Poetry, has been published in Chicago since 1912. It is one of the leading monthly poetry journals in the English-speaking world. Founded by Harriet Monroe and now published by the Poetry Foundation, it is edited by Don Share. In 2007 the magazine had a circulation of 30,000, printed 300 poems per year out of 100,000 submissions, it is sometimes referred to as Poetry—Chicago. Poetry has been financed since 2003 with a $200 million bequest from Ruth Lilly; the magazine was founded in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, an author, working as an art critic for the Chicago Tribune. She wrote at that time: "The Open Door will be the policy of this magazine—may the great poet we are looking for never find it shut, or half-shut, against his ample genius! To this end the editors hope to keep free from entangling alliances with school, they desire to print the best English verse, being written today, regardless of where, by whom, or under what theory of art it is written. Nor will the magazine promise to limit its editorial comments to one set of opinions."
In a circular she sent to poets, Monroe said the magazine offered: "First, a chance to be heard in their own place, without the limitations imposed by the popular magazine. In other words, while the ordinary magazines must minister to a large public little interested in poetry, this magazine will appeal to, it may be hoped, will develop, a public interested in poetry as an art, as the highest, most complete expression of truth and beauty." "In the first decade of its existence, became the principal organ for modern poetry of the English-speaking world." T. S. Eliot's first professionally published poem, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," was published in Poetry. Prufrock was brought to Monroe's attention by early contributor and foreign correspondent, Ezra Pound; the magazine published the early works of H. D. Robert Frost, Langston Hughes, Edna St. Vincent Millay and Marianne Moore; the magazine discovered such poets as Gwendolyn Brooks, James Merrill, John Ashbery. Contributors have included, William Butler Yeats, Rabindranath Tagore, William Carlos Williams, Joyce Kilmer, Carl Sandburg, Charlotte Wilder, Robert Creeley, Wallace Stevens, Basil Bunting, Yone Noguchi, Carl Rakosi, Dorothy Richardson, Peter Viereck, Louis Zukofsky, Charles Reznikoff, E. E. Cummings, Frank O'Hara, Allen Ginsberg, Ernest Hemingway, James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, Tennessee Williams, Max Michelson among others.
The magazine was instrumental in launching the Objectivist poetic movements. A. R. Ammons once said, "the histories of modern poetry in America and of Poetry in America are interchangeable inseparable." However, in the early years, East Coast newspapers made fun of the magazine, with one calling the idea "Poetry in Porkopolis". Author and poet Jessica Nelson North was an editor. Henry Rago became editor the following year; the magazine first established its online presence in 1998 at poetrymagazine.org and, after a 2003 grant from Ruth Lilly, moved to poetryfoundation.org in 2005. Publication in Poetry is selective and consists of three critical editorial rounds. With a publication rate of submissions at about 1%, the magazine is "one of the most difficult to get ". Monroe continued to publish the magazine, until her death. From 1941, until the establishment of the Foundation in 2003, the magazine was published by the Modern Poetry Association. In 2003, the magazine received a grant from the estate of Ruth Lilly said to be worth over $100 million, but which grew to be about $200 million when it was given out.
The grant added to her substantial prior contributions. The magazine learned in 2001. Before announcing the gift, the magazine waited a year and reconfigured its governing board, concerned with fund-raising; the Poetry Foundation was created, Joseph Parisi |Joseph Parisi, editor of the magazine for two decades, volunteered to head the foundation. Christian Wiman, a young critic and poet, succeeded to the editorship in 2003. Parisi resigned from the foundation after a few months; the new board used a recruiting agency to find John Barr, a wealthy executive, published poet, former head of the Poetry Society of America, to head the foundation. Since receiving the grant, the magazine has increased its budget. For instance, poets who received two dollars per line now get ten. In addition, the magazine continues to give out eight annual author prizes for various types of publications that have appeared in the magazine, these range per endowment from $500 to $5000. Part of the Lilly grant was used to build the Poetry Center in Chicago.
The Center, opened in 2011, holds a library open to the public, houses reading spaces, hosts school and tour groups, provides office and editorial space for the Poetry Foundation and magazine. Christian Wiman took the editorship in 2003. Thanks to direct-mail campaigns, the magazine's circulation has grown from 11,000 to 30,000; the look of the magazine was redesigned in 2005. Wiman "expressed in print a stern preference for formal poems, a disdain for what he calls'broken-prose confessionalism' and'the generic, self-obsessed free-verse poetry of the seventies and eighties", according to a New Yorker magazine article. One of his top goals for the magazine was to get more people "talking about it", he has said. "I tried to put something in every issue that would be provocative in some way." Wiman encouraged them to be frank. In 2005, Wiman wrote in an editorial "Not only was
The common nightingale or nightingale known as rufous nightingale, is a small passerine bird best known for its powerful and beautiful song. It was classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but is now more considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae, it belongs to a group of more terrestrial species called chats. "Nightingale" is derived from "night", the Old English galan, "to sing". The genus name Luscinia is Latin for "nightingale" and megarhynchos is from Ancient Greek megas, "great" and rhunkhos "bill"; the common nightingale is larger than the European robin, at 15–16.5 cm length. It is plain brown above except for the reddish tail, it is buff to white below. Sexes are similar; the eastern subspecies L. m. hafizi and L. m. africana have paler upperparts and a stronger face-pattern, including a pale supercilium. The song of the nightingale has been described as one of the most beautiful sounds in nature, inspiring songs, fairy tales, books, a great deal of poetry, it is a migratory insectivorous species breeding in forest and scrub in Europe and south-west Asia, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa.
It is not found in the Americas. The distribution is more southerly than the closely related thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia, it nests near the ground in dense vegetation. Research in Germany found that favoured breeding habitat of nightingales was defined by a number of geographical factors. Less than 400 m above mean sea level mean air temperature during the growing season above 14 °C more than 20 days/year on which temperatures exceed 25 °C annual precipitation less than 750 millimetres aridity index lower than 0.35 no closed canopyIn the UK, the bird is at the northern limit of its range which has contracted in recent years, placing it on the red list for conservation. Despite local efforts to safeguard its favoured coppice and scrub habitat, numbers fell by 53 percent between 1995 and 2008. A survey conducted by the British Trust for Ornithology in 2012 and 2013 recorded some 3,300 territories, with most of these clustered in a few counties in the south-east of England, notably Kent, Essex and East and West Sussex.
By contrast, the European breeding population is estimated at between 3.2 and 7 million pairs, giving it green conservation status. Common nightingales are so named because they sing at night as well as during the day; the name has been used for more than 1,000 years, being recognisable in its Old English form nihtgale, which means "night songstress". Early writers assumed; the song is loud, with an impressive range of whistles and gurgles. Its song is noticeable at night because few other birds are singing; this is. Only unpaired males sing at night, nocturnal song serves to attract a mate. Singing at dawn, during the hour before sunrise, is assumed to be important in defending the bird's territory. Nightingales sing more loudly in urban or near-urban environments, in order to overcome the background noise; the most characteristic feature of the song is a loud whistling crescendo, absent from the song of thrush nightingale. It has a frog-like alarm call; the common nightingale is an important symbol for poets from a variety of ages, has taken on a number of symbolic connotations.
Homer evokes the nightingale in the Odyssey, suggesting the myth of Procne. This myth is the focus of Tereus, of which only fragments remain. Ovid, too, in his Metamorphoses, includes the most popular version of this myth and altered by poets, including Chrétien de Troyes, Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower, George Gascoigne. T. S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" evokes the common nightingale's song; because of the violence associated with the myth, the nightingale's song was long interpreted as a lament. The common nightingale has been used as a symbol of poets or their poetry. Poets chose the nightingale as a symbol because of its creative and spontaneous song. Aristophanes's Birds and Callimachus both evoke the bird's song as a form of poetry. Virgil compares the mourning of Orpheus to the “lament of the nightingale”. In Sonnet 102 Shakespeare compares his love poetry to the song of the common nightingale: "Our love was new, but in the spring, When I was wont to greet it with my lays. For some romantic poets, the nightingale began to take on qualities of the muse.
The nightingale has a long history with symbolic associations ranging from "creativity, the muse, nature's purity, and, in Western spiritual tradition and goodness." Coleridge and Wordsworth saw the nightingale more as an instance of natural poetic creation: the nightingale became a voice of nature. John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale" pictures the nightingale as an idealized poet who has achieved the poetry that Keats longs to write. Invoking a similar conception of the nightingale, Shelley wrote in his “A Defense of Poetry": "A poet is a nightingale who sits in darkness and sings to cheer its own solitude with sweet sounds.
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories his tales of mystery and the macabre, he is regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of American literature as a whole, he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story. He is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction, he was the first well-known American writer to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe was born in the second child of actors David and Elizabeth "Eliza" Arnold Hopkins Poe, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia, they never formally adopted him. Tension developed as John Allan and Poe clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, the cost of Poe's secondary education.
He left after a year due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name, it was at this time that his publishing career began with the anonymous collection Tamerlane and Other Poems, credited only to "a Bostonian". Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Frances Allan in 1829. Poe failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, he parted ways with John Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism, his work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore and New York City. He married Virginia Clemm in his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success, but Virginia died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. Poe planned for years to produce his own journal The Penn.
He died in Baltimore on October 7, 1849, at age 40. Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography, he and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today; the Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19, 1809, the second child of English-born actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe Jr, he had a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had immigrated from County Cavan, Ireland around 1750. Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeare's King Lear which the couple were performing in 1809, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died a year from consumption. Poe was taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in Richmond, Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods, including tobacco, wheat and slaves.
The Allans served as a foster family and gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe", though they never formally adopted him. The Allan family had Poe baptized in the Episcopal Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son; the family sailed to Britain in 1815, Poe attended the grammar school for a short period in Irvine, Scotland before rejoining the family in London in 1816. There he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer 1817, he was subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby's Manor House School at Stoke Newington a suburb 4 miles north of London. Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In 1824, he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as Richmond celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. In March 1825, John Allan's uncle and business benefactor William Galt died, said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, leaving Allan several acres of real estate; the inheritance was estimated at $750,000.
By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home named Moldavia. Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the University of Virginia in February 1826 to study ancient and modern languages; the university was in its infancy, established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, guns and alcohol, but these rules were ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, report all wrongdoing to the faculty; the unique system was still in chaos, there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts, he claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, he gave up on the university after a year but did not feel welco
Psalm 34 is the 34th psalm of the Book of Psalms, or Psalm 33 according to the Greek numbering system. It is an acrostic poem in one of a series of the songs of thanksgiving, it is the first Psalm. Psalm 34 attributes its own authorship to David; the Psalm's sub-title, A Psalm of David when he pretended madness before Abimelech, who drove him away, he departed, derives from when David was living with the Philistines, but the account of this event in 1 Samuel 21 refers to the king as Achish, not Abimelech. The psalm could be structured in the following manner:Vers 2-4: Hymn Introduction Vers 5: Basic praising, preaching the fate of the Psalmist Vers 6-11: teaching, evident from his fate Vers 12-22: didactic poem 1. Vers 12: psalmist is now "teacher" Vers 13-15: Question - Answer: Vers 16-22 Collection of wise sayingsIt is an acrostic poem in the Hebrew Alphabet, with each letter of the Hebrew alphabet beginning a verse in sequential order. Verse 22, the concluding statement, begins outside the acrostic scheme.
The Old Testament scholar Hermann Gunkel felt that the acrostic nature of the Psalm made any historical, or theological analysis impossible. This psalm is an acrostic of confidence. Is recited in its entirety during Pesukei Dezimra on Shabbat, Yom Tov, Hoshana Rabbah. Verse 4 is recited. Verses 10-11 are part of the final paragraph of Birkat Hamazon. Verses 14-15 form the basis for part of the closing paragraph of the Amidah; some verses of Psalm 34 are referenced in the New Testament: Verse 8 is quoted by St. Peter in 1 Peter 2:3. Verses 12-16 are cited in 1 Peter 3:10-12. Verse 18 is parapharased in Matthew 5:3. Verse 20 is alluded to in the Gospel according to John. According to the Rule of St. Benedict around 530, this psalm was traditionally performed at the office of Matins Monday with monasteries. In the Liturgy of the Hours, Psalm 34 is recited Saturday from the first and third weeks and for the holy celebrations, the median time, it is taken to church as a responsorial psalm. Psalm 34 in Hebrew and English - Mechon-mamre Psalm 34 King James Bible - Wikisource Recording of a slow tune to verses 12-14
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
The Ionians were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period. The Ionian dialect was one of the three major linguistic divisions of the Hellenic world, together with the Dorian and Aeolian dialects; when referring to populations, “Ionian” defines several groups in Classical Greece. In its narrowest sense, the term referred to the region of Ionia in Asia Minor. In its broadest sense, it could be used to describe all speakers of the Ionic dialect, which in addition to those in Ionia proper included the Greek populations of Euboea, the Cyclades, many cities founded by Ionian colonists. In the broadest sense it could be used to describe all those who spoke languages of the East Greek group, which included Attic; the foundation myth, current in the Classical period suggested that the Ionians were named after Ion, son of Xuthus, who lived in the north Peloponnesian region of Aigialeia. When the Dorians invaded the Peloponnese they expelled the Achaeans from the Argolid and Lacedaemonia.
The displaced Achaeans moved in turn expelling the Ionians from the Aegilaus. The Ionians moved to Attica and mingled with the local population of Attica, many emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor founding the historical region of Ionia. Unlike the austere and militaristic Dorians, the Ionians are renowned for their love of philosophy, art and pleasure – Ionian traits that were most famously expressed by the Athenians. Unlike "Aeolians" and "Dorians", "Ionians" appears in the languages of different civilizations around the eastern Mediterranean and as far east as the Indian subcontinent, they are not the earliest Greeks to appear in the records. The trail of the Ionians begins in the Mycenaean Greek records of Crete. A fragmentary Linear B tablet from Knossos bears the name i-ja-wo-ne, interpreted by Ventris and Chadwick as the dative or nominative plural case of *Iāwones, an ethnic name; the Knossos tablets are dated to 1400 or 1200 B. C. and thus pre-date the Dorian dominance in Crete. The name first appears in Greek literature in Homer as Ἰάονες, iāones, used on a single occasion of some long-robed Greeks attacked by Hector and identified with Athenians, this Homeric form appears to be identical with the Mycenaean form but without the *-w-.
This name appears in a fragment of the other early poet, Hesiod, in the singular Ἰάων, iāōn. In the Book of Genesis of the English Bible, Javan is a son of Japheth. Javan is believed nearly universally by Bible scholars to represent the Ionians; the Hebrew is Yāwān, plural Yəwānīm. Additionally, but less Japheth may be related linguistically to the Greek mythological figure Iapetus; the locations of Biblical tribal countries have been the subjects of centuries of scholarship and yet remain to various degrees open questions. The Book of Isaiah gives what may be a hint by listing "the nations... that have not heard my fame" including Javan and after "the isles afar off." Are the isles in apposition to Javan or the last item in the series? If the former, the expression is used of the population of the islands in the Aegean Sea; the date of the Book of Isaiah cannot precede the date of the man Isaiah, in the 8th century BC. Some letters of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BC record attacks by what appear to be Ionians on the cities of Phoenicia:For example, a raid by the Ionians on the Phoenician coast is reported to Tiglath-Pileser III in a letter from the 730s BC discovered at Nimrud.
The Assyrian word, preceded by the country determinative, has been reconstructed as *Iaunaia. More common is ia-a-ma-nu, ia-ma-nu and ia-am-na-a-a with the country determinative, reconstructed as Iamānu. Sargon II related that he took the latter from the sea like fish and that they were from "the sea of the setting sun." If the identification of Assyrian names is correct, at least some of the Ionian marauders came from Cyprus:Sargon's Annals for 709, claiming that tribute was sent to him by'seven kings of Ya, a district of Yadnana whose distant abodes are situated a seven-days' journey in the sea of the setting sun', is confirmed by a stele set up at Citium in Cyprus'at the base of a mountain ravine... of Yadnana.' Ionians appear in Indic literature and documents as Yona. In documents, these names refer to the Indo-Greek Kingdoms; the earliest such documentation is the Edicts of Ashoka, dated to 250 BC, within 20 years. Before the Yavanas appear in the Vedas with reference to the Vedic period, which could be as early as the 2nd millennium BC.
The Vedas are to be distinguished from the much earlier Vedic period. In the Vedas, the Yavanas are a kingdom of Mlechhas, or barbarians, to the far west, out of the line of descent of Indic culture, in the same category as the Sakas, or Skythians, thus were Greek; the Ionians of the Aegean are the identity customarily assigned to them. Ionians appear in a number of Old Persian inscriptions of the Achaemenid Empire as Yaunā, a nominative plural masculine, singular Yauna. At that time the empire extended around the Aegean to northern Greece. Most mo
Actaeon, in Greek mythology, son of the priestly herdsman Aristaeus and Autonoe in Boeotia, was a famous Theban hero. Like Achilles in a generation, he was trained by the centaur Chiron, he fell to the fatal wrath of Artemis, but the surviving details of his transgression vary: "the only certainty is in what Aktaion suffered, his pathos, what Artemis did: the hunter became the hunted. This is the iconic motif by which Actaeon is recognized, both in ancient art and in Renaissance and post-Renaissance depictions. Among others, John Heath has observed, "The unalterable kernel of the tale was a hunter's transformation into a deer and his death in the jaws of his hunting dogs, but authors were free to suggest different motives for his death." In the version, offered by the Hellenistic poet Callimachus, which has become the standard setting, Artemis was bathing in the woods when the hunter Actaeon stumbled across her, thus seeing her naked. He stared, amazed at her ravishing beauty. Once seen, Artemis got revenge on Actaeon: she forbade him speech — if he tried to speak, he would be changed into a stag — for the unlucky profanation of her virginity's mystery.
Upon hearing the call of his hunting party, he cried out to them and transformed. At this he fled deep into the woods, doing so he came upon a pond and, seeing his reflection, groaned, his own hounds turned upon him and pursued him, not recognizing him. In an endeavour to save himself, he raised his eyes toward Mount Olympus; the gods did not heed his plea, he was torn to pieces. An element of the earlier myth made Actaeon the familiar hunting companion of no stranger. In an embroidered extension of the myth, the hounds were so upset with their master's death, that Chiron made a statue so lifelike that the hounds thought it was Actaeon. There are various other versions of his transgression: The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women and pseudo-Apollodoran Bibliotheke state that his offense was that he was a rival of Zeus for Semele, his mother's sister, whereas in Euripides' Bacchae he has boasted that he is a better hunter than Artemis: Further materials, including fragments that belong with the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women and at least four Attic tragedies, including a Toxotides of Aeschylus, have been lost.
Diodorus Siculus, in a variant of Actaeon's hubris, ignored, has it that Actaeon wanted to marry Artemis. Other authors say. According to the Latin version of the story told by the Roman Ovid having accidentally seen Diana on Mount Cithaeron while she was bathing, he was changed by her into a stag, pursued and killed by his fifty hounds; this version appears in Callimachus' Fifth Hymn, as a mythical parallel to the blinding of Tiresias after he sees Athena bathing. The literary testimony of Actaeon's myth is lost, but Lamar Ronald Lacy, deconstructing the myth elements in what survives and supplementing it by iconographic evidence in late vase-painting, made a plausible reconstruction of an ancient Actaeon myth that Greek poets may have inherited and subjected to expansion and dismemberment, his reconstruction opposes a too-pat consensus that has an archaic Actaeon aspiring to Semele, a classical Actaeon boasting of his hunting prowess and a Hellenistic Actaeon glimpsing Artemis' bath. Lacy identifies the site of Actaeon's transgression as a spring sacred to Artemis at Plataea where Actaeon was a hero archegetes The righteous hunter, the companion of Artemis, seeing her bathing naked in the spring, was moved to try to make himself her consort, as Diodorus Siculus noted, was punished, in part for transgressing the hunter's "ritually enforced deference to Artemis".
Notes: Names of dogs were verified to correspond to the list given in Ovid's text where the names were transliterated.? = Seven listed names of dogs in Hyginus' Fabulae, was misread or misinterpreted by authors because it does not correspond to the exact numbers and names given by Ovid: Arcas signifies Arcadia, place of origin of three dogs namely Pamphagos and Oribasus Cyprius means Cyprus, where the dogs Lysisca and Harpalos originated Gnosius can be read as Knossus in Crete, which signify that Ichnobates was a Knossian breed of dog Echnobas, Elion and Therodanapis were place names or adjectives defining the characteristics of dogs In the second century AD, the traveller Pausanias was shown a spring on the road in Attica leading to Plataea from Eleutherae, just beyond Megara "and a little farther on a rock. It is called the bed of Actaeon, for it is said that he slept thereon when weary with hunting and that into this spring he looked while Artemis was bathing in it." In the standard version of the Epic of Gilgamesh there is a parallel, in the series of examples Gilgamesh gives Ishtar of her mistreatment of her serial lovers: "You loved the herdsman and chief shepherd Who was always heaping up the glowing ashes for you, And cooked ewe-lambs for you every day.
But you hit him a