A papal legate or Apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters, the legate is appointed directly by the pope. The term legation is applied both to a mandate and to the territory concerned. In the High Middle Ages, papal legates were often used to strengthen the links between Rome and the parts of Christendom. More often than not, legates were learned men and skilled diplomats who were not from the country they were accredited to. The Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as legate to England in the early 13th century. Papal legates often summoned legatine councils, which dealt with church government, during the Middle Ages, a legatine council was the usual means that a papal legate imposed his directives. There are several ranks of papal legates in diplomacy, some of which are no longer used, a nuncio performs the same functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges.
Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party and this highest rank is normally awarded to a priest of cardinal rank. It is an investiture and can either be focused or broad in scope. The legate a latere is the ego of the Pope. The legatus natus would act as the representative in his province. Although limited in their jurisdiction compared to legati a latere, a legatus natus were not subordinate to them, literally sent legate, possessing limited powers for the purpose of completing a specific mission. This commission is normally focused in scope and of short duration, some administrative provinces of the Papal states in Italy were governed by a Papal Legate. This has been the case in Benevento, in Pontecorvo and in Viterbo, in four cases, including Bologna, this post was awarded exclusively to Cardinals, the Velletri post was created for Bartolommeo Pacca. The title could be changed to Apostolic Delegate, as happened in Frosinone in 1827, Papal diplomacy Nuncio – an envoy whose diplomatic status is recognized by the receiving state – usually a titular archbishop.
Papal apocrisiarius List of papal legates to England Other Pontifical legate Catholic Encyclopedia, Legate WorldStatesmen - Italy to 1860 - Papal State Maseri, de Legatis et Nunciis Apostolicis Iudiciis Ecclesiasticis Civilibus et Criminalibus Oneribusque Civitatum Cameralibus et Communitativis. Commentatio Canoncia de Legatis et Nuntiis Pontificum, die englische Legation des Cardinals Guido Fulcodi, des spaeteren P. Clemens IV
Nuncio is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, and is the head of the mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature. The Holy See is legally distinct from the Vatican City or the Catholic Church, a nuncio is usually an archbishop. A papal nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary. A nuncio performs the functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, the representative of the Holy See in some situations is called a Delegate or, in the case of the United Nations, Permanent Observer. In the Holy See hierarchy, these usually rank equally to a nuncio, in addition, the nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy See and the Church in that particular nation, supervising the diocesan episcopate and has an important role in the selection of bishops.
The name nuncio is derived from the ancient Latin word, before 1829, Internuncio was the title applied instead to the ad interim head of a mission when one Nuncio had left office and his replacement had not yet assumed it. A legate a latere is a papal representative or a representative for a special purpose. Apostolic delegates have the ecclesiastical rank as nuncios, but have no formal diplomatic status. Archbishop Pio Laghi, for example, was first apostolic delegate, pro-nuncio, to the United States during the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Apostolic delegates are sent to regions such as the West Indies and the islands of the Pacific. Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any change of class shall not affect his precedence and this article is without prejudice to any practice accepted by the receiving State regarding the precedence of the representative of the Holy See. A Holy See Representative is accredited to an organisation where other states dispatch a Permanent Representative
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith, the Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches, each typically governed by a Holy Synod. It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination, prior to the Council of Chalcedon in AD451, the Eastern Orthodox had shared communion with the Oriental Orthodox churches, separating primarily over differences in Christology. Eastern Orthodoxy spread throughout the Roman and Eastern Roman Empires and beyond, playing a prominent role in European, Near Eastern and some African cultures. As a result, the term Greek Orthodox has sometimes used to describe all of Eastern Orthodoxy in general. However, the appellation Greek was never in use and was gradually abandoned by the non-Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox churches. Its most prominent episcopal see is Constantinople, there are many in other parts of the world, formed through immigration and missionary activity.
The official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the Orthodox Catholic Church and it is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, and in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the Church as Catholic and this name and longer variants containing Catholic are recognized and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use, for this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as Greek, even before the great schism. After 1054, Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople and this identification with Greek, became increasingly confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. Today, many of those same Roman churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin.
Eastern, indicates the element in the Churchs origin and development, while Orthodox indicates the faith. While the Church continues officially to call itself Catholic, for reasons of universality, the first known use of the phrase the catholic church occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. Quote of St Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, almost from the very beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the One, Holy and Apostolic Church. The Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same Church, a number of other Christian churches make a similar claim, the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox Churches. The Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church, not directly from the Orthodox Church, the depth of this meaning in the Orthodox Church is registered first in its use of the word Orthodox itself, a union of Greek orthos and doxa
Originally, a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of rule of families by senior males is termed patriarchy. The word patriarch originally acquired its religious meaning in the Septuagint version of the Bible, the word has acquired specific ecclesiastical meanings. In particular, the bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church. The office and the circumscription of such a patriarch is termed a patriarchate. Historically, a patriarch has often been the choice to act as ethnarch of the community identified with his religious confession within a state or empire of a different creed. He included in this the western part of North Africa. Justinians system was given formal recognition by the Quinisext Council of 692. Popes have in the past occasionally used the title Patriarch of the West, beginning 1863, this title appeared in the annual reference publication, Annuario Pontificio, which in 1885 became a semi-official publication of the Holy See.
This publication suppressed the title in its 2006 edition, the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity explained the decision in a press release issued that year. It stated that the title Patriarch of the West had become obsolete and practically unusable, since the Second Vatican Council, the Latin Church, with which the title could be considered associated, is now organized as a number of episcopal conferences and their international groupings. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem The Patriarch of the East Indies a titular see, united to Goa. The Patriarch of Aquileia – with rival line of succession moved to Grado - dissolved in 1752, the Patriarch of Grado – in 1451 merged with the Bishopric of Castello and Venice to form the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Venice. The Patriarch of the West Indies – a titular patriarchal see, the Latin Patriarch of Antioch – title abolished in 1964. The titular Latin Patriarch of Alexandria – title abolished in 1964, the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople – title abolished in 1964.02.24 to Alessandro Cescenzi, former Latin Titular Patriarch of Alexandria, who resigned the title on 1682.01.09.
However, differences exist in the order of precedence and in the mode of accession, no papal confirmation is needed for newly elected patriarchs before they take office. They are just required to petition the pope as soon as possible for the concession of what is called ecclesiastical communion, the five ancient Patriarchates, the Pentarchy, in order of preeminence ranked by the Quinisext Council in 692. The title of patriarch created in 531 by Justinian. The Patriarch of the West, currently not an Episcopal or Patriarchal authority in the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the Great Schism in 1054
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity. The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD and this somewhat ambiguously defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. Although there is no consensus about exactly when Classical Latin should end, nor exactly when Medieval Latin should begin. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar Latin, the latter during those centuries served as proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains to a large extent classical in overall features, some are more literary and classical, some more inclined to the vernacular. Nor is Late Latin identical to Christian or patristic Latin, the writings of the early Christian fathers. While Christian writings are considered a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote much Late Latin, serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary.
Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern terms or concepts, instances of English vernacular use of the term may be found from the 18th century. The term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then, Imperial Latin went on into English literature, Fowlers History of Roman Literature mentions it in 1903. There are, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin, politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, and yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed, subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works. The Silver Age was extended a century and the four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and often pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author.
Its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, the multi-volume set had many editions and expansions by other authors subsequently. The title varies somewhat, most commonly used was Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis and it has been translated by expressions of widely different meanings. The uncertainty is understanding what media and infima, the media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Canges own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, writers of the middle age. Canges Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, in the former case the infimae appears extraneous, it recognizes the corruptio of the corrupta Latinitas Cange said his Glossary covered. The two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero
Abraham Solomon was an English painter. Born as the son of Meyer Solomon, a Leghorn hat manufacturer, by his wife Catherine, in Sandys Street. His father was one of the first Jews to be admitted to the freedom of the city of London, two members of the family besides Abraham became artists. A sister, Rebecca Solomon, exhibited domestic subjects at the Royal Academy, at the age of thirteen Abraham became a pupil in Sasss school of art in Bloomsbury, and in 1838 gained the Isis silver medal at the Society of Arts for a drawing from a statue. In 1839 he was admitted as a student of the Royal Academy, where he received in the year a silver medal for drawing from the antique. Solomon died in Biarritz in France, of disease, on 19 December 1862. He married, on 10 May 1860, sister of Dr. Ernest Hart and these were followed by a scene from the Vicar of Wakefield in 1842, another from Crabbes Parish Register in 1843, and a third from Peveril of the Peak in 1845. The Breakfast Table, exhibited in 1846, and a scene from the Vicar of Wakefield in 1847.
Too Truthful was his contribution to the exhibition of the Royal Academy in 1850, in 1851, also, he sent to the British Institution Scandal and La petite Dieppoise. In 1852 appeared at the Academy The Grisette and a scene from Molières Tartuffe—the quarrel between Mariane and Valère, where Dorine interferes—and in 1853 Brunetta and Phillis, from the Spectator. In 1854, he sent to the Academy First Class, the Meeting, and Second Class, both were engraved in mezzotint by William Henry Simmons, and marked a great advance in Solomons work. They show an originality of conception and design which is not apparent in his earlier work and his next contributions to the Royal Academy were A Contrast in 1855, The Bride and Doubtful Fortune in 1856, and Waiting for the Verdict in 1857. The last picture greatly increased his popularity, but its companion, Not Guilty, both became the property of C. J. Lucas, esq. and were engraved by W. H. Simmons. Blaiz, and The Lion in Love were exhibited at the academy in 1858, Ici on rase and The Fox, Drowned.
in 1860, Consolation and Le Malade Imaginaire in 1861, and The Lost Found in 1862. Art Critics in Brittany appeared at the British Institution in 1861 and his last work, Departure of the Diligence at Biarritz, is now at the Royal Holloway College, Egham. Abraham Solomon artwork database and exhibition history
The sticharion is a liturgical vestment of the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, roughly analogous in function to the alb of the Western Church. The sticharion is worn by all classes of ordained ministers in the Constantinopolitan Rite, the sticharion is derived from the chiton, a long, sleeved garment which reached to the ground and was worn in ancient times by both men and women. Thus in form, it is close to the dalmatic and tunicle of Western Christianity, there is usually a cross embroidered or appliquéd to the center of the back, between the shoulder blades. This type of sticharion is often made from rich brocade in the various liturgical colors, the sticharion is symbolic of a pure and tranquil conscience, a spotless life, and the spiritual joy in the Lord which flows therefrom. The sticharion used by priests and bishops is worn as the undermost vestment, in this form, it is often made from a lighter fabric, satin, etc. and is usually white in color, though it may be made of colored fabric.
The priests sticharion has narrow sleeves that tie at the wrists, the white color symbolizes that the grace of the Holy Spirit covers the celebrant with a garment of salvation. In the Russian tradition, a bishops stikharion can be more elaborately embellished than a priests and is called a podsakkosnik. Coptic priests usually wear a plain, white sticharion, often without an over vestment and Assyrian priests where a similar alb-like garment, called a kottinâ. The Syriac kuttino is now almost always white also, the Armenian patmucan and Ethiopian qamis are similar to the sticharion. Deacons and altar servers wear the sticharion at any service at which they are serving, however, in Greek practice, the custom has developed to wear only the orarion and epimanikia without the sticharion during the lesser services. Before vesting, the deacon or altar servicemen will take his sticharion for the priest to bless before he puts it on, bishops and priests will bless their vestments themselves before vesting.
Each minister will kiss the cross on the back of their phelonion before putting it on, when a bishop is vesting before the Divine Liturgy the prayer above is read by the Protodeacon, as the subdeacons place the vestment upon him. Sometimes this prayer is chanted by the choir during the vesting of the bishop
An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy. An altar server attends to supporting tasks at the altar such as fetching and carrying, ringing the altar bell, a young male altar server is commonly called an altar boy, whereas a young female altar server is commonly called an altar girl. Altar servers are a post-Trent innovation in parish churches, professed acolytes performed these functions, except in womens monasteries where nuns substituted for acolytes. When priestly training developed in seminaries, professed acolytes were no longer available in parishes, so as in convents, substitutes called altar servers developed. In the parishes, only men and boys served at the altar, in the United States, only the Diocese of Lincoln, Nebraska has not granted permission. Even where the bishop grants permission, the priest in charge of a church is not obliged to avail of it, traditionalist Catholic groups such as the FSSP and the Institute of Christ the King and some individual priests do not.
These must receive the ministry of acolyte, which historically was classified as a minor order, Servers hold the liturgical books for the celebrant when he is not at the altar and is proclaiming the presidential prayers with outstretched hands. They bring and hold such things as books, lavabo bowl and towel, communion bowls and they present the cruets of wine and water for the celebrant or deacon to pour some into the chalice. If incense is used, the thurible and incense are presented to the celebrant and, if there is no deacon, a server incenses the celebrant, any concelebrants. When the celebrant washes his hands standing at the side of the altar, The altar server shortly rings the consecration bells twice during the Epiklesis. After each of the consecrations of the bread and wine, the bread and wine is the Body, Soul, the altar servers ring the consecration bells shortly three times, at the elevation of both the Host and Chalice. If incense is used, a server incenses the consecrated host, sign of Peace, The servers may receive the sign of peace from the celebrant or deacon within the sanctuary.
Recessional, The servers lead the celebrant and any concelebrants as at the entrance procession, if a bishop celebrates Mass solemnly, two servers, wearing vimpas, hold the mitre and the crosier, and present them at the appropriate times. Servers may be needed to carry a processional canopy during a procession with the Blessed Sacrament outside, in the Tridentine Mass, the 1962 version of which is an authorized extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, altar servers have the following responsibilities at Low Mass and Missa Cantata. Mass of the Catechumens Processional, Servers carry the thurible, incense boat, processional cross, after the sacristy bells are rung and first genuflection at the high altar, the server takes the priests biretta, kisses it, and places on the Presidential Chair. Post-Epistle, Servers move Missal from Epistle side of the altar to the Gospel side of the altar, Mass of the Faithful Servers ring the altar bell once as the priest unveils the chalice and places the veil on the altar.
Preparation of the chalice, Servers present the cruets of water, lavabo, A server administers the water to the priest as he ritually washes his hands. Beginning of the Sanctus, Altar bell is rung thrice, Canon of Mass, When the priest extends his hands over the chalice and begins the Hanc igitur
Saint Peter, known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn pronunciation, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Hippolytus of Rome, a 3rd-century theologian, gave him the title of Apostle of the Apostles, according to Catholic teaching, Peter was ordained by Jesus in the Rock of My Church dialogue in Matthew 16,18. He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a saint and as founder of the Church of Antioch. The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis and his brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples, originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration.
According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesuss inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, according to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peters Basilica. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope. Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, the Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peters preaching and eyewitness memories. Peters original name was Shimon or Simeon and he was given the name Peter, New Testament Greek Πέτρος derived from πέτρα, which means rock. In the Latin translation of the Bible this became Petrus, a form of the feminine petra. Another version of this name is Aramaic, , after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.
The English and German Peter, French Pierre, the Italian Pietro, the Spanish and Portuguese Pedro, the Syriac or Aramaic word for rock is kepa, which in Greek became Πέτρος, meaning rock. He is known as Simon Peter and Kepha, both Cephas and Kepha mean rock. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus ministry, Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida and he was named Simon, son of Jonah or John
Before the establishment of patriarchs, metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church. They presided over synods of bishops, and were granted privileges by canon law. The Early Church structure generally followed the Roman imperial practice, with one bishop ruling each city, the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province, called suffragans. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops, the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds even if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see and it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, and determine the agenda. It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council, no provincial council can be called if the metropolitan see is vacant.
As of April 2006,508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops,27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, see Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, similarly, a metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province. The metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province, a major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only slightly from that regarding a patriarchal Church, there are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops, in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are generally designated as archbishops.
In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence, some Eastern Orthodox Churches have functioning metropolitans on the middle level of church administration. In Romanian Orthodox Church there are six regional metropolitans who are the chairmen of their respective synods of bishops, for example, Metropolitan of Oltenia has regional jurisdiction over four dioceses. On the other hand, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches title of metropolitan is only honorary, in Serbian Orthodox Church, honorary title of metropolitan is given to diocesan bishops of some important historical sees. For example, diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral is given the title of metropolitan. Diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Dabar-Bosnia is given the title of metropolitan. Non-canonical Eastern Orthodox Churches generally use metropolitan title according to traditions of usage in Churches from which they were split