 2003 in Miami, Florida. Individuals adopting the CrimethInc. Nom de guerre have included convicted ELF arsonists, as well as hacktivists who attacked the websites of DARE, Republican National Committee and sites related to U. S. President George W. Bush's 2004 re-election campaign; these activities have earned the collective irregular attention from the mainstream news media. In 2010, several CrimethInc. Cells worked in collaboration with other anti-capitalists and anarchists to launch international Steal Something From Work Day, which coincides with the United States Tax Day.

The creation of propaganda has been described as the collective's core function. Among their best-known publications are the books Days of War, Nights of Love, Expect Resistance, Recipes for Disaster: An Anarchist Cookbook the pamphlets To Change Everything: an Anarchist Appeal and Fighting For Our Lives, the hardcore punk/political zine Inside Front, the music of hardcore punk bands. Several websites are maintained by individual cells, including Crimethinc.com, operated by the Far East Cell, which hosts propaganda, excerpts from available publications, a blog of the activities of other cells. CrimethInc. is connected to publishing collectives/organizations with similar ideas, notably the Curious George Brigade, which has written a number of publications including Anarchy in the Age of Dinosaurs. In 2005, they began publishing a half-gloss journal, Rolling Thunder, with the byline "An Anarchist Journal of Dangerous Living", which released its eighth issue in 2009. CrimethInc. Texts have received wide coverage in the anarchist media and in academic publications, have been used as reading materials for university courses on anarchism.

CrimethInc. Distributes documentaries such as Breaking the Spell and PickAxe. Since the summer of 2002, CrimethInc. has hosted annual conventions, termed "convergences", open to anyone. Featuring the performances of traveling theatrical troupes, direct-action and mutual-aid workshops from individual participants, the few-days-long camping trips have attracted coverage in newspaper articles, initiated multiple Reclaim the Streets actions, mobilized large Critical Mass events, catalyzed many other activities; the 2007 convergence in Athens, saw an impromptu street party which resulted in arrests on minor charges. The Athens News characterized the convergence as "a sort of networking, resume-swapping opportunity for would-be radicals, free-thinkers, Diggers, Neo-Luddites and other assorted malcontents." It is typical of these gatherings to require that all attendees have something to contribute to the momentum: whether it is bringing food or equipment to share, leading a discussion group, or providing materials with which to write to political prisoners.

There has been a pattern of promoting convergences as festivals, reminiscent of barnstorming flying circuses and travelling sideshows. Harper's journalist Matthew Power described the 2006 convergence in Winona, Minnesota as follows: Several hundred young anarchists from around the country had train-hopped and hitchhiked there to attend the annual event known as the CrimethInc Convergence... Grimy and feral-looking, the CrimethInc kids squatted in small groups around a clearing.... were in the middle of several days of self-organized workshops and discussions, ranging from the mutualist banking theories of the nineteenth-century anarchist philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, to an introductory practicum on lock-picking, to a class on making one's own menstrual pads.... CrimethInc's adherents had come together there because they wanted to live their lives as some sort of solution, they saw ` the revolution' not as an ongoing process. These convergences have been hosted by different groups within the collective each time based on the initiative of local enthusiasts.

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