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Acetate disc

An acetate disc is a type of phonograph record, a mechanical sound storage medium used from the 1930s to the late 1950s for recording and broadcast purposes and still in limited use today. They are known as a lacquer, test acetate, dubplate, or transcription disc. Unlike ordinary vinyl records, which are formed from lumps of plastic by a mass-production molding process, a so-called acetate disc is created by using a recording lathe to cut an audio-signal-modulated groove into the surface of a special lacquer-coated blank disc, a real-time operation requiring expensive, delicate equipment and expert skill for good results, they are made for special purposes never for sale to the general public. They can be played on any normal record player but will suffer from wear more than vinyl; some acetates are prized for their rarity when they contain unpublished material. Acetates are made by dubbing from a master recording in another medium, such as magnetic tape. In the vinyl record manufacturing process, an acetate master disc is cut and electroforming is used to make negative metal molds from it.

Within the vinyl record industry, acetates are used for evaluating the quality of the tape-to-disc transfer. They were once a favored medium for comparing different takes or mixes of a recording, if pressed vinyl copies of an impending new release were not yet available, acetates were used for getting preview copies into the hands of important radio disc jockeys. Acetates were produced in small quantities using elementary cutting machines; the majority of discs found on the market were not labelled or marked, as distributing studios would only at most have their name and address written on the disc. It was up to the recipients to scribble the song title or name of the artist onto the disc by hand. Although once produced in a wide range of sizes and sometimes with glass core discs, the examples most encountered today are 10, 12 or 14 inches in diameter and consist of an aluminium core disc coated with black nitrocellulose lacquer but incorrectly called "acetate". Instantaneous disc history authority Michael Biel attributes the longstanding "acetate" misnomer to some early lacquer disc labels that carried the warning, "Use only acetate needles", meaning the same high grade of individually inspected steel needles required to safely play the needle-damaged pressed flexible acetate transcription discs that were sometimes used in US broadcasting in the 1930s.

Blank discs were traditionally produced in several different grades, with the best and costliest grade featuring the sturdiest core, the thickest coating and the most flawless mirror-like surfaces. These top-quality blanks were intended for cutting the master discs that, once silver-coated, would be electrodeposited with nickel in order to electroform parts used in making stampers for pressing ordinary records. Lower-quality blanks were considered adequate for non-critical uses such as tests and demo discs. Lower-grade blanks were made for home use by amateurs and may be thin and flexible, may have a cardboard rather than a metal or glass base, may have noticeably dull or orange-peel-textured surfaces. In addition to the usual central spindle hole, there is traditionally at least one drive hole in the label area, meant to be engaged by a special pin that prevents the disc from slipping on the turntable during the recording process if the lathe does not have a vacuum turntable. Drive holes are hidden by labels applied after the recording was cut, but they can be detected by careful inspection of the label or by holding the disc up to a light bright enough to penetrate the labels.

Drive holes are no longer standard on lacquer masters, only on "dubs", because the additional holes can interfere with the electroforming process and professional mastering lathes use vacuum turntables that hold the workpiece in place with suction. One pump provides suction for both the turntable and the chip tube that pulls away the fine string of nitrocellulose lacquer removed by the groove-cutting stylus. Acetates have not always been used as a means of evaluating a tape-to-disc transfer or cutting the final master disc, they were used for many purposes before magnetic tape recorders became common, in the modern era they are used by dance music DJs. They were used extensively in Jamaica by sound system operators in the late 1950s. Acetates were used as "demos" of new recordings by artists and record labels. Before the introduction of magnetic tape for mastering, disc recording was done "live", although sometimes intermediate disc-to-disc editing procedures were involved. Before acetate discs were adopted for the purpose, the master recording was cut into a disc of wax-like material, too soft to be played non-destructively and had to be electroplated to produce a metal stamper, in turn used to make playable pressings.

Acetate blanks allowed high-quality playable records to be produced "instantaneously". Acetates were used in radio broadcasting to archive live broadcasts, pre-record local programming, delay network feeds for broadcast at a time, provide programming "from home" on the Armed Forces Radio Network. (In many cases, the AFRN disc is the only form in which a c

David Duffy (banker)

David Joseph Duffy is an Irish banker, the chief executive officer of CYBG PLC, the owners of Clydesdale Bank, Yorkshire Bank and Virgin Money. Duffy was moved to Ireland at the age of two. After his parents split up he was raised in Terenure, south Dublin, by his father's sister and her husband, at the age of 16 changed his surname by deed poll from Madden to avoid confusion, he attended Terenure College in Dublin from 1972 to 1980, followed by Trinity College Dublin where he earned a bachelor's degree in business in 1984, a master's degree. Duffy was the first person in his family to go to University. Duffy began his career with management consulting firm, Craig Gardner, in Dublin in 1984, has held various management roles, including global head and board positions at Goldman Sachs and ING Barings. In 2006, Duffy joined Standard Bank as its CEO, the following year was appointed CEO of Standard Bank International, he was responsible for corporate and investment banking activities, in addition to overseas retail business units.

The role covered Latin America, the UK and Europe. He relocated to Singapore in 2010 where he was head of strategic projects for Standard Bank. Returning to Ireland in 2011, Duffy was appointed CEO of Allied Irish Banks, one of the largest retail and commercial banks in Ireland. Duffy was pivotal in the turnaround of AIB, returning it to a profit making institution after its bail-out by the Irish government. Duffy joined Clydesdale Bank in June 2015 as CEO.. In February 2016 he led the demerger and IPO of Clydesdale Bank from National Australia Bank, recreating an independent banking group, CYBG plc. In July 2017, Duffy became a member of the board of UK Finance, a trade body representing over 300 firms in the UK providing banking, credit and payment-related services. In March 2018, as part of the Chancellor's financial technology strategy, HM Treasury appointed Duffy as FinTech envoy for the regions in England. On 15 October 2018, CYGB completed the acquisition of the Virgin Money group for £1.7 billion.

This was one of the first major deals in the banking sector since the 2008 financial crash. David is CEO of the combined CYBG group, its subsidiaries, Virgin Money and Clydesdale Bank. Duffy has a son, his partner is Carolyn, they have residences in Cork and London. Duffy is a keen sportsman and enjoys running, playing tennis and sailing

Andy North

Andrew Stewart North is an American professional golfer who had three wins on the PGA Tour, including the U. S. Open twice. North was born in Thorp and raised in Monona, Wisconsin, he attended Monona Grove High School, graduating in 1968. He won the 1969 Wisconsin State Amateur Championship at Merrill Hills Country Club in Waukesha, Wisconsin by defeating Richard Sucher in a match play final. North accepted an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Florida in Gainesville, where he played for coach Buster Bishop's Florida Gators men's golf team from 1969 to 1972, he was a three-time first-team All-Southeastern Conference selection, an All-American in 1970, 1971 and 1972. North graduated from Florida with a bachelor's degree in business administration in 1972, was inducted into the University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame as "Gator Great." North turned professional in 1972. He had a moderately successful career on the PGA Tour made remarkable by the fact that two of his three wins on the Tour were in the U.

S. Open; the first PGA Tour win of North's career came at the 1977 American Express Westchester Classic. He was 28 years old when he won the 1978 U. S. Open at Cherry Hills Country Club in Cherry Hills Village, Colorado, he moved into the lead after the second round, was one shot ahead going into Sunday, but an erratic final round left him needing to make a five on the last hole to take the championship. He struggled up the 18th, finding the rough twice and landing in a greenside bunker, but he made a four-foot putt to win by one stroke over J. C. Snead and Dave Stockton. At the 1985 U. S. Open, on the South Course at Oakland Hills Country Club in Bloomfield Hills, North found himself two shots behind Taiwan's Chen Tze-chung going into the final round, but three shots clear of the rest of the field. Chen moved into a four-shot lead early, but threw the tournament wide open by shooting a quadruple bogey eight on the fifth hole; the lead swung between North, Denis Watson, Payne Stewart, Dave Barr, who had surged into contention, but North went into the last hole with a two-shot lead, his bogey five was enough to give him a second major championship.

North played on the 1985 Ryder Cup team. In 1990, he won the PGA Grand Slam of Golf. Since turning 50 in 2000 North has played intermittently on the Champions Tour, his best finish at this level is second in the 2001 Emerald Coast Classic. In 1993, North joined ESPN as an on-course reporter. In 2004, he was promoted to the lead on-course reporter for ABC Sports, he has been the lead analyst on ESPN's golf studio shows with host Scott Van Pelt since 2003. According to ESPN, his preview shows for major championships have been so in-depth that Tour players have been known to watch them to help with course strategy. From 2003 to 2014, North concluded his U. S. Open preview show by dressing up in a doctor's outfit and using an modified formula to pick the winner of the tournament. North eliminates groups of players who he believes will not win by writing them on large white placards which he tosses over the edge of the set. In addition, North serves as a substitute analyst for Wisconsin Badgers men's basketball radio broadcast.

He was elected to the Wisconsin Athletic Hall of Fame in 1998. 1969 Wisconsin Amateur 1971 Western Amateur Major championships are shown in bold. 1978 World Cup 1979 PGA Grand Slam of Golf 1980 Center Open 1990 PGA Grand Slam of Golf, Jerry Ford Invitational 2005 ING Par-3 Shootout 2008 Liberty Mutual Legends of Golf 2000 Liberty Mutual Legends of Golf 2001 Liberty Mutual Legends of Golf 2005 Liberty Mutual Legends of Golf - Raphael Division 2006 Liberty Mutual Legends of Golf - Raphael Division 2007 Liberty Mutual Legends of Golf - Raphael Division CUT = missed the halfway cut "T" indicates a tie for a place. Most consecutive cuts made – 7 Longest streak of top-10s – 1 CUT = missed the halfway cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Professional Ryder Cup: 1985 World Cup: 1978 List of American Ryder Cup golfers List of Florida Gators men's golfers on the PGA Tour List of golfers with most PGA Tour wins List of University of Florida alumni List of University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame members Andy North at the PGA Tour official site Andy North at the Official World Golf Ranking official site Andy North's ESPN Bio

Arizona Airways (1993–1996)

Arizona Airways was an airline, conceived as a regional airline to provide service to cities throughout the Southwestern United States and the Mexican state of Sonora from Texas to California. The airline was in service between 1993 and 1996. Announced in late 1991, Arizona Airways envisioned to create 165 jobs and generate $70 million to the local economy. In March 1992, the carrier was given its FAA approval. After it was given approval, service was to commence in June 1992, with three roundtrips each business day and two each on Saturday and Sunday between Tucson and San Diego. By July 1992, the U. S. Department of Transportation awarded the airline a route from Tucson to Hermosillo. At the time of this announcement, the airline stated it was considering flying all of its domestic flights out of Avra Valley Airport in neighboring Marana due to the higher gate fees at Tucson International Airport. Growth of the airline was rapid in its first year resulting in the carrier offering more flights from Tucson than any other carrier by April 1994.

However, by July 1995 the carrier was unable to pay its fees at the airport and sought out an alliance with Minneapolis-based Great Lakes Aviation to generate additional revenue. In August 1995, the deal with Great Lakes became official and the carrier was rebranded as Arizona Airways Express; the carrier was merged into Great Lakes Airlines on January 15, 1996. In 1995 the company's fleet included two Beechcraft 1300 and two Beechcraft 1900C aircraft. Arizona Bullhead City Phoenix Tucson - Primary Hub California Ontario Orange County San Diego New Mexico Albuquerque Texas El Paso Sonora Ciudad Obregón Guaymas Hermosillo List of defunct airlines of the United States Arizona Airways Timetables at Airtimes.com

Julien Laurens

Julien Laurens is a French football journalist and broadcaster based in London. Laurens works for the French newspaper Le Parisien, has featured on BT Sport Talksport and ESPN as well as contributing to The Times and their podcast The Game and The Guardian and The Daily Star, he has contributed to The Totally Football Show podcast and live shows with James Richardson. Laurens has been a pundit on The Anfield Wrap, he was born in 1981. He is a regular for the BBC and on BBC Radio 5 Live’s Euro leagues show with Mina Rzouki, James Horncastle, Raphael Honigstein. Laurens promised to shave his head on television if Arsenal FC lost a Champions League tie against Ludogorets, which they did not, he was included amongst the most influential Twitter users in UK association football. He is a supporter of Paris St Germain

List of recently extinct arthropods

As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature lists 81 extinct species, 86 extinct species, two extinct in the wild species of arthropod. Extinct species Mecistocephalus cyclops Mecistocephalus sechellarum Extinct species Liocypris grandis Namibcypris costata Extinct species Possibly extinct species Extinct species Possibly extinct species Possibly extinct species Ceratophysella sp.'HC' Delamarephorura tami Extinct species Afrocyclops pauliani Tropodiaptomus ctenopus Includes crabs, crayfish, krill and many others. Extinct species Possibly extinct species Extinct in the wild species Socorro isopod Extinct species Possibly extinct species Extinct in the wild species Oahu deceptor bush cricket List of least concern arthropods List of near threatened arthropods List of vulnerable arthropods List of endangered arthropods List of critically endangered arthropods List of data deficient arthropods