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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Active galactic nucleus

An active galactic nucleus is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with characteristics indicating that the luminosity is not produced by stars. Such excess non-stellar emission has been observed in the radio, infrared, ultra-violet, X-ray and gamma ray wavebands. A galaxy hosting an AGN is called an "active galaxy." The non-stellar radiation from an AGN is theorized to result from the accretion of matter by a supermassive black hole at the center of its host galaxy. Active galactic nuclei are the most luminous persistent sources of electromagnetic radiation in the universe, as such can be used as a means of discovering distant objects; the observed characteristics of an AGN depend on several properties such as the mass of the central black hole, the rate of gas accretion onto the black hole, the orientation of the accretion disk, the degree of obscuration of the nucleus by dust, presence or absence of jets.

Numerous subclasses of AGN have been defined based on their observed characteristics. A blazar is an AGN with a jet pointed toward the Earth, in which radiation from the jet is enhanced by relativistic beaming. During the first half of the 20th century, photographic observations of nearby galaxies detected some characteristic signatures of AGN emission, although there was not yet a physical understanding of the nature of the AGN phenomenon; some early observations included the first spectroscopic detection of emission lines from the nuclei of NGC 1068 and Messier 81 by Edward Fath, the discovery of the jet in Messier 87 by Heber Curtis. Further spectroscopic studies by astronomers including Vesto Slipher, Milton Humason, Nicholas Mayall noted the presence of unusual emission lines in some galaxy nuclei. In 1943, Carl Seyfert published a paper in which he described observations of nearby galaxies having bright nuclei that were sources of unusually broad emission lines. Galaxies observed as part of this study included NGC 1068, NGC 4151, NGC 3516, NGC 7469.

Active galaxies such as these are known as Seyfert galaxies in honor of Seyfert's pioneering work. The development of radio astronomy was a major catalyst to understanding AGN; some of the earliest detected radio sources are nearby active elliptical galaxies such as Messier 87 and Centaurus A. Another radio source, Cygnus A, was identified by Walter Baade and Rudolph Minkowski as a tidally distorted galaxy with an unusual emission-line spectrum, having a recessional velocity of 16,700 kilometers per second; the 3C radio survey led to further progress in discovery of new radio sources as well as identifying the visible-light sources associated with the radio emission. In photographic images, some of these objects were nearly point-like or quasi-stellar in appearance, were classified as quasi-stellar radio sources. Soviet Armenian astrophysicist Viktor Ambartsumian introduced Active Galactic Nuclei in the early 1950s. At the Solvay Conference on Physics in 1958, Ambartsumian presented a report arguing that "explosions in galactic nuclei cause large amounts of mass to be expelled.

For these explosions to occur, galactic nuclei must contain bodies of huge unknown nature. From this point forward Active Galactic Nuclei became a key component in theories of galactic evolution." His idea was accepted skeptically. A major breakthrough was the measurement of the redshift of the quasar 3C 273 by Maarten Schmidt, published in 1963. Schmidt noted that if this object was extragalactic its large redshift of 0.158 implied that it was the nuclear region of a galaxy about 100 times more powerful than other radio galaxies, identified. Shortly afterward, optical spectra were used to measure the redshifts of a growing number of quasars including 3C 48 more distant at redshift 0.37. The enormous luminosities of these quasars as well as their unusual spectral properties indicated that their power source could not be ordinary stars. Accretion of gas onto a supermassive black hole was suggested as the source of quasars' power in papers by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'Dovich in 1964. In 1969 Donald Lynden-Bell proposed that nearby galaxies contain supermassive black holes at their centers as relics of "dead" quasars, that black hole accretion was the power source for the non-stellar emission in nearby Seyfert galaxies.

In the 1960s and 1970s, early X-ray astronomy observations demonstrated that Seyfert galaxies and quasars are powerful sources of X-ray emission, which originates from the inner regions of black hole accretion disks. Today, AGN are a major topic of astrophysical research, both theoretical. AGN research encompasses observational surveys to find AGN over broad ranges of luminosity and redshift, examination of the cosmic evolution and growth of black holes, studies of the physics of black hole accretion and the emission of electromagnetic radiation from AGN, examination of the properties of jets and outflows of matter from AGN, the impact of black hole accretion and quasar activity on galaxy evolution. For a long time it has been argued that an AGN must be powered by accretion of mass onto massive black holes. AGN are both compact and persistently luminous. Accretion can give efficient conversion of potential and kinetic energy to radiation, a massive black hole has a high Eddington luminosity, as a result, it can provide the observed high persistent luminosity.

Supermassive black

Chasse-marée (cart)

In medieval France a chasse-marée was a cart designed to carry fresh fish to inland markets, with a minimum of weight put into construction and provision for harnessing four horses. The medieval French chasse-marée merchants catered to the demand for fresh fish in inland markets by carrying fish in pairs of baskets on pack ponies, as far as possible, overnight. However, the distance coverable before the fish deteriorated was limited. Where the quality of the road permitted, the range might be extended by the use of charrettes; when designed for this trade, with a minimum of weight put into their construction and provision for harnessing the four horses, these vehicles took the name of chasse-marée. As speed was essential, they were hauled by two pairs of horses rather than the single horse, normal for a cart; the vehicle took the form of two wheels, of a diameter large enough to minimize the slowing effect of bumps in the road. On their axle was mounted an open rectangular frame within which were slung the baskets holding the fish, packed in seaweed.

More baskets were stacked above. The teams of fairly small horses were worked hard and changed at posting stations in the same way as those of mail coaches; the coast supplying Paris by road was that, nearest to its market, around Le Tréport and Saint-Valery-sur-Somme. At its most developed, it extended from Fécamp to Calais including such places as Dieppe, Boulogne-sur-Mer and Étaples; some horse lovers have been attracted to the idea of driving a version of the chasse-marée carts, as a recreation

Glitter (Gary Glitter album)

Glitter is the 1972 debut album by British glam rock singer Gary Glitter, produced by Bell Records. Two tracks, "I Didn't Know I Loved You" and "Rock and Roll", the latter a song in two parts, achieved success as singles; the album featured, in addition to including the two singles, other original songs that generated fan support, including "Rock On!", "Shakey Sue" and "The Famous Instigator", as well as Glitter's versions of "Baby, Please Don't Go" and "The Wanderer". The disc was a best-seller; the album presaged his 1973 Touch Me. The album was reissued in 1996 as a picture disc, limited to 5,000 copies, which had a differing track list than the album (included four added tracks: "I'm the Leader of the Gang", "It's Not a Lot", "Just Fancy That" and "Thank You Baby for Myself"; the album was reissued in 2009 under Airmail Records including five bonus tracks: "I'm the Leader of the Gang", "Just Fancy That", "I Love You Love Me Love", "Hands Up! It's a Stick-Up", "Remember Me This Way". Side one "Rock and Roll Part 1" 3:04 "Baby, Please Don't Go" 2.53 "The Wanderer" 2:44 "I Didn't Know I Loved You" 3:22 "Ain't That a Shame" 2:39 "School Day" 3:07Side two "Rock On!"

3:32 "Donna" 4:18 "The Famous Instigator" 3:24 "The Clapping Song" 3:13 "Shaky Sue" 2:21 "Rock and Roll Part 2" 3:00Sides one and two were combined as tracks 1–12 on CD reissues.1996 CD bonus tracks "I'm the Leader of the Gang" "It's Not a Lot" "Just Fancy That" "Thank You Baby for Myself"2009 CD bonus tracks "I'm the Leader of the Gang" "Just Fancy That" "I Love You Love Me Love" "Hands Up! It's a Stick-Up" "Remember Me This Way" Glitter at Discogs

Alice Miller (golfer)

Alice Miller is an American professional golfer. She became a member of the LPGA Tour in 1978 and won eight LPGA Tour events, including one major championship, during her career. Miller was born in California, she played on the Marysville HS golf team the first year. She was scouted by Arizona State golf coach, she attended Arizona State University and played on the 1975 AIAW National Collegiate Championship team. Miller joined the LPGA Tour in 1978. Between 1983 and 1991 she won eight titles on the tour, including one major championship, the 1985 Nabisco Dinah Shore, she had her highest finish on the money list that year, when she placed third. She served as president of the LPGA Tour in 1993, she retired from the LPGA Tour after the 1998 season. LPGA Tour playoff record 1985 Mazda Champions Alice Miller at the LPGA Tour official site Alice Miller at the Legends Tour official site

You Can't Control It

"You Can't Control It" is a song by American musician Jack Johnson from his 2017 album All the Light Above It Too. The song was released on August 25, 2017, is the third single from the album; the song was written on beaches. The song's music video was released on Entertainment Weekly on August 24, 2017; the music video features a time-lapse of Johnson and volunteer workers at a beach in Hawaii collecting plastic within a 90-meter radius, turning it into art. The art is featured as his album cover on All the Light Above It Too; the video was released on Johnson's Vevo channel on August 25. On August 25, 2017, the song was released as a CD single, digital download to anyone who pre-ordered the album. On August 25, a limited edition 10" vinyl EP was released in select US retailers, in Peru to help support Jack's concert at Jockey Club del Perú for his All the Light Above it Too Tour. CD single "You Can't Control It" – 4:09Vinyl 10" EP "You Can't Control It" – 4:09 "Mudfootball" – 3:05 "Sunsets for Somebody Else" – 3:30 "My Mind Is for Sale" – 4:00 "I Wrote Mr. Tambourine Man" – 4:01

Albert Morrow

Albert George Morrow was an illustrator, poster designer and cartoonist. He was the son of a decorator from Clifton Street, west Belfast. Of his seven brothers, George, Jack and Norman, were illustrators, he was educated at the Government School of Art in Belfast, won a scholarship to study in Kensington in 1882, where he began a lifelong friendship with the British sculptor Albert Toft. He contributed illustrations to the English Illustrated Magazine and Good Words, he exhibited eleven works at the Royal Academy, illustrated books for children and adults, but he is best known for the hundreds of posters he designed for the theatre. As a cartoonist he drew for children's annuals, contributed three cartoons to Punch in 1923, 1925 and 1931, he died at his residence in West Hoathly in 1927, his headstone in the local churchyard at All Saints Church, Highbrook was designed by Albert Toft. Theo Snoddy, Dictionary of Irish Artists: 20th Century, Merlin Publishing, 2002