The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. The word acropolis is from the Greek words ἄκρον and πόλις. Although the term acropolis is generic and there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is known as "The Acropolis" without qualification. During ancient times it was known more properly as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, the supposed first Athenian king. While there is evidence that the hill was inhabited as far back as the fourth millennium BC, it was Pericles in the fifth century BC who coordinated the construction of the site's most important present remains including the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the Temple of Athena Nike; the Parthenon and the other buildings were damaged during the 1687 siege by the Venetians during the Morean War when gunpowder being stored in the Parthenon was hit by a cannonball and exploded.
The Acropolis is located on a flattish-topped rock that rises 150 m above sea level in the city of Athens, with a surface area of about 3 hectares. While the earliest artifacts date to the Middle Neolithic era, there have been documented habitations in Attica from the Early Neolithic period. There is little doubt that a Mycenaean megaron palace stood upon the hill during the late Bronze Age. Nothing of this megaron survives except a single limestone column-base and pieces of several sandstone steps. Soon after the palace was constructed, a Cyclopean massive circuit wall was built, 760 meters long, up to 10 meters high, ranging from 3.5 to 6 meters thick. This wall would serve as the main defense for the acropolis until the 5th century; the wall consisted of two parapets built with large stone blocks and cemented with an earth mortar called emplekton. The wall uses typical Mycenaean conventions in that it followed the natural contour of the terrain and its gate, towards the south, was arranged obliquely, with a parapet and tower overhanging the incomers' right-hand side, thus facilitating defense.
There were two lesser approaches up the hill on its north side, consisting of steep, narrow flights of steps cut in the rock. Homer is assumed to refer to this fortification when he mentions the "strong-built House of Erechtheus". At some time before the 13th century BC, an earthquake caused a fissure near the northeastern edge of the Acropolis; this fissure extended some 35 meters to a bed of soft marl. An elaborate set of stairs was built and the well served as an invaluable, protected source of drinking water during times of siege for some portion of the Mycenaean period. Not much is known about the architectural appearance of the Acropolis until the Archaic era. During the 7th and the 6th centuries BC, the site was controlled by Kylon during the failed Kylonian revolt, twice by Peisistratos. Apart from the Hekatompedon mentioned Peisistratos built an entry gate or Propylaea, it seems that a nine-gate wall, the Enneapylon, had been built around the acropolis hill and incorporating the biggest water spring, the Clepsydra, at the northwestern foot.
A temple to Athena Polias, the tutelary deity of the city, was erected between 570–550 BC. This Doric limestone building, from which many relics survive, is referred to as the Hekatompedon, Ur-Parthenon, H–Architecture or Bluebeard temple, after the pedimental three-bodied man-serpent sculpture, whose beards were painted dark blue. Whether this temple replaced an older one, or just a sacred precinct or altar, is not known; the Hekatompedon was built where the Parthenon now stands. Between 529–520 BC yet another temple was built by the Peisistratids, the Old Temple of Athena referred to as the Arkhaios Neōs; this temple of Athena Polias was built upon the Dörpfeld foundations, between the Erechtheion and the still-standing Parthenon. Arkhaios Neōs was destroyed as part of the Achaemenid destruction of Athens during the Second Persian invasion of Greece during 480–479 BC; the temple may have been burnt down during 406/405 BC as Xenophon mentions that the old temple of Athena was set afire. Pausanias does not mention it in his 2nd century AD Description of Greece.
Around 500 BC the Hekatompedon was dismantled to make place for a new grander building, the "Older Parthenon". For this reason, Athenians decided to stop the construction of the Olympieion temple, connoted with the tyrant Peisistratos and his sons and, used the Piraeus limestone destined for the Olympieion to build the Older Parthenon. In order to accommodate the new temple, the south part of the summit was cleared, made level by adding some 8,000 two-ton blocks of limestone, a foundation 11 m deep at some points, the rest was filled with soil kept in place by the retaining wall. However, after the victorious Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, the plan was revised and marble was used instead; the limestone phase of the building is referred to as Pre-Parthenon I and the marble phase as Pre-Parthenon II. In 485 BC, construction stalled to save resources as Xerxes became king of Persia and war seemed imminent. Th
The Fiji National Rugby Sevens Team is the greatest rugby sevens team in the world. Competes in the World Rugby Sevens Series, Rugby World Cup Sevens and the Olympics, they won the gold medal at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil, the country's first Olympic medal in any event. They are the only country in the world to have won the three major achievements in Sevens, they have won multiple World Rugby Sevens Rugby World Cup Sevens. Fiji Sevens is watched and enjoyed by fans around the world for its style of play — the "Flying Fijians" play with Fijian flair, their passing and offloads can be unorthodox for traditional rugby coaching, more similar to basketball style. Fiji are the only team to win the Sevens Treble, winning the Olympics, Sevens Series And World cup. Many other teams have won the sevens series and world cup but, Fiji is the only team to have won olympic gold; the International Rugby Board expanded the sevens rugby competition to become a series of 11 tournaments around the world.
The debt the FRU incurred from the 2000 sevens series were significant. At the end of December 2000, the FRU was burdened with accumulated losses of F$933,306. Fiji appealed to the IRB for funding arguing that the sevens tournament was built around Fiji and they would not be able to participate without such funding. From that appeal flowed participation funds that enabled the islands teams to play in the World Sevens Series funded. By the end of November 2001, the FRU was sitting on a surplus of F$560,311 compared with the previous year's net loss of F$675,609; the FRU again ran out of money in 2013 to support the national sevens team. The IRB had temporarily suspended funding due to concerns with FRU financial management and governance; the head coach went unpaid for months, other staff were terminated, the team lacked funds for basic supplies such as rugby balls and bottled water. Waisale Serevi is regarded as the best player in sevens rugby. Nicknamed the "maestro", played in this side from 1989 to 2006 leading them to countless tournament victories, two Sevens World Cups in 1997 and 2005.
Fiji has won the World Rugby Sevens Series four times — first in 2005-06, most in 2018-19. Fiji are one of only two teams — along with New Zealand — to finish in the top four of the World Series every season since its inception. Fiji secured their first Olympic medal with a 43–7 win over Great Britain at the Deodoro Stadium in Rio, Brazil; the opening minute saw Osea Kolinisau left one and one with Tom Mitchell and although his fellow captain halted his progress, Kolinisau was still able to stretch and touch the ball down behind his head. Straight away, Fiji had a second try when Samisoni Viriviri muscled his way past two players before offloading to Jerry Tuwai to score under the posts. After that Britain were shell Fiji racked up a further five tries. Fiji has twice won the Rugby World Cup Sevens — first in 1997, again in 2005. Both times, Waisale Serevi was chosen as player of the tournament. World Sevens Series Winners Summer Olympics Gold Rugby World Cup Sevens Champions Commonwealth Games: Silver.
In addition to the players listed above, other notable players include: Gareth Baber -Has won the most tournaments by a Fiji 7s coach and he coached the side to their 4th World Series Title in 2019. Ben Ryan - Ryan coached the Fiji 7s side to 2 back to back world series titles and the countrys first gold medal at the 2016 Rio Olympics. Waisale Serevi — Serevi coached/played in the side from 2005-2007 guiding Fiji to their first World Sevens Series title in the 2005/2006 season. Etuwate Waqa Ratu Kitione Vesikula Alifereti Dere Pauliasi Tabulutu Rupeni Ravonu Peni Veidreyaki Alifereti Cawanibuka Josateki Sovau Tomasi Cama Sanivalati Laulau Tevita Wainiqolo Fiji Rugby Union Fiji national rugby union team McLaren, Bill A Visit to Hong Kong in Starmer-Smith, Nigel & Robertson, Ian The Whitbread Rugby World'90 Official website WorldRugby profile
Sanctum is a first-person shooter tower defense video game, developed by independent developer Coffee Stain Studios. It has been for Steam for Microsoft Windows since April 2011; the successor, Sanctum 2, was announced in 2012 and released in May 2013. In Sanctum, players take on the role of Skye, an elite soldier sent out to protect her home town, Elysion One, from hordes of mysterious alien creatures. To be successful in the task, the player will have to defend a "core" on each level. To accomplish this, the player builds defensive structures, assists their structures by fending off the enemies themselves; the gameplay in Sanctum is divided into the extermination phase. In the building phase, the player builds structures on a pre-defined grid, using the 8'towers' chosen at the start of the level; these towers include stationary weapons, teleporters for the player's use, pads that affect enemies moving over them. The player can upgrade any of the 3 weapons equipped at the start. Building and upgrading both cost points, which are gained.
In the extermination phase, a wave of one or more enemy types moves across the level towards the core. With each enemy that reaches the core, the condition of the core degrades from 100%. Unlike most tower defense games, the player is allowed to move about the level during this phase and attack enemies with different weapon types, much like in a typical first-person shooter. Touching enemies will result in the player being knocked back. There are 10 types of enemies in the game; because certain towers are more effective against certain enemies, only a select few towers affect flying enemies, the player must plan for all possibilities when building defenses. To aid the player in this, information about upcoming waves is shown in the pause menu, as well as descriptions of the various enemies and weapons; the different enemy types have varying travel speeds, hit points, resistances. For example, Runners are fast while Soakers have large health pools and travel slowly; some enemies have complete immunity against certain towers.
Other enemies include the Walker, Bobble-Head and Tank. This variation of enemy traits forces the player to construct different tower types in order to mount a successful defense; the beta was made available to all people. The beta only allowed players to play one map in both multiplayer. Sanctum received mixed reviews from critics; the review aggregation website Metacritic estimates a score of 70 out of 100, based on 22 reviews. Official website