Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music and prophecy, the sun and light, plague and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros, Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all gods. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu; as the patron of Delphi, Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Apollo is the god of archery and the invention of archery is credited to him and his sister Artemis, he had a quiver of golden arrows. He is said to have never missed his aim, his arrows could inflict harm by causing sudden deaths or deadly plague.
As the leader of the Muses and director of their choir, Apollo functions as the patron god of music and poetry. He is the inventor of string-music; the Cithara and the lyre are said to be his inventions. The lyre is a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans. Apollo delights in the foundation of towns and the establishment of civil constitution. Hence is associated with dominion over colonists. Additionally, he is the god of the protector of fugitives and refugees. Apollo is the interpreter of laws, he presides over the divine law and custom along with Zeus and Themis. As the protector of young, Apollo is concerned with the health of children, he brings them out of their adolescence. Boys in Ancient Greece, upon reaching their adulthood, dedicated it to Apollo. Apollo is the patron of protector of herds and flocks, he is causes abundance in the milk produced by cattle, is connected with their fertility. As an agricultural deity, Apollo protects the crops from diseases the rust in corns and grains.
He is the controller and destroyer of pests that infect plants and plant harvests. Apollo is the god who wards off evil, he delivered men from the epidemics. Various epithets call him the "averter of evil". In Hellenistic times during the 5th century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun. In Latin texts, there was no conflation of Apollo with Sol among the classical Latin poets until 1st century AD. Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 5th century CE. Apollo The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is not found in the Linear B texts, although there is a possible attestation in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo--[) on the KN E 842 tablet; the etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form, Apellon, is more archaic, as it is derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων, it is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios, the offerings apellaia at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai.
According to some scholars, the words are derived from the Doric word apella, which meant "wall," "fence for animals" and "assembly within the limits of the square." Apella is the name of the popular assembly in corresponding to the ecclesia. R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun. Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι, "to destroy". Plato in Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις, "redemption", with ἀπόλουσις, "purification", with ἁπλοῦν, "simple", in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, with Ἀειβάλλων, "ever-shooting". Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα, which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, he gives the explanation σηκός, "fold", in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα means "stone," and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα and Πελλήνη.
A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name, The Hittite form Apaliunas is attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter related to Hurrian Aplu, a god of plague, in turn from Akkadian Aplu Enlil meaning "the son of Enlil", a title, given to the god Nergal, linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague becoming a god of healing is
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Acarnania is a region of west-central Greece that lies along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, north of the gulf of Calydon, the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. Today it forms the western part of the regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania; the capital and principal city in ancient times was Stratos. The north side of Acarnania of the Corinthian Gulf was considered part of the region of Epirus. Acarnania's foundation in Greek mythology was traditionally ascribed to son of Alcmaeon; the name of Acarnania appears to have been unknown in the earliest times. Homer only calls the country opposite Ithaca and Cephalonia, under the general name of "Epeirus", or the mainland, although he mentions the Aetolians; the country is said to have been inhabited by the Taphii, the Leleges, the Curetes. The Taphii, or Teleboae were chiefly found in the islands off the western coast of Acarnania, where they maintained themselves by piracy; the Leleges were more disseminated, were in possession at one period of Aetolia and other parts of Greece.
The Curetes are said to have come from Aetolia, to have settled in Acarnania, after they had been expelled from the former country by Aetolus and his followers. The name of Acarnania is derived from Acarnan, the son of Alcmaeon, said to have settled at the mouth of the Achelous. If this tradition is of any value, it would intimate that an Argive colony settled on the coast of Acarnania at an early period. In the 7th century BC, Greek influence in the region became prominent when Corinth settled Anactorium and Leucas, Kefalonia settled Astacus; the original inhabitants of the country were driven more into the interior. Settlements in Alyzeia, Limnaea, Oeniadae, Palaerus and Stratus are mentioned by Thucydides, this latter city being the seat of a loose confederation of Acarnanian powers, maintained until the late 1st century BC; the ancient Acarnanians, were Greeks, as such were allowed to contend in the great Pan-Hellenic games, although they were connected with their neighbours, the Agraeans and Amphilochians on the gulf of Ambracian Gulf, who were barbarian or non-Hellenic nations.
Like other rude mountaineers, the Acarnanians are praised for their courage. They formed good light-armed troops, were excellent slingers, they lived, for the most part dispersed in villages, when attacked, to the mountains. Strabo relates that they were united, however, in a political League, of which Aristotle wrote an account in a work now lost. Thucydides mentions a hill, named Olpae, near the Amphilochian Argos, which the Acarnanians had fortified as a place of judicial meeting for the settlement of disputes; the meetings of the League were held at Stratus, the chief town in Acarnania. At an early period, when part of Amphilochia belonged to the Acarnanians, they used to hold a public judicial congress at Olpae, a fortified hill about 3 miles from Argos Amphilochicum. Of the constitution of their League we have scarcely any particulars. We learn from an inscription found at Punta, the site of ancient Actium, that there was a council and a general assembly of the people, by which decrees were passed..
At the head of the League there was a general. The chief priest of the temple of Apollo at Actium seems to have been a person of high rank; because it is located strategically on the maritime route to Italy, Acarnania was involved in many wars. Their hatred against the Corinthian settlers, who had deprived them of all their best ports led the Acarnanians to side with the Athenians; the Acarnanians espoused the cause of the expelled Amphilochians, in order to obtain the restoration of the latter, they applied for assistance to Athens. The Athenians accordingly sent an expedition under Phormio, who took Argos, expelled the Ambraciots, restored the town to the Amphilochians and Acarnanians. An alliance was now formally concluded between the Athenians; the only towns of Acarnania which did not join it were Astacus. The Acarnanians were of great service in maintaining the supremacy of Athens in the western part of Greece, they distinguished themselves in 426 BC, when they gained a signal victory under the command of Demosthenes over the Peloponnesians and Ambraciots at the Battle of Olpae.
At the conclusion of this campaign they concluded a peace with the Ambraciots, although they still continued allies of Athens In 391 BC we find the Acarnanians engaged in war with the Achaeans, who had taken possession of Calydon in Aetolia.
History of the Peloponnesian War
The History of the Peloponnesian War is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War, fought between the Peloponnesian League and the Delian League. It was written by Thucydides, an Athenian historian who happened to serve as an Athenian general during the war, his account of the conflict is considered to be a classic and regarded as one of the earliest scholarly works of history. The History is divided into eight books. Analyses of the History occur in one of two camps. On the one hand, some scholars view the work as an scientific piece of history; the judgment of J. B. Bury reflects his traditional interpretation of the work: " severe in its detachment, written from a purely intellectual point of view, unencumbered with platitudes and moral judgments and critical."On the other hand, in keeping with more recent interpretations that are associated with reader-response criticism, the History can be read as a piece of literature rather than an objective record of the historical events. This view is embodied in the words of W. R. Connor, who describes Thucydides as "an artist who responds to, selects and skillfully arranges his material, develops its symbolic and emotional potential."
Thucydides is considered to be one of the great "fathers" of Western history, thus making his methodology the subject of much analysis in area of historiography. Thucydides is one of the first western historians to employ a strict standard of chronology, recording events by year, with each year consisting of the summer campaign season and a less active winter season; this method contrasts with Herodotus. Thucydides makes extensive use of speeches in order to elaborate on the event in question. While the inclusion of long first-person speeches is somewhat alien to modern historical method, in the context of ancient Greek oral culture speeches are expected; these include addresses given to troops by their generals before battles and numerous political speeches, both by Athenian and Spartan leaders, as well as debates between various parties. Of the speeches, the most famous is the funeral oration of Pericles, found in Book Two. Thucydides undoubtedly heard some of these speeches himself while for others he relied on eyewitness accounts.
These speeches are suspect in the eyes of Classicists, inasmuch as it is not clear to what degree Thucydides altered these speeches in order to elucidate better the crux of the argument presented. Some of the speeches are fabricated according to his expectations of, as he puts it, "what was called for in each situation". Despite being an Athenian and a participant in the conflict, Thucydides is regarded as having written a unbiased account of the conflict with respect to the sides involved in it. In the introduction to the piece he states, "my work is not a piece of writing designed to meet the taste of an immediate public, but was done to last for ever". There are scholars, who doubt this. Ernst Badian, for example has argued. In keeping with this sort of doubt, other scholars claim that Thucydides had an ulterior motive in his Histories to create an epic comparable to those of the past such as the works of Homer, that this led him to create a nonobjective dualism favoring the Athenians; the work does display a clear bias against certain people involved in the conflict, such as Cleon.
The gods play no active role in Thucydides' work. This is different from Herodotus, who mentions the role of the gods, as well as a nearly ubiquitous divine presence in the centuries-earlier poems of Homer. Instead, Thucydides regards history as being caused by the actions of human beings. Despite the absence of actions of the gods and piety play critical roles in the actions of the Spartans, to a lesser degree, the Athenians, thus natural occurrences such as earthquake and eclipses were viewed as religiously significant Despite the absence of the gods from Thucydides' work, he still draws from the Greek mythos from Homer, whose works are prominent in Greek mythology. Thucydides references Homer as a source of information, but always adds a distancing clause, such as "Homer shows this, if, sufficient evidence," and "assuming we should trust Homer's poetry in this case too."However, despite Thucydides' lack of trust in information, not experienced firsthand, such as Homer's, he does use the poet's epics to infer facts about the Trojan War.
For instance, while Thucydides considered the number of over 1,000 Greek ships sent to Troy to be a poetic exaggeration, he uses Homer's Catalog of Ships to determine the approximate number of Greek soldiers who were present. Thucydides claims that since Homer never makes reference to a united Greek state, the pre-Hellenic nations must have been so disjointed that they could not organize properly to launch an effective campaign. In fact, Thucydides claims that Troy could have been conquered in half the time had the Greek leaders allocated resources properly and not sent a large portion of the army on raids for supplies. Thucydides makes sure to inform his reader that he, unlike Homer, is not a poet prone to exaggeration, but instead a historian, whose stories may not give "momentary pleasure," but "whose intended meaning will be challenged by the truth of the facts." By distancing himself from the storytelling practices of Homer, Thucydides makes it clear that while he does consider mythology and epics to be evidence, these works cannot be given much credibility, that it takes an impartial and empirically minded historian, such as himself, to po
Laureys a Castro
Laureys a Castro or Lourenço A. Castro was a Flemish painter of marine views and portraits, known for his work executed in England between 1672 and 1700, he was regarded as a leading marine painter in England. There are few details about Laureys a Castro’s life and training, it is assumed. His family was of Portuguese descent and had settled in Antwerp to escape the persecution of Jews during the Portuguese Inquisition of the early 1600s, it is assumed. Laureys is recorded as a'wijnmeester' in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1664-65. Based on the subjects of his paintings, he travelled and visited many Mediterranean ports such as Lisbon, Genoa and Sicily. Around 1670-72 he settled in England where he was active as a marine and portrait painter working principally on commission, it is not know where he died. No paintings are attributed to him after the end of the 17th century. A record of 1695 of “Lawrence Castro” in Whitecross Street and various works by an artist of that name in English collections suggest that Castro was at that time still working in England.
Castro’s period of activity is variously given as 1664 to 1700 and 1672 to 1686. The latter, shorter period is based on the known dated paintings of Castro. While Castro is known for his marine paintings, he painted portraits, religious subjects and genre scenes. Many of his works are held in English private and public collections, in particular in the Dulwich Picture Gallery, which holds about seven works and the National Maritime Museum, which holds three works, his marine paintings cover the whole range of subjects typical for marine painters in the 17th century such as sailing ships and galleys at sea, port scenes, Mediterranean harbour capriccios, ships in distress, storms at sea and naval battles. These compositions show him to be steeped in Dutch traditions of marine painting, his seascapes evidence a vigour and vividness of colour while some of his battle scenes are calm. He created many renderings of naval battles and his earliest dated painting is a 1672 imaginary interpretation of the Battle of Actium.
He painted a panoramic view of the Battle of Lepanto. This painting may have been inspired by the reproduced Dutch line engraving after Stradanus of 1590; the work, which depicts the defeat of the Turkish naval force by a European coalition in 1571, is undated but was painted around 1683, the year that the Turks unsuccessfully laid siege to Vienna. It is that the general relief after the retreat of the Turks before Vienna provided the impulse for this composition. Castro depicted more contemporary naval engagements such as in his A Sea Fight with Barbary Corsairs, which gives a dramatic depiction of a close combat engagement with Barbary pirates. Another recurring theme of his compositions are capriccios of Mediterranean ports, it is that Castro was acquainted with Mediterranean ports such as Genoa and Lisbon. The ports depicted in these compositions are not always identifiable. A good example is the A Mediterranean port with a Maltese, Spanish and a Dutch man-o’-war, which depicts a frigate sailing into a Mediterranean port where there are a Dutch man-of-war, two or three Spanish vessels and a Maltese galley alongside the quay.
The harbour town and the many persons onshore are painted in detail making it possible to recognize a Knight of Malta. Castro is believed to have painted religious paintings as indicated by a drawing of a Virgin with Child, St John the Baptist and Angels in the Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent, he was a capable portraitist as demonstrated by the Portrait of Sir Robert Clayton, a full-length portrait of Sir Robert Clayton in ceremonial robes. Engravings made by John Smith after designs by Castro show that he may have produced genre scenes. Media related to Laureys a Castro at Wikimedia Commons
Isaac Casaubon was a classical scholar and philologist, first in France and later in England, regarded by many of his time as the most learned man in Europe. His son Méric Casaubon was a classical scholar, he was born in Geneva to two French Huguenot refugees. The family returned to France after the Edict of Saint-Germain in 1562, settled at Crest in Dauphiné, where Arnaud Casaubon, Isaac's father, became minister of a Huguenot congregation; until he was nineteen, Isaac had no education other than that given him by his father. Arnaud was away from home for long periods in the Calvinist camp, the family fled to the hills to hide from bands of armed Catholics who patrolled the country, it was in a cave in the mountains of Dauphiné, after the massacre of St Bartholomew, that Isaac received his first lesson in Greek, from the textbook Isocrates ad Demonicum. At the age of nineteen Isaac was sent to the Academy of Geneva, where he read Greek under Franciscus Portus, a Cretan. Portus died in 1581, recommending Casaubon only twenty-two, as his successor.
He remained at Geneva as professor of Greek until 1596. There he married twice, his second wife being Florence Estienne, daughter of the scholar-printer Henri Estienne. At Geneva, Casaubon lacked example and assistance and struggled against the troops of the Catholic dukes of Savoy, but became a consummate Greek and classical scholar, he spent all the money he could spare on books, including copying classics that were not in print. Though Henri Estienne, Theodore de Beza, Jacques Lect, were men of superior learning, they had no time for Casaubon. Casaubon sought help by cultivating the acquaintance of foreign scholars, as Geneva, the metropolis of Calvinism, received a constant stream of visitors, he met Henry Wotton, a poet and diplomat, who lodged with him and borrowed his money. More he met Richard Thomson, fellow of Clare College and through Thomson came to the attention of Joseph Scaliger. Scaliger and Casaubon first exchanged letters in 1594, they never met, but kept up a lengthy correspondence that shows their growing admiration and friendship.
Influential French men of letters, the Protestant Jacques Bongars, the Catholic Jacques de Thou, the Catholic convert Philippe Canaye endeavoured to get Casaubon invited to France. In 1596, they succeeded, Casaubon accepted a post at the University of Montpellier, with the titles of conseiller du roi and professeur stipendié aux langues et bonnes lettres, he stayed there with several prolonged absences. He was poorly paid by the university authorities. Casaubon began to see the editing of Greek books as a more suitable job for him. At Geneva he had produced some notes on Diogenes Laërtius and the New Testament, he debuted as an editor with a complete edition of Strabo, of which he was so ashamed afterwards that he apologized to Scaliger for it. This was followed by the text of Polyaenus, an editio princeps, 1589, his edition of Theophrastus's Characteres, is the first example of his peculiar style of illustrative commentary, at once apposite and profuse. When he left for Montpellier he was engaged upon his magnum opus, his editing of and commentary on Athenaeus.
In 1598 Casaubon was at Lyon. Here he lived in the house of Méric de Vicq, surintendant de la justice, a liberal-minded Catholic. Accompanied by de Vicq, Casaubon visited Paris, where he was presented to King Henry IV of France; the king said something about employing Casaubon's services in the "restoration" of the fallen University of Paris. In January 1599, he received a summons to return to Paris, but the terms of the letter were so vague that Casaubon hesitated to act on it. However, he resigned his chair at Montpellier, he stayed another year at Lyon with de Vicq, where he hoped to meet the king, expected to visit the south. Nothing more was heard about the professorship, but instead De Vicq summoned him to Paris for important business: the Fontainebleau Conference. Casaubon was persuaded to sit as a referee on the challenge sent to Du Plessis Mornay by Cardinal Duperron. By so doing he placed himself in a false position, as Joseph Scaliger said: "Non debebat Casaubon interesse colloquio Plessiaeano.
"Casaubon ought not to have been involved in the conference about Du Plessis. The issue was contrived. By concurring with this decision, Casaubon confirmed the Protestants' suspicions that, like his friend and patron, Philippe Canaye, he was contemplating abjuration. From on, he became the object of the hopes and fears of the two religions. Neither side could understand that Casaubon's reading of the church fathers led him to adopt an intermediate position between Genevan Calvinism and Ultramontanism. Meanwhile, the king repeated his invitation to Casaubon to settle in Paris, gave him a pension. No more was said about the university; the recent reform of the University of Paris closed its doors to all but Catholics.