Acetone, or propanone, is an organic compound with the formula 2CO. It is the smallest ketone, it is a colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, in industry and laboratory. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010 for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A. It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner, it has volatile organic compound exempt status in the USA. Acetone is disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes, it is present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show. Ketogenic diets that increase ketone bodies in the blood are used to counter epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from refractory epilepsy. Acetone was first produced by alchemists during the late Middle Ages via the dry distillation of metal acetates.
In 1832, French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas and German chemist Justus von Liebig determined the empirical formula for acetone. In 1833, the French chemist Antoine Bussy named acetone by adding the suffix -one to the stem of the corresponding acid. By 1852, English chemist Alexander William Williamson realized. In 1865, the German chemist August Kekulé published the modern structural formula for acetone. Johann Josef Loschmidt had presented the structure of acetone in 1861, but his published booklet received little attention. During World War I, Chaim Weizmann developed the process for industrial production of acetone. In 2010, the worldwide production capacity for acetone was estimated at 6.7 million tonnes per year. With 1.56 million tonnes per year, the United States had the highest production capacity, followed by Taiwan and mainland China. The largest producer of acetone is INEOS Phenol, owning 17% of the world's capacity, with significant capacity by Mitsui and Shell in 2010. INEOS Phenol owns the world's largest production site in Beveren.
Spot price of acetone in summer 2011 was 1100–1250 USD/tonne in the United States. Acetone is produced indirectly from propylene. 83% of acetone is produced via the cumene process. In the cumene process, benzene is alkylated with propylene to produce cumene, oxidized by air to produce phenol and acetone: Other processes involve the direct oxidation of propylene, or the hydration of propylene to give 2-propanol, oxidized to acetone. Acetone was produced by the dry distillation of acetates, for example calcium acetate in ketonic decarboxylation. Ca2 → CaO + CO2 + 2CO After that time, during World War I, acetone was produced using acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with Clostridium acetobutylicum bacteria, developed by Chaim Weizmann in order to help the British war effort, in the preparation of Cordite; this acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation was abandoned when newer methods with better yields were found. Like most ketones, acetone exhibits the keto-enol tautomerism in which the nominal "keto" structure 2C=O is in equilibrium with the "enol" structure C=.
In acetone vapor at ambient temperature, only 0.00000024% of the molecules are in the enol form. Yet the enol form is chemically important in some chemical reactions. In the presence of suitable catalysts, two acetone molecules combine to form the compound diacetone alcohol C=OC2, which on dehydration gives mesityl oxide C=O=C2; this product can further combine with another acetone molecule, with loss of another molecule of water, yielding phorone and other compouds. One might expect acetone to form polymers and oligomers of two types. In one type, units could be acetone molecules linked by ether bridges –O– derived by from the opening of the double bond, to give a polyketal-like chain n; the other type could be obtained through repeated aldol condensation, with one molecule of water removed at each step, yielding a poly chain n. The conversion of acetone to a polyketal would be analogous to the formation of paraformaldehyde from formol, of trithioacetone from thioacetone. In 1960, Kargin and others observed that the thermodynamics of this process in unfavorable for liquid acetone, so that it is not expected to polymerize spontaneously with catalysts.
However, they observed that the thermodynamics became favorable for crystalline solid acetone at the melting point. They claimed to have obtained such a polymer by depositing vapor of acetone, with some magnesium as a catalyst, onto a cold surface. In 1962, Wasaburo Kawai reported the synthesis of a similar product, from liquid acetone cooled to −70 to -78 °C, using n-butyl lithium or triethylaluminium as catalysts, he claimed that the infrared absorption spectrum showed the presence of –O– linkages but no C=
Haia Lifşiţ or Lifschitz was a Russian-born Romanian communist who died as a result of a hunger strike while in detention for her political opinions. She was born in Bessarabia, in a family of petty civil servants of Jewish origin. While in high school, she joined the local communist organisation. After finishing high school, Haia worked a schoolteacher, however she was soon arrested for her political options by the Romanian authorities, as Bessarabia had joined Greater Romania in 1918, she was set free, but not allowed to teach any more, so she had to work in a factory, where she continued her political activism. In 1923 Haia Lifşiţ was elected in the local committee of the still legal Union of Communist Youth. In May 1924 she was arrested again for distributing manifestos for the Communist Party of Romania, she was included in a group of communists put under trial in a major case, transferred several times around the main cities of Romania. Set free, she was arrested again in 1925 for the same charges.
Lifşiţ decided to flee Romania, emigrated to Belgium Germany, before settling in Vienna, Austria. In the mean time, she was convicted in absentia with 10 years of detention, for "crimes against state security". In the summer of 1926 she returned to Romania, but was apprehended set free for lack of evidence. Haia continued her activism, working for the newspaper Tânărul leninist, the official newspaper of the UTC. In 1928 she was elected the secretary of the Central Committee of the organisation, she was sent to tend party affairs in Oradea and Arad, in western Romania, however there she was arrested and transferred to Cluj for trial. The case involved several other important communist activists and was brought before a military tribunal, the War Council of the 6th Army Corps - Cluj; the trial had an important impact on the public opinion, the group was defended by Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu, who would become one of the communist leaders after World War II. According to Haia's deposition, during the investigations she was tortured and beaten.
During the deposition she demanded the re-legalisation of the UTC and of the Communist Party of Romania, while reaffirming her commitment to the communist ideals. She was sentenced to 8 years of detention, further 10 years of political interdict, she was to pay a large fine. In June 1929, while in jail, Haia started a hunger strike along other comrades convicted in the same trial, demanding to be set free according to a announced amnesty decree. During the following 43 days she accepted only water; this led to a deteriorating health condition, to her death on August 17, 1929, few days before the amnesty decree was put into force. Worried about the echo her death would have on the local population, the Romanian authorities disposed that her body be transported to the cemetery under the guard of the Siguranţa, only by side roads. Only her parents were allowed to attend her burial, but local communists succeeded in organising a small protest. After World War II, Romanian-Moldovan poet Liviu Deleanu composed Poem to Hae Livshitz, adapted in 1965 for choir by Romanian-Moldovan composer Solomon Lobel.
Moldovan playwright and screenwriter Gheorghe Malarciuc wrote a play about the communist activist. Ioniţă, Elisabeta. "Haia Lifşiţ" in Anale de Istorie, Vol. XV, Nr. 5. Institutul de Studii Istorice și Social-Politice de pe lîngă C. C. al P. C. R, Bucharest. Pp. 178-180
Alan Albert Murray was an Australian professional golfer. Murray was born in Sydney, was educated at North Sydney Boys High School, he played golf worldwide, winning 76 tournaments including the 1962 French Open, the 1961 Australian PGA Championship and the 1967 Australian Wills Masters. He was the 1961 Australian PGA Order of Merit winner. In his only start in a major championship, he finished tied for 19th in the 1964 Open Championship. Murray represented Australia in the 1967 World Cup at Mexico City. Murray was a Life Member of the PGA of Australia since 2005 and a co-founder and Life Member of the Singapore PGA, he was the principal director of Champions Golf Academy, coached players of all standards in South East Asia for the past 36 years. Murray died in Western Australia on 24 May 2019 after a long battle with skin cancer. 1960 Queensland Open, Albury Open 1961 Tasmanian Open, New South Wales PGA, Victorian Open, Australian PGA Championship, NSW Cup 1963 North Coast Open 1965 Tasmanian Open, Victorian PGA Championship, Victorian Open, NBC 3 1966 City of Sydney Open, Wagga City Open 1967 Wills Masters, Wagga City Open 1968 City of Sydney Open 1969 Tasmanian Open 1971 Forbes Classic 1962 French Open 1963 Dunlop Invitational 1973 Keppel Open, Sembawang Open, Rolex Masters 1975 Rolex Masters 1978 Rolex Masters 1973 Seletar Open 1974 Tengah Open 1958 Roseville Gold Mashie Cup, PGA Golf Assistants State Championships 1959 Victoria Park Purse 1960 Strathfield Purse, Albury Open, Lismore Open 1961 NSW Jubilee Open, Pymble Cup, Killara Cup, Stockton Pro am, Kempsey Pro am, Asquith Cup, Yarrawonga Open, Dimboola pro am, Oatlands Purse, Richmond Purse 1962 Belmont Purse, Roseville Purse, Manley Purse, St Michaels Purse, David Low Invitational Carnoustie 1963 Liquor Trades Tournament, Kilara Cup, Ashlar Cup 1964 Oatlands Cup, Singapore Open Pro-Am, Richmond Purse, Roseville Purse, McKay Open 1965 Devonport Purse, Eastlakes Cup, Long Reef Pro Am, Mt Lofty Pro Am, Northern Rivers Pro-am, Rockhampton Open, Singapore Open Pro-Am, Carnarvon Purse 1967 Chatswood Open 1969 Cromer Open, Mona Vale Pro Am, Strathfield Open, Rotarua Open, Queenstown Open, Mudgee Open 1971 Wills Pro-Am 1973 19th D.
S. R. A International Tournament World Cup: 1967 List of golfers with most PGA Tour of Australasia wins