Action Comics 1

Action Comics #1 is the first issue of the original run of the comic book/magazine series Action Comics. It features the first appearance of several comic book heroes—most notably the Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster creation, Superman—and sold for 10 cents, it is considered to be both the beginning of the superhero genre and the most valuable comic book in the world. Action Comics would go on to run for 904 numbered issues before it restarted its numbering in the fall of 2011, it returned to its original numbering with issue #957, published on June 8, 2016 and reached its 1,000th issue in 2018. On August 24, 2014, a copy graded 9.0 by CGC was sold on eBay for US$3,207,852. Action Comics #1 was an anthology, contained eleven features: "Superman" by Siegel and Shuster. "Chuck Dawson" by H. Fleming. "Zatara Master Magician" by Fred Guardineer. "South Sea Strategy" by Captain Frank Thomas. "Sticky-Mitt Stimson" by Alger. "The Adventures of Marco Polo" by Sven Elven. "'Pep' Morgan" by Fred Guardineer. "Scoop Scanlon the Five Star Reporter" by Will Ely.

"Tex Thompson" by Bernard Baily. "Stardust" by "The Star-Gazer". "Odds'N Ends" by "Moldoff". Published on April 18, 1938, by National Allied Publications, a corporate predecessor of DC Comics, it is considered the first true superhero comic. Action Comics was started by publisher Jack Liebowitz; the first issue had a print run of 200,000 copies, which promptly sold out, although it took some time for National to realize that the "Superman" strip was responsible for sales of the series that would soon approach 1,000,000 a month. Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster were paid $10 per page, for a total of $130 for their work on this issue. Liebowitz would say that selecting Superman to run in Action Comics #1 was "pure accident" based on deadline pressure and that he selected a "thrilling" cover, depicting Superman lifting a car over his head. Christopher Knowles, author of Our Gods Wear Spandex: The Secret History of Comic Book Heroes, compared the cover to Hercules Clubs the Hydra by Antonio del Pollaiolo.

In January 1933, Jerry Siegel wrote a short prose story titled "The Reign of the Superman", illustrated by his friend Joe Shuster and self-published in a science fiction magazine. It told the story of a bald villain with telepathic powers. Trying to create a character they could sell to newspaper syndicates, Siegel re-conceived the "superman" character as a powerful hero, sent to our world from a more advanced society, he and Shuster developed the idea into a comic strip. National Publications was looking for a hit to accompany their success with Detective Comics, did not have time to solicit new material. Jack Liebowitz, co-owner of National Publications, told editor Vin Sullivan to create their fourth comic book; because of the tight deadline, Sullivan was forced to make it out of stockpile pages. He needed a lead feature. Sullivan asked former coworker Sheldon Mayer. Mayer found the rejected Superman comic strips, Sullivan told Siegel and Shuster that if they could paste them into 13 comic book pages, he would buy them.

The original panels were rewritten and redrawn to create the first page of Action Comics #1: Baby Superman is sent to Earth by his scientist father in a "hastily-devised space ship" from "a distant planet" which "was destroyed by old age". After the space ship lands on Earth, "a passing motorist, discovering the sleeping baby within, turned the child over to an orphanage"; the baby Superman lifts a large chair overhead with one hand, astounding the orphanage attendants with "his feats of strength". When Superman reaches maturity, he discovers that he can leap 1/8 of a mile, hurdle 20-story buildings, "raise tremendous weights", outrun a train, "that nothing less than a bursting shell could penetrate his skin". Clark decides that "he must turn his titanic strength into channels that would benefit mankind, so was created'Superman', champion of the oppressed...."Two new panels offering a "scientific explanation of Clark Kent's amazing strength" were added. The panels do not explain how he was named Clark Kent.

The next twelve pages showed Superman attempting to save an innocent woman about to be executed while delivering the real murderess and gagged, leaving her on the lawn of the state Governor's mansion after breaking through the door into his house with a signed confession. C. instead of South America, to "stir up news" as his editor wants to investigate a Senator who he suspects is corrupt, prompting a confession by leaping around high buildings with the terrified man, which leads into the next issue. All the while, Clark tries to keep Superman out of the papers. Comics Buyer's Guide estimated in 2012 that only 50 to 100 original copies of Action Comics #1 exist. Action Comics #1 has set several sales records for comic books. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 CGC Grade 8.0 sol

Jhajha–Dibrugarh Weekly Express

The Jhajha - Dibrugarh Weekly Express is an express train belonging to Northeast Frontier Railway zone that runs between Jhajha and Dibrugarh in India. It is being operated with 15941/15942 train numbers on weekly basis; the 15941/Jhajha - Dibrugarh Weekly Express has averages speed of 45 km/hr and covers 1691 km in 37h 50m. The 15942/Dibrugarh - Jhajha Weekly Express has averages speed of 47 km/hr and covers 1691 km in 36h 20m; the important halts of the train are: Jhajha Jasidih Junction Madhupur Junction Asansol Junction Durgapur Siuri Sainthia Junction Rampurhat Junction Malda Town Kishanganj New Jalpaiguri Junction Siliguri Junction Alipurduar Junction New Bongaigaon Junction Kamakhya Junction Guwahati Lumding Junction Dimapur Mariani Junction New Tinsukia Junction Dibrugarh The train has standard ICF rakes with a max speed of 110 kmph. The train consist of 18 coaches: 1 AC II Tier 2 AC III Tier 8 Sleeper Coaches 6 General Unreserved 2 Seating cum Luggage Rake Both trains are hauled by a Howrah Loco Shed based WAP-4 electric locomotive from Jhajha to Durgapur.

From Durgapur, train is hauled by an Andal Loco Shed based WDM 3A diesel locomotive up till Dibrugarh and vice versa. Train Reverses its direction 1 times: Durgapur Jhajha railway station Dibrugarh railway station Rangiya - Dibrugarh Express 15941/Jhajha - Dibrugarh Weekly Express 15942/Dibrugarh - Jhajha Weekly Express

Archaeology of shipwrecks

The archaeology of shipwrecks is the field of Archaeology specialized most in the study and exploration of shipwrecks. Its techniques combine those of archaeology with those of diving to become Underwater archaeology. However, shipwrecks are discovered on, it is necessary to understand the processes by which a wreck site is formed to take into account the distortions in the archaeological material caused by the filtering and scrambling of material remains that occurs during and after the wrecking process. "When a ship is wrecked, it suffers many changes of state until the remains reach equilibrium with their environment. The wrecking process changes it from the human organised form of a working vessel to an unstable state of structure and artefacts underwater. Natural forces act upon it during the wrecking process and continue to act until equilibrium is reached. Heavy items sink lighter items may drift before sinking, while buoyant items may float away completely; this causes a scrambling of the material remains.

The sudden arrival of a structure on the seabed will change the currents resulting in new scour and deposition patterns in the seabed." Once underwater, chemical processes and the action of biological organisms will contribute to the disintegration. At any point in these processes, humans may have intervened, for example by salvaging items of value. Prior to being wrecked, the ship would have operated as an organised machine, its crew, equipment and cargo need to be considered as a system; the material remains should provide clues to the functions of seaworthiness and propulsion as well as to ship-board life. "Finally the ship as a means of transport can be considered as an element in a geographically dispersed social and economic system. Warships impose political will by force. Social status may exist within the ship, for example, segregation between officers and seamen." Shipwrecks that have been underwater for one hundred years or more are protected by the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.

This convention aims at preventing looting and the destruction or loss of historic and cultural information. It helps states parties to protect their underwater cultural heritage with an international legal framework. One such example is the Queen Anne's Revenge, undergoing archaeological recovery by the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources near Beaufort Inlet, NC; the infamous pirate Blackbeard's flagship was discovered by Intersal, Inc. a private research firm, in 1996. A systematic model for the characterisation and interpretation of the archaeology of shipwrecks was first proposed by Keith Muckelroy in 1976 in a paper on the Kennemerland, wrecked in 1664 Muckelroy's system model describes the evolution of the material remains of the ship from the wrecking process, subsequent salvage operations and the disintegration and rearrangements of the remains from environmental factors. Although Muckelroy considered both natural processes and human activity in his model, subsequent research has expanded the environmental factors and there has been little published on the human processes.

A paper by Martin Gibbs in 2006, expands Muckelroy's model to consider human behaviour at the time of the disaster and the long term relationship between people and shipwrecks. This model uses studies of humans involved in disasters to characterise the human activity into phases around the time of the wrecking; this model considers: Pre-impact threat phase, in which humans considering the risk may take avoiding action which results in there being no wreck, or may take unsuccessful action to mitigate the perceived threat, for example the wreck location may be the result of attempting to avoid some perceived greater threat. Stowage of cargo may indicate consideration of threat. Pre-impact warning phase, in which humans may take drastic action to avoid catastrophe, for example, running a vessel ashore, jettisoning cargo or running out anchors. Impact, in which the decision is made to abandon ship or remain aboard, for example, attempt to refloat. Post impact, where survivors regroup and, for example, make repairs.

Rescue and Post-disaster where the vessel is abandoned and in which third parties may be involved in salvage or in removing remains that present a hazard to navigation. Of the many examples where the sea bed provides an hostile environment for submerged evidence of history, one of the most notable, the RMS Titanic, though a young wreck and in deep water so calcium-starved that concretion does not occur, appears strong and intact, though indications are that it has incurred irreversible degradation of her steel and iron hull; as such degradation continues, data will be forever lost, objects' context will be destroyed and the bulk of the wreck will over centuries deteriorate on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Comparative evidence shows that all iron and steel ships those in a oxygenated environment, continue to degrade and will continue to do so until only their engines and other machinery project much above the sea-floor. Where it remains after the passage of time, the iron or steel hull is fragile with no remaining metal within the layer of concretion and corrosion products.

The USS Monitor, having been found in the 1970s, was subjected to a program of attempted in situ preservation, for example, but deterioration of the vessel progressed at such a rate that the rescue of her turret was undertaken lest nothing