Pharoah Sanders is an American jazz saxophonist. Saxophonist Ornette Coleman once described him as probably the best tenor player in the world, emerging from John Coltranes groups of the mid-1960s, Sanders is known for his overblowing and multiphonic techniques on the saxophone, as well as his use of sheets of sound. Sanders is an important figure in the development of jazz, Albert Ayler famously said, Trane was the Father, Pharoah was the Son. Pharoah Sanders was born Farrell Sanders on October 13,1940 in Little Rock and his mother worked as a cook in a school cafeteria, and his father worked for the City of Little Rock. An only child, Sanders began his career accompanying church hymns on clarinet. His initial artistic accomplishments were in art, but when he was at Scipio Jones High School in North Little Rock, the band director, Jimmy Cannon, was a saxophone player and introduced Sanders to jazz. When Cannon left Scipio Jones High School, Sanders took over as the director until a permanent director could be found.
During the late 1950s, Sanders would often sneak into African-American clubs in downtown Little Rock to play with acts that were passing through. At the time, Little Rock was part of the route through Memphis, Tennessee. Sanders found himself limited by the segregation and the R&B. After finishing high school in 1959, Sanders moved to Oakland, California and he briefly attended Oakland Junior College and studied art and music. Once outside the Jim Crow South, Sanders could play in black and white clubs. His Arkansas connection stuck with him in the Bay Area with the nickname of “Little Rock. ”It was during this time that he met, Pharoah Sanders began his professional career playing tenor saxophone in Oakland, California. He moved to New York City in 1961 after playing with rhythm and he received his nickname Pharoah from bandleader Sun Ra, with whom he was performing. After moving to New York, Sanders had been destitute, He was often living on the streets, under stairs, where ever he could find to stay, his clothes in tatters.
Sun Ra gave him a place to stay, bought him a new pair of pants with yellow stripes, encouraged him to use the name Pharoah. Sanders came to prominence playing with John Coltranes band, starting in 1965, as Coltrane began adopting the avant-garde jazz of Albert Ayler, Sun Ra. Sanders first performed with Coltrane on Ascension, on their dual-tenor recording Meditations, after this Sanders joined Coltranes final quintet, usually performing very lengthy, dissonant solos
A direct-drive turntable is one of the three main phonograph designs currently being produced. The other styles are the belt-drive turntable and the idler-wheel type, each name is based upon the type of coupling used between the platter of the turntable and the motor. In a direct-drive turntable the motor is located directly under the center of the platter and is connected to the platter directly, the first commercially available direct-drive turntable, the model SP-10, was introduced by the Technics division of Matsushita in 1969. Technics introduced the first direct-drive tangential-arm turntable, the model SL-10, direct-drive turntables may suffer from vibration due to the motor. This is less of an issue for belt-drive turntables, however, in recent years, shock-absorbing material, placed between the motor and platter, has been used to cut back on vibrations. The torque on direct-drive turntables is usually higher than on belt drive models. This means the speed is less susceptible to outside forces.
Higher torque means the platter will accelerate to its proper speed faster so less distortion is heard when the record begins to play, some direct-drive turntables further reduce the separation of motor and platter by using the platter itself as the rotor in the turntables synchronous motor. This means that there is no motor, per se, in the turntable - the platter is entirely driven by the field induced by the turntables stator. In all turntables a motor spins a metal disk at a constant speed, on top of the rotating disk is a mat and on top of the mat records are placed to be played. In the past rubber mats were used to hold the record in place so that it would not rotate independently of the platter, nowadays slipmats are used to reduce the friction between the spinning platter and record, and is often made of a felt-like material. This way a DJ can scratch the record while the platter continues to spin underneath, in direct-drive turntables, the slipmat helps isolate the record from motor vibrations that would be picked up by the stylus.
Many turntables include a control, for fine tuning to the correct speed, used in conjunction with a strobe light. From the late 1990s onwards manufacturers such as Vestax started to other electronic controls such as reverse. DJs and turntablists use all the functions to assist them in musical performances
The saxophone is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet, the saxophone family was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in 1840. He patented the saxophone on June 28,1846, in two groups of seven instruments each, each series consisted of instruments of various sizes in alternating transposition. The series pitched in B♭ and E♭, designed for bands, have proved extremely popular. The saxophone is used in music, military bands, marching bands. The saxophone was developed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian instrument maker, born in Dinant and originally based in Brussels, he moved to Paris in 1842 to establish his musical instrument business. Prior to his work on the saxophone, he had several improvements to the bass clarinet by improving its keywork and acoustics. Sax was a maker of the ophicleide, a large conical brass instrument in the bass register with keys similar to a woodwind instrument.
His experience with two instruments allowed him to develop the skills and technologies needed to make the first saxophones. As an outgrowth of his work improving the bass clarinet, Sax began developing an instrument with the projection of a brass instrument and he wanted it to overblow at the octave, unlike the clarinet, which rises in pitch by a twelfth when overblown. An instrument that overblows at the octave has identical fingering for both registers, Sax created an instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece like a clarinet, conical brass body like an ophicleide, and some acoustic properties of both the horn and the clarinet. Having constructed saxophones in several sizes in the early 1840s, Sax applied for, and received, the patent encompassed 14 versions of the fundamental design, split into two categories of seven instruments each, and ranging from sopranino to contrabass. Although the instruments transposed at either F or C have been considered orchestral, the C soprano saxophone was the only instrument to sound at concert pitch.
Saxs patent expired in 1866, numerous saxophonists and instrument manufacturers implemented their own improvements to the design, the first substantial modification was by a French manufacturer who extended the bell slightly and added an extra key to extend the range downwards by one semitone to B♭. It is suspected that Sax himself may have attempted this modification and this extension is now commonplace in almost all modern designs, along with other minor changes such as added keys for alternate fingerings. Using alternate fingerings allows a player to play faster and more easily, a player may use alternate fingerings to bend the pitch. Some of the alternate fingerings are good for trilling, scales, a substantial advancement in saxophone keywork was the development of a method by which the left thumb operates both tone holes with a single octave key, which is now universal on modern saxophones. This enables a chromatic scale to be played two octaves simply by playing the diatonic scale combined with alternately raising and lowering this one digit
Jazz fusion is a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined aspects of jazz harmony and improvisation with styles such as funk, rock and blues, and Latin jazz. During this time many jazz musicians began experimenting with electric instruments and amplified sound for the first time, as well as electronic effects, many of the developments during the late 1960s and early 1970s have since become established elements of jazz fusion musical practice. Fusion arrangements vary in complexity—some employ groove-based vamps fixed to a key, or even a single chord. Others can feature odd or shifting time signatures with elaborate chord progressions, typically, these arrangements, whether simple or complex, will feature extended improvised sections that can vary in length. As with jazz, fusion often employs brass and woodwind instruments such as trumpet and saxophone as melody and soloing instruments, the rhythm section typically consists of electric bass, electric guitar, electric piano/synthesizer and drums.
As with traditional jazz improvisation, fusion instrumentalists generally require a level of technical proficiency. The term jazz-rock is often used as a synonym for jazz fusion as well as for music performed by late 1960s, experimentation continued in the 1990s and 2000s. Fusion albums, even those that are made by the group or artist. Rather than being a musical style, fusion can be viewed as a musical tradition or approach. Afro-Cuban jazz, one the earliest form of Latin jazz, is a fusion of Afro-Cuban clave-based rhythms with jazz harmonies and techniques of improvisation. Afro-Cuban jazz first emerged in the early 1940s with the Cuban musicians Mario Bauza and Frank Grillo Machito in the band Machito and his Afro-Cubans, based in New York City. Early combinations of jazz with Cuban music, such as Dizzys and Pozos Manteca and Charlie Parkers and Machitos Mangó Mangüé, were referred to as Cubop. During its first decades, the Afro-Cuban jazz movement was stronger in the United States than in Cuba itself, allmusic Guide states that until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate.
One of the earliest releases from Pink Floyd, London 66–67 incorporated jazz-influenced improvisation to their psychedelic compositions, these developments made little impact in the United States. Jazz vibraphonist Gary Burton was an innovator in the 1960s, in 1967, Burton worked with electric guitarist Larry Coryell and recorded Duster, which is considered one of the first fusion records. Texas-born guitarist Coryell was a pioneer of jazz in the same era. Trumpeter and composer Miles Davis had a influence on the development of jazz fusion with his 1968 album Miles in the Sky. It is the first of Davis albums to incorporate electric instruments, with Herbie Hancock and Ron Carter playing electric piano and bass guitar, respectively
Soul jazz is a development of jazz incorporating strong influences from blues, soul and rhythm and blues in music for small groups, often an organ trio featuring a Hammond organ. Soul jazz is often associated with hard bop, “Hard bop was an “opening out” in many directions. Gridley, writing for the All Music Guide to Jazz, explains that soul jazz more specifically refers to music with an earthy, bluesy melodic concept and repetitive, dance-like rhythms. Note that some listeners make no distinction between soul-jazz and funky hard bop, and many dont consider soul-jazz to be continuous with hard bop. Roy Carr describes soul jazz as an outgrowth of hard bop, and soul appearing in a jazz context as early as the mid-1950s to describe gospel-informed, down-home, call-and-response blues. Carr notes the influence of Ray Charles small group recordings with Horace Silver, Art Blakey, Cannonball Adderley and Milt Jackson. ”“F. Scott Fitzgerald famously dubbed the 1920’s the Jazz Age. ”Soul jazz developed in the late 1950s.
Cannonball Adderley noted, We were pressured quite heavily by Riverside Records when they discovered there was a word called soul and we became, from an image point of view, soul jazz artists. They kept promoting us that way and I kept deliberately fighting it, while soul jazz was most popular during the mid-to-late 1960s, many soul jazz performers, and elements of the music, remain popular. The Jazz Crusaders, for example, evolved from jazz to soul music. Carr places David Sanborn and Maceo Parker in a line of alto saxophonists that includes Earl Bostic and Tab Smith, with Adderley, followed by Lou Donaldson, as the strongest links in the chain. Les McCann and Eddie Harriss album Swiss Movement was a hit record, as was the accompanying single Compared to What, list of soul-jazz musicians Category, Soul-jazz musicians Soul jazz at AllMusic Soul-Jazz, Where Jazz, Blues And Gospel Meet at NPR Music
A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones most significantly cymbals but including the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some include electronic instruments and both hybrid and entirely electronic kits are used. If some or all of them are replaced by electronic drums, the drum kit is usually played while seated on a drum stool or throne. The drum kit differs from instruments that can be used to produce pitched melodies or chords, even though drums are often placed musically alongside others that do, such as the piano or guitar. The drum kit is part of the rhythm section used in many types of popular and traditional music styles ranging from rock and pop to blues. Other standard instruments used in the section include the electric bass, electric guitar. Many drummers extend their kits from this pattern, adding more drums, more cymbals. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, use small kits that omit elements from the basic setup, some drum kit players may have other roles in the band, such as providing backup vocals, or less commonly, lead vocals.
Thus, in an early 1800s orchestra piece, if the called for bass drum and cymbals. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to them to play more than one instrument. In the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set, the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all played using hand-held drum sticks. Double-drumming was developed to one person to play the bass and snare with sticks. With this approach, the drum was usually played on beats one. This resulted in a swing and dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a trap set. By the 1870s, drummers were using an overhang pedal, most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05, liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist.
The bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve and it was the golden age of drum building for many famous drum companies, with Ludwig introducing
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicians play some string instruments by plucking the strings with their fingers or a plectrum—and others by hitting the strings with a wooden hammer or by rubbing the strings with a bow. In some keyboard instruments, such as the harpsichord or piano, with bowed instruments, the player rubs the strings with a horsehair bow, causing them to vibrate. With a hurdy-gurdy, the musician operates a wheel that rubs the strings. Bowed instruments include the string instruments of the Classical music orchestra. All of the string instruments can be plucked with the fingers. Some types of string instrument are mainly plucked, such as the harp, in the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, string instruments are called chordophones. Other examples include the sitar, banjo, ukulele, in most string instruments, the vibrations are transmitted to the body of the instrument, which often incorporates some sort of hollow or enclosed area.
The body of the instrument vibrates, along with the air inside it, the vibration of the body of the instrument and the enclosed hollow or chamber make the vibration of the string more audible to the performer and audience. The body of most string instruments is hollow, however—such as electric guitar and other instruments that rely on electronic amplification—may have a solid wood body. Archaeological digs have identified some of the earliest stringed instruments in Ancient Mesopotamian sites, like the lyres of Ur, the development of lyre instruments required the technology to create a tuning mechanism to tighten and loosen the string tension. During the medieval era, instrument development varied from country to country, Middle Eastern rebecs represented breakthroughs in terms of shape and strings, with a half a pear shape using three strings. Early versions of the violin and fiddle, by comparison, emerged in Europe through instruments such as the gittern, a four stringed precursor to the guitar and these instruments typically used catgut and other materials, including silk, for their strings.
String instrument design refined during the Renaissance and into the Baroque period of musical history and guitars became more consistent in design, and were roughly similar to what we use in the 2000s. At the same time, the 19th century guitar became more associated with six string models. In big bands of the 1920s, the guitar played backing chords. The development of guitar amplifiers, which contained a power amplifier, the development of the electric guitar provided guitarists with an instrument that was built to connect to guitar amplifiers. Electric guitars have magnetic pickups, volume control knobs and an output jack, in the 1960s, more powerful guitar amplifiers were developed, called stacks
Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago. The style was defined primarily by the deep basslines and squelching sounds of the Roland TB-303 electronic synthesizer-sequencer, Acid house spread to the United Kingdom and continental Europe, where it was played by DJs in the acid house and rave scenes. By the late 1980s, acid house had moved into the British mainstream, Acid house brought house music to a worldwide audience. The influence of house can be heard on styles of dance music including trance, breakbeat hardcore, big beat, techno. Other elements, such as strings and stabs, were usually minimal. Some acid house fans used a smiley face with a streak on it. The origin of this usage was the bloodied smiley from Watchmen on the label of Beat Dis by Bomb the Bass, there are conflicting accounts about how the term acid came to be used to describe this style of house music. One account ties it to Phutures Acid Tracks, before the song was given a title for commercial release, it was played by DJ Ron Hardy at a nightclub where psychedelic drugs were reportedly used.
The clubs patrons called the song Ron Hardys Acid Track, the song was released with the title Acid Trax on Larry Shermans label Trax Records in 1987. Regardless, after the release of Phutures song, the acid house came into common parlance. Some accounts say the reference to acid may be a reference to psychedelic drugs in general, such as LSD. According to Rietveld, it was the house sensibility of Chicago, in a club like Hardys The Music Box, that afforded it its initial meaning. In her view acid connotes the fragmentation of experience and dislocation of meaning due to the effects on thought patterns which the psycho-active drug LSD or Acid can bring about. In the context of the creation of Acid Tracks it indicated a concept rather than the use of drugs in itself. One theory, holding that acid was a reference towards the use of samples in acid house music, was repeated in the press. In this theory, the term came from the slang term acid burning. In 1991, UK Libertarian advocate Paul Staines claimed that he had coined this theory to discourage the government from adopting anti-rave party legislation.
Several accounts claim that Genesis P-Orridge coined the term on the 1988 Psychic TV release “Tune In. ”By other accounts, while shopping in Chicago in 1986, P-Orridge came across a bin of records marked acid, indicating a corrosive liquid, and mistook it for a reference to LSD
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had a sound and smaller dynamic range. An acoustic piano usually has a wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings. Pressing one or more keys on the keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings. The hammer rebounds from the strings, and the continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air, when the key is released, a damper stops the strings vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained, even when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs and this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble.
The black keys are for the accidentals, which are needed to play in all twelve keys, more rarely, some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass that graduates from one to two, the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, and silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. There are two types of piano, the grand piano and the upright piano. The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music and art song and it is used in jazz. The upright piano, which is compact, is the most popular type, as they are a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play. The piano is widely employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances, with technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, and digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became an instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music.
The piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments, pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, and as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches