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Achaean War

The Achaean War was an uprising by the Greek Achaean League, an alliance of Achaean and other Peloponnesian states in ancient Greece, against the Roman Republic around 146 BC, just after the Fourth Macedonian War. Rome defeated the League swiftly, as a lesson, they destroyed the ancient city of Corinth; the war ended with Greece's independence taken away, Greece became the Roman provinces of Achaea and Epirus. The Roman Republic had developed close ties to the Achaean League through similar religious and military beliefs and a cooperation in the previous Macedonian Wars, but despite co-operation in the latter part of the third century and early second century, political problems in Achaea soon came to a head. Two factions began to emerge - one, championed by the Achaean statesmen Philopoemen and Lycortas, which called for Achaea to determine its own foreign policy according to its own law, one, championed by figures like Aristaenus and Diophanes, who believed in yielding to Rome on all matters of foreign policy.

Achaea was, in addition, undergoing internal pressures beyond the question over the nature of the influence of Rome. The withdrawal of Messene from the Achaean League and further disputes with Sparta over the nature of its position in the League led to growing amounts of micromanagement by the Romans, including the sending in 184 of a Roman, Appius Claudius, to judge the case between Sparta and Achaea; the taking of thousands of hostages by Rome in order to guarantee the compliance of Achaea during the Third Macedonian War, which involved the deportation of the historian Polybius to Rome, was the source of much diplomatic quarrel between Achaea and Rome, it is arguable that this contributed in large part to the souring of relations between the two powers. No less than five embassies were sent by Achaea to Rome seeking the return of the hostages and Roman intransigence demonstrates the power difference between the two; this diplomatic stand-off was the beginning of the events leading to the Achaean War.

Achaean domestic politics at the time played a large part in the coming about of the war. Upon the election of the populist generals Critolaus and Diaeus, economic proposals were made which would relieve the debt burden of the poor, free native-born and native-bred slaves, increase taxes on the rich, all of which, according to Polybius, had the desired effect of increasing support for a nationalistic dispute with Rome amongst the lower classes of Achaea. An uprising around this time by the pretender Andriscus in the Fourth Macedonian War may have spread to Achaea, giving hope that Rome, engaged in the Third Punic War to the West, would be too busy to deal with Greek rebellions against Roman rule. Roman foreign policy in the Greek east in the period following the Third Macedonian War had become in favour of micromanagement and the forced breaking-up of large entities, seen by the regionalisation of Macedon by the general Lucius Mummius Achaicus and the Senate's mission to the magistrate Gallus, upon the application of the town Pleuron to leave the Achaean League, to sever as many cities from it as possible.

In 146, things reached a head when the former consul Lucius Aurelius Orestes was sent to Corinth to announce the forced reduction of the Achaean League to its original, narrow grouping - crippling it and ending its territorial ambitions once and for all. A misguided effort at restoring peace, led by Orestes' former co-consul Sextus Julius Caesar, went badly, the Achaeans, outraged at Rome's actions, whipping up populist sentiment, declared war on Rome; the Achaeans were aware that they were entering a suicidal war of defiance, as Rome had just soundly conquered Macedon, a much more powerful kingdom. The Romans won at Scarpheia conclusively defeated them at the Battle of Corinth; the Achaean league was disbanded and Patras were destroyed as punishment, all of mainland Greece was annexed by Rome. Wilson, N. G. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. Google Books. "Achaean League" A Dictionary of World History. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.

York University. 25 October 2011

Olga Konon

Olga Anatolyevna Konon is a badminton player from Germany, is of Belarusian origin. Konon is known for her attacking style of play, she is coached by Kim Ji Hyun and Per Henrik Croona. Konon won her first major international tournament in 2004, at the Finnish International in the mixed event, she was only 14 at the time. In 2005, she traveled to the north east of England to take on county champions, mixed doubles team Andrew Dodds and Cheryl Wigham. Konon and her partner were beaten 21-9 21-14. In her next match she suffered a knee ligament injury at the Swedish International. After this injury, in 2007, she won a gold medal in girls' doubles and a bronze medal in girls' singles at the European Junior Championships; the following year she won Le Volant d'Or de Toulouse in women's singles, qualified for the 2008 Summer Olympics. In October 2014, the UK launched the National Badminton League; this consists of six national teams. Top national and European players were'auctioned' off and bought by one of the six franchises, Konon was picked to play for the University of Nottingham.

In November 2014, she won her first match for the UON, beating Liz Cann 3-0. At the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, Konon lost in the round of sixteen to top seeded Xie Xinfang 21–16, 21–15. En route to the round of sixteen, she defeated Singapore's Xing Aiying, ranked 23 in the world, 21–19, 21–12. In the round of 32, she beat Slovenia's Maja Tvrdy, 21–17, 21–14. Girls' singles Girls' doubles The BWF World Tour, announced on 19 March 2017 and implemented in 2018, is a series of elite badminton tournaments, sanctioned by Badminton World Federation; the BWF World Tour are divided into six levels, namely World Tour Finals, Super 1000, Super 750, Super 500, Super 300, the BWF Tour Super 100. Mixed doubles Women's singles Women's doubles Mixed doubles BWF International Challenge tournament BWF International Series/ European Circuit tournament Olga Konon at BWF.tournamentsoftware.com Olga Konon at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com

Eddie Freeman (musician)

Eddie Freeman was a noted English jazz musician of the first half of the 20th century and a transcriber and teacher of flamenco guitar music in the latter half. Born Edward F. Freeman in London, the jazz guitarist and flamenco enthusiast spent time pursuing his music career in England and the United States moving to Dallas, where he lived with his family until his death in 1987, his experience playing the tenor banjo led him to create the "Eddie Freeman Special 4-String Guitar" for the Selmer Music Company, towards the end of his career, he made accurate transcriptions of the music of famous flamenco guitarists, taught flamenco guitar.and designed and constructed his own flamenco and classical guitars. Eddie learned to play violin at the age of 12 and became a professional violinist in pit orchestras of silent movie houses in England. While playing in movie houses he took up the tenor banjo. To better master that instrument, he travelled to the United States, where he played with Ricardo Giannoni in New York.

During this period he found it necessary to abandon the tenor banjo in favour of the six string guitar, coming into favour. While convalescing from an illness in Baltimore, he developed a method for adapting the tenor banjo techniques to the guitar, which led to his development of a four-string tenor guitar, the Eddie Freeman Special, using his new method, he returned to London to play in the Harry Roy Orchestra at the London Pavilion. When noted bandleader Al Collins heard of Eddie and listened to him play, Collins signed him up for his orchestra at the Savoy Hotel in London; when Collins switched to the Berkeley Hotel in 1932, Freeman went with him. In the early 1930s, Freeman designed the "Eddie Freeman Special 4-String Guitar" for Selmer Music Company, to implement the guitar method he had developed in Baltimore. One of the Selmer-Maccaferri guitars, the Eddie Freeman Special had the scale-length and body-size of a standard guitar and used a reentrant CGDA tuning that had a better sound for rhythm guitar than the normal tenor guitar with its high A.

Since it was still tuned CGDA, it could be played by tenor banjoists. Selmer-Maccaferri tenor guitars were produced from 1932 until 1934. Nearly 100 of the some 300 genuine Maccaferri guitars that were built were Eddie Freeman Specials; the guitar was not a commercial success, despite heavy promotion by Maccaferri, because of opposition from orchestra guitarists in England who thought it was a threat to their livelihoods. However, in recent years some luthiers such as the late David Hodson in the U. K have started building this four string model again because of demand from their customers. Freeman spent the war years in Belfast playing trumpet and conducting a seven-piece Dixie combo in The Embassy Club. After the war he played trumpet in the Knightsbridge South American Club in London, doubled with jazz guitar in the Bag O'Nails Club. Freeman moved to the Bronx in New York in the mid-1940s and was joined by his wife and two children in 1946. By the early 1950s they had moved to Oceanside, California where he supported himself as a piano tuner.

Inspired by flamenco music, which he first heard at the Savoy Hotel, he left his family in California and travelled to Spain to discover its fundamentals. His search was interrupted when he played violin in the Palma de Majorca Symphony, but in Palma he met guitarist Manolo Baron from whom he learned the basics of flamenco, he formed a flamenco group, Los Tres de Sevilla, with two dancers. When he returned to the US he moved his family to Dallas, where wrote, performed and perfected his knowledge of flamenco, he made accurate transcriptions of the finest flamenco guitarists: Ramon Montoya, Mario Escudero, Carlos Ramos, Esteban de Sanlucar, Nino Ricardo, Paco de Lucia. His earliest publication of a flamenco transcription was of a soleares by Esteban de Sanlucar in Issue number 19 of The Guitar Review in 1956, the same year in which he registered his first US copyrights for his transcriptions, he subsequently published a collection of transcriptions of guitar solos by Carlos Ramos through Charles H.

Hansen Company. Freeman developed a system for teaching Flamenco guitar that differed from the traditional method in which the student learns by watching the teacher's fingerboard and copying what he is doing. Instead, Freeman insisted that his students learn to read standard music notation, devised a simple approach for teaching reading and basic music theory starting with the first lesson in a graded sequence of familiar classical pieces and the Flamenco solos that he had transcribed; each piece in the library of music that formed the basis of his system was selected to develop a particular aspect of technique or understanding of Flamenco in a logical progression. In addition to transcribing and teaching flamenco guitar, Freeman designed and constructed his own flamenco and classical guitars; the entire January 1980 edition of Jaleo, the newsletter of the Flamenco Association of San Diego, was dedicated to articles about him written by his students and family members. Flamenco Tenor banjo Maccaferri guitars