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Act of Congress

An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals; the term can be used in other countries with a legislature named "Congress", such as the Congress of the Philippines. In the United States, Acts of Congress are designated as either public laws, relating to the general public, or private laws, relating to specific institutions or individuals. Since 1957, all Acts of Congress have been designated as "Public Law X-Y" or "Private Law X-Y", where X is the number of the Congress and Y refers to the sequential order of the bill. For example, P. L. 111-5 was the fifth enacted public law of the 111th United States Congress. Public laws are often abbreviated as Pub. L. No. X-Y; when the legislation of those two kinds is proposed, it is called public bill and private bill respectively. The word "act", as used in the term "Act of Congress", is a common, not a proper noun.

The capitalization of the word "act" is deprecated by some dictionaries and usage authorities. Some writers, in particular the U. S. Code, capitalize "Act"; this is a result of the more liberal use of capital letters in legal contexts, which has its roots in the 18th century capitalization of all nouns as is seen in the United States Constitution. "Act of Congress" is sometimes used in informal speech to indicate something for which getting permission is burdensome. For example, "It takes an Act of Congress to get a building permit in this town." An Act adopted by simple majorities in both houses of Congress is promulgated, or given the force of law, in one of the following ways: Signature by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception while the Congress is in session, or Reconsideration by the Congress after a presidential veto during its session. The President promulgates Acts of Congress made by the first two methods. If an Act is made by the third method, the presiding officer of the house that last reconsidered the act promulgates it.

Under the United States Constitution, if the President does not return a bill or resolution to Congress with objections before the time limit expires the bill automatically becomes an Act. In addition, if the President rejects a bill or resolution while the Congress is in session, a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Congress is needed for reconsideration to be successful. Promulgation in the sense of publishing and proclaiming the law is accomplished by the President, or the relevant presiding officer in the case of an overridden veto, delivering the act to the Archivist of the United States. After the Archivist receives the Act, he or she provides for its publication as a slip law and in the United States Statutes at Large. Thereafter, the changes are published in the United States Code. Through the process of judicial review, an Act of Congress that violates the Constitution may be declared unconstitutional by the courts; the judicial declaration of an Act's unconstitutionality does not remove the law from the statute books.

However, future publications of the Act are annotated with warnings indicating that the statute is no longer valid law. Legislation List of United States federal legislation for a list of prominent acts of Congress. Procedures of the United States Congress Act of Parliament Coming into force Enactment Federal Register http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/glossary.html

Division of Northern Melbourne

The Division of Northern Melbourne was an Australian Electoral Division in the state of Victoria. It was located in the inner northern suburbs of Melbourne, was named accordingly, it included parts of the suburbs of Carlton, North Melbourne and Fitzroy. At the redistribution of 13 July 1906, it was replaced by the Division of Batman; the division was held by one member, H. B. Higgins, Attorney General from 1904 to 1905, he did not contest Batman at the 1906 election, as he was appointed a Justice of the High Court of Australia in 1906

United States intelligence operations abroad

The United States is considered to have the most extensive and sophisticated intelligence network of any nation in the world, with notable suborganizations including the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency, amongst others. It has conducted numerous espionage operations against foreign countries, including both allies and rivals; this includes cyber espionage. Through a combination of hacking and secret court orders against American technology companies, the United States has employed mass surveillance of ordinary individuals, both American and foreign nationals alike. Many of these operations have generated public criticism as being unethical. A cache of top secret documents leaked in 2013 by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who obtained them while working for Booz Allen Hamilton, one of the largest contractors for defense and intelligence in the United States. Revealed operational details about the U. S. National Security Agency and its international partners' global surveillance of foreign nationals and U.

S. citizens. In addition to a trove of U. S. federal documents, Snowden's cache contains thousands of Australian and Canadian intelligence files that he had accessed via the exclusive "Five Eyes" network. In June 2013, the first of Snowden's documents were published by The Washington Post and The Guardian, attracting considerable public attention; the disclosure continued throughout the entire year of 2013, a significant portion of the full cache of the estimated 1.7 million documents was obtained and published by many other media outlets worldwide, most notably The New York Times, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Der Spiegel, O Globo, Le Monde, L'espresso, NRC Handelsblad, Dagbladet, El País, Sveriges Television. These media reports have shed light on the implications of several secret treaties signed by members of the UKUSA community in their efforts to implement global surveillance. For example, Der Spiegel revealed how the German Bundesnachrichtendienst transfers "massive amounts of intercepted data to the NSA", while Sveriges Television revealed the National Defence Radio Establishment provided the NSA with data from its cable collection, under a secret treaty signed in 1954 for bilateral cooperation on surveillance.

Other security and intelligence agencies involved in the practice of global surveillance include those in Australia, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, as well as Israel, which receives raw, unfiltered data of U. S. citizens, shared by the NSA. The disclosure provided impetus for the creation of social movements against mass surveillance, such as Restore the Fourth, actions like Stop Watching Us and The Day We Fight Back. On the legal front, the Electronic Frontier Foundation joined a coalition of diverse groups filing suit against the NSA. Several human rights organizations have urged the Obama administration not to prosecute, but protect, "whistleblower Snowden": Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Transparency International, the Index on Censorship, inter alia. Snowden's revelations confirmed that the United States, together with Israel, conducted Operation Olympic Games, a covert and still unacknowledged campaign of sabotage by means of cyber disruption, directed at Iranian nuclear facilities.

As reported, it was one of the first known uses of offensive cyber weapons. Started under the George W. Bush administration in 2006, Olympic Games was accelerated under President Obama, who heeded Bush's advice to continue cyber attacks on Iranian nuclear facility at Natanz. Amongst other things, they created the computer worm Stuxnet, which spread beyond Iran's nuclear facilities to the internet, causing collateral damage in other nations such as India and Indonesia. In 1994, United States trade officials were accompanied with CIA agents to various international locations such as London and Geneva to spy on Japanese auto executives and government officials during Japan-U. S. Negotiations on automotive trade. An article in the New York Times wrote: Spying on allies for economic advantage is a crucial new assignment for the C. I. A. now that American foreign policy is focused on commercial interests abroad. President Clinton made economic intelligence a high priority of his Administration information to protect and defend American competitiveness and financial security in a world where an economic crisis can spread across global markets in minutes.

In April 2010, U. S. President Barack Obama placed Anwar al-Awlaki on a list of people whom the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency was authorized to kill because of terrorist activities; the "targeted killing" of an American citizen was unprecedented. Al-Awlaki's father and civil rights groups challenged the order in court. Al-Awlaki was believed to be in hiding in Southeast Yemen in the last years of his life; the U. S. deployed unmanned aircraft in Yemen to search for and kill him, firing at and failing to kill him at least once, before succeeding in a fatal American drone attack in Yemen on September 30, 2011. Two weeks al-Awlaki's 16-year-old son, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki, a U. S. citizen, born in Denver, was killed by a CIA-led drone strike in Yemen. Nasser al-Awlaki, Anwar's father, released an audio recording condemning the killi