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Acheulean

Acheulean, from the French acheuléen after the type site of Saint-Acheul, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis. Acheulean tools were produced during the Lower Palaeolithic era across Africa and much of West Asia, South Asia, East Asia and Europe, are found with Homo erectus remains, it is thought that Acheulean technologies first developed about 1.76 million years ago, derived from the more primitive Oldowan technology associated with Homo habilis. The Acheulean includes at least the early part of the Middle Paleolithic, its end is not well defined, depending on whether Sangoan is included, it may be taken to last until as late as 130,000 years ago. In Europe and Western Asia, early Neanderthals adopted Acheulean technology, transitioning to Mousterian by about 160,000 years ago; the type site for the Acheulean is Saint-Acheul, a suburb of Amiens, the capital of the Somme department in Picardy, where artifacts were found in 1859.

John Frere is credited as being the first to suggest a ancient date for Acheulean hand-axes. In 1797, he sent two examples to the Royal Academy in London from Hoxne in Suffolk, he had found them in prehistoric lake deposits along with the bones of extinct animals and concluded that they were made by people "who had not the use of metals" and that they belonged to a "very ancient period indeed beyond the present world". His ideas were, ignored by his contemporaries, who subscribed to a pre-Darwinian view of human evolution. Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes, working between 1836 and 1846, collected further examples of hand-axes and fossilised animal bone from the gravel river terraces of the Somme near Abbeville in northern France. Again, his theories attributing great antiquity to the finds were spurned by his colleagues, until one of de Perthe's main opponents, Dr Marcel Jérôme Rigollot, began finding more tools near Saint Acheul. Following visits to both Abbeville and Saint Acheul by the geologist Joseph Prestwich, the age of the tools was accepted.

In 1872, Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet described the characteristic hand-axe tools as belonging to L'Epoque de St Acheul. The industry was renamed as the Acheulean in 1925. Providing calendrical dates and ordered chronological sequences in the study of early stone tool manufacture is accomplished through one or more geological techniques, such as radiometric dating potassium-argon dating, magnetostratigraphy. From the Konso Formation of Ethiopia, Acheulean hand-axes are dated to about 1.5 million years ago using radiometric dating of deposits containing volcanic ashes. Acheulean tools in South Asia have been found to be dated as far as 1.5 million years ago. However, the earliest accepted examples of the Acheulean known come from the West Turkana region of Kenya and were first described by a French-led archaeology team; these particular Acheulean tools were dated through the method of magnetostratigraphy to about 1.76 million years ago, making them the oldest not only in Africa but the world.

The earliest user of Acheulean tools was Homo ergaster, who first appeared about 1.8 million years ago. Not all researchers use this formal name, instead prefer to call these users early Homo erectus. From geological dating of sedimentary deposits, it appears that the Acheulean originated in Africa and spread to Asian, Middle Eastern, European areas sometime between 1.5 million years ago and about 800 thousand years ago. In individual regions, this dating can be refined; however more recent research demonstrated that hand-axes from Spain were made more than 900,000 years ago. Relative dating techniques suggest that Acheulean tools followed on from earlier, cruder tool-making methods, but there is considerable chronological overlap in early prehistoric stone-working industries, with evidence in some regions that Acheulean tool-using groups were contemporary with other, less sophisticated industries such as the Clactonian and later with the more sophisticated Mousterian, as well, it is therefore important not to see the Acheulean as a neatly defined period or one that happened as part of a clear sequence but as one tool-making technique that flourished well in early prehistory.

The enormous geographic spread of Acheulean techniques makes the name unwieldy as it represents numerous regional variations on a similar theme. The term Acheulean does not represent a common culture in the modern sense, rather it is a basic method for making stone tools, shared across much of the Old World; the earliest Acheulean assemblages contain numerous Oldowan-style flakes and core forms and it is certain that the Acheulean developed from this older industry. These industries are known as the Developed Oldowan and are certainly transitional between the Oldowan and Acheulean. In the four divisions of prehistoric stone-working, Acheulean artefacts are classified as Mode 2, meaning they are more advanced than the Mode 1 tools of the Clactonian or Oldowan/Abbevillian industries but lacking the sophistication of the Mode 3 Middle Palaeolithic technology, exemplified by the Mousterian industry; the Mode 1 industries created rough flake tools by hitting a suitable stone with a hammerstone. The resulting flake that broke off would have a natural sharp edge for cutting and could afterwards be sharpened further by striking another smaller flake from

Androidland

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Bo Persson (table tennis)

Bo Persson is a male former international table tennis player for Sweden. He won a bronze medal at the 1967 World Table Tennis Championships in the Swaythling Cup, a feat which he repeated eight years at the 1975 World Table Tennis Championships. In between the two bronze medals he recorded his greatest achievement by winning a gold medal in the Swaythling Cup at the 1973 World Table Tennis Championships as part of the Sweden team that contained Anders Johansson, Kjell Johansson, Stellan Bengtsson and Ingemar Wikström, he won four gold medals in the team event at the European Table Tennis Championships and played wearing spectacles. He became a coach. List of table tennis players List of World Table Tennis Championships medalists