A Kei truck, or Kei class truck, or Japanese mini truck is a mini truck, a tiny but practical pickup truck available in RWD or 4WD version, built to satisfy the Japanese keijidōsha statutory class. They are known as Keitora in Japan alongside the microvan; the Kei truck class specifies a maximum size and displacement increased since legislation first enabled the type in 1949. They evolved from earlier three-wheeled trucks based on motorcycles with a small load carrying area, called san-rin, which were popular in Japan before the war; the 1998 law admits a maximum length of 3.4 m, a maximum width of 1.48 m and a maximum height of 2.0 m with a maximum displacement of 660 cc. They weigh about 700 kg, when ungoverned can reach up to 120 km/h. Due to the limits established with regards to vehicle length, most, if not all, current trucks in this classification are built with the "cab over" approach to maximize load-carrying abilities. For export markets, Kei trucks are fitted with bigger engines to allow them more useful carrying capabilities.
An Indonesian version of the 543 cc Suzuki Carry is built with a 1.6-liter unit – nearly three times larger. Typical manufacturers and model names include: Subaru Sambar, Suzuki Carry, Honda Acty, Mazda / Autozam Scrum, Mitsubishi Minicab, Daihatsu Hijet; the first model to be sold in Japan was in 1959, called the Kurogane Baby until 1962. Many of these have been produced under license abroad, such as the Piaggio Porter. In South Korea and Asia produced rebadged Suzuki Carry/Every and Daihatsu Hijet Van as Daewoo Labo/Damas, the Asia/Kia Towner. Employed throughout Asia in agriculture, fisheries and for firefighting, used models have appeared in the US for off-road use by farmers and hunters. Japanese laws encourage surplussing vehicles after a short life, they have enclosed cabs, seat belts, windshield wipers, AM radios, heaters and signals, are claimed to run 64 km on one gallon of gasoline. They have 1.8 m long pickup beds with fold-down sides. The length limitation forces all of these models into a cab forward design.
While street legal in Japan, Kei trucks do have the standard equipment required for U. S. roadways such as seat belts, approved lighting, horn and U. S. standard "AS1/AS2" safety glass, they must pass state safety inspections. They are approved for use on local roads in several states in the United States as well. Many are used as campus maintenance vehicles leaving campus confines. State legislation passed during 2008 in Oklahoma and Louisiana are the most liberal, prohibiting their use only on interstate highways. Kei vehicles older than 25 years may be imported into the US with few restrictions. Kei car Microvan Mini truck Low-speed vehicle laws by U. S. state New law paves the way for Japanese mini-trucks to roam Tulsa streets Truck bill passes in Louisiana Note'Kie' misspelling Mini trucks Maintenance and custom from japan
The Subaru Sambar is a cabover kei truck and microvan manufactured by Subaru, a division of Fuji Heavy Industries for the Japanese market. It is still in production; the Sambar is available in both Kei truck to fulfill the Kei car guidelines. Still popular in the domestic market, the Sambar continues to be produced in Japan, China as well as in Finland with a joint venture with Elcat Automotive. Since its introduction in 1961, the Sambar has used a rear engine, rear wheel drive format, with the first two generations using the air-cooled engine from the Subaru 360, generations using the water-cooled engine from the Subaru Rex and the Pleo; until 2012 the Sambar model was still using the Sixth Generation chassis and body with updated fascia. It was the first Kei truck; the current generation is a rebadged version of the Daihatsu Hijet/Atrai. The name Sambar is similar to the top trim package for the Volkswagen Type 2 called the Samba introduced in 1951, which used an air-cooled engine installed in the back, utilizing rear-wheel-drive, was available in pickup configurations with fold-down beds.
From the beginning in 1961, the Sambar uses 4-wheel independent suspension and a rear engine rear drive powertrain that helps keep the vehicle's weight balanced. Inspired by one of the first microvans, the 1957 Fiat 600 Multipla, it was based on the Subaru 360 platform and was introduced at the 1960 Tokyo Motor Show in both private purchase and commercial versions; the chassis uses a ladder frame construction, using a torsion bar trailing arm suspension in the back, the body style is referred to as "one-box". The reverse gearshift position was a left-pattern selection, instead of a right-pattern selection; the engine, called the EK series, was accessed from a hatch inside the vehicle. The front doors opened backwards, in the same fashion as the 360, with the rear passenger doors opening conventionally, causing the hinges for all doors to be centrally located, with a rear hatch in back. Bunk beds could be installed as an option for outdoor camping use; the Sambar was created for the market segment that desired a Subaru 360, able to carry small loads, such as for commercial delivery usage.
The nickname for this version is the "kuchibiru" Sambar. It was introduced after the Kurogane Baby in 1960, 1961 saw competition in form of the front-engined Suzulight Carry which placed the engine in front of the driver but adopted the cabover approach in 1966, the Daihatsu Hijet cabover appeared in 1964; the cabover bodystyle approach appeared after the 1950 Volkswagen Type 2, during the same year as the 1961 Ford Econoline, the 1961 Chevrolet Greenbrier. The redesigned Sambar appeared in January 1966 with a fresh new appearance, with a truck version introduced; the nickname for this generation is "baban" Sambar. The Sambar continued to use the 356 cc EK series engine, but now in the 20 hp iteration used in the Subaru 360 since July 1964. A raised roof for extended headroom was added to the options list in 1968. Starting with the 1970 model year, the engine was now accessed from outside the vehicle, the front doors were conventionally hinged. To enhance safety a full padded dash pad was introduced, sharing the dashboard panel from the new R–2.
A styling upgrade was done, adding a faux grille to the front of the vehicle that had no function other than a more modern appearance, as well as bringing the corporate look of the all new compact Subaru Leone. The Sambar saw new competitors, the Mazda Porter in 1968, the Honda Vamos in 1970; the third generation appeared 10 February 1973, this one nicknamed the "Gōriki" Sambar due to an advertising campaign at the time. The first series still carried a two-stroke two-cylinder 356 cc engine but by now water-cooled; the engine code was EK34, the truck received the K71 model code while the van was called K81. As of February 1976, the engine was upgraded to the EK21 four-stroke water-cooled version introduced in the Rex to reduce emissions; this model saw. Because of regulations changes, only three months the engine was again upgraded with a 490 cc displacement engine of a similar layout for the Sambar 5; this was sold as the Subaru 500 in export markets. This was in turn soon replaced by a full 550 cc model, the K77/87 of March 1977.
In export, the Sambar 550 was known as the Subaru 600 and as the Subaru 700, with a 665 cc version of the EK engine. This model saw the introduction of a sliding side door added on both sides, with a full "B" pillar to enhance body stiffness instead of the approach used by the Nissan Prairie which had the front and rear doors interlock. Minor horsepower improvements were introduced in 1977 along with an increase in the width of the vehicle. A sunroof was added to the options list in 1979. 4WD was introduced as an option in 1980, on both the van and truck bodystyles, coinciding with the same feature being offered on the Subaru Rex. May 9, 1982 is when the fourth generation model appeared introducing the non-commercial Sambar Try; the suspension was upgraded to a four-wheel independent layout with MacPherson struts for the front wheels. The wheel size increased from 10 inches to 12 inches, thereby accommodating larger drum brakes used at all four wheels; the 4WD was available with a dual-range transmission.
While the home market Sambar came equipped with the 544 cc, 2-cylinder 21
The Suzuki Ignis is a subcompact car, produced by Suzuki between 2000 and 2008, replacing the Suzuki Cultus, subsequently as a small crossover from 2016. The Cultus retailed under various names globally, notably as the Suzuki Swift. While the Cultus-based Swift was replaced by the Ignis in Europe and Australasia, Japanese models were in fact badged Suzuki Swift—thus debuting the "Swift" name in that market; the word "ignis" is Latin for "fire". As a result of a venture project between General Motors and Suzuki, the Ignis, from 2001 formed the basis of the Chevrolet Cruze; the Cruze sold throughout Japan as a Chevrolet, with Australasian-market versions badged Holden Cruze. From 2003, Suzuki of Europe adopted a lengthened version of the Cruze as the Suzuki Ignis—representing a facelift of the original Ignis. In the same year, Subaru adopted the car as the Subaru G3X Justy exclusive to Europe; the first series of the Ignis was manufactured as a three- and five-door hatchback, powered by a new generation of Suzuki inline-four petrol engines, the M family.
This family featured four valves per cylinder and variable valve timing. Engines were offered in two displacements: 1.3 litres and 1.5 litres, with power outputs of 65 kW and 81 kW, respectively. Suzuki assigned the HT51S model code to the 1.3-liter model, with the 1.5-liter versions allocated the HT81S code. With exception of the Ignis Sport, Suzuki did not offer the three-door model in Japan; the 1.5-liter engine was unavailable outside of the Ignis Sport range in export markets, with the 1.3-litre version offered being detuned to 61 kW. The standard transmission was a five-speed manual, with a four-speed automatic transmission optional. Both the front- and all-wheel drive layouts were tendered, although the combination of four-wheel drive and automatic transmission combination was limited to Japan as it was incompatible with European emission standards. A minor facelift came in 2003, featuring new wheel trims, a revised grille insert and clear headlamp-mounted turn signal lenses, as opposed to the amber versions fitted to the original.
Production ended in 2006. Following its use in the 2002 World Rally Championship season, Suzuki introduced the Ignis Sport in 2003, a performance-oriented version based on the three-door body style. Badged the "Swift Sport" in Japan, the performance model utilised the same 1.5-litre engine as the regular car, but with power increased to 85 kW. The engine was detuned for the European market, to 80 kW; the car featured a number of modifications, including a body kit and firmer suspension, close ratio gear box and tuned exhaust. The Sport has the roof bars removed. Recaro sport seats are included in the cabin, white instrument dials with blue illumination and carbon effect panels to increase its sporty appeal; the Ignis Sport has a top speed of 185 km/h. The Sport ceased production in 2005, it was only available in a limited selection of colours: red, silver and yellow. Various optional extras were available including metallic pedals, driving lights in the bumper, front mesh grille. Revealed as the Chevrolet YGM1 concept car at the Tokyo Motor Show in 1999, the Chevrolet Cruze derived from the Suzuki Ignis.
The development of the Cruze departed from the original five-door hatchback Suzuki as a sport utility vehicle. Despite the Chevrolet branding, the YGM1, like the production car, was the work of GM's Australian arm, Holden; the YGM1 design team were given just 12 weeks to conceive the concept, styled by Peter Hughes under the direction of Holden's chief designer, Michael Simcoe. The revamped interior was done under the direction of Jenny Morgan-Douralis, Holden's chief colour and trim designer at the time. Along with the styling, Holden executed most of the engineering work and were responsible for devising the "Cruze" nameplate. GM revealed the production Cruze on 22 October 2001 with a 1 November sales commencement date in Japan; the Cruze marked GM's return to Japanese manufacturing for the first time since 1939, with production located at Suzuki's plant in Kosai, Shizuoka. In terms of design, the production version differs from the YGM1: the flared fenders were toned down, in lieu of the concept's 17-inch alloy wheels, 15-inch wheels were fitted.
High-mounted wrap-around tail lights are featured at the rear, with dual circular brake lights set into the bumper—as carried over from the concept. Powertrains are identical to those fitted to the Suzuki, with 1.3- and 1.5-litre inline-four engines offered and coupled to either a five-speed manual or four-speed automatic transmission. The M13A-equipped models were given the model code HR51S, with the M15A versions designated HR81S; the 1.3-litre was rated at 65 kW and 118 N⋅m, while the 1.5-litre delivered 81 kW and 143 N⋅m. Both front- and all-wheel drive layouts were offered, the all-wheel system being an electronically controlled setup; this system utilises an electromagnetic controlling device that receives signals from the anti-lock braking system. Both the 1.3 and 1.5 models could be specified with either FWD or AWD. To maximise sales penetration, Japanese-market Cruzes were sold at both GM AutoWorld and Suzuki Arena sales channels. AutoWorld dealerships stocked the 1.5-litre car in LS and LT trims, with the 1.3 confined to Suzuki's Arena, available in E and X trims.
The vehicle was in compliance with Japanese government dimension regulations to capitalize on the associated tax
The Subaru Outback is an automotive nameplate used by the Japanese automaker Subaru for two different vehicles: a Legacy-based station wagon, the Outback. Many versions of the Outback wagon and Outback Sport have either had all-wheel drive as an option or standard equipment; the Outback station wagon derived from the first generation Legacy, which made its debut in 1989, in both sedan and station wagon versions. The second-generation Legacy wagon became the first generation of the Outback wagon series, called the Legacy Grand Wagon in Japan in 1995, the "Legacy Outback" in most other markets; when launched in Australia in 1996 "Legacy Outback" was shortened to the "Outback", followed in other markets afterwards. The "Outback" variant added partial protective plastic side body cladding for off-road conditions and raised the suspension of the existing Legacy wagon to provide additional ground clearance, but for other small differences in trim, the Outback went on to share all of its components with the Legacy donor model.
In the United States, Subaru retailed the Legacy SUS sedan, derived from the Legacy model. Subaru released a similarly-altered second generation Outback as part of the third generation Legacy lineup in 1998—or 1999 in North America for model year 2000, called the Legacy Lancaster in Japan and the Outback in most markets elsewhere. In North America the Legacy SUS became the Outback sedan. In 2003, fourth generation Legacy yielded a third-generation Outback, called the Outback everywhere but Europe. Introduction was delayed in North America until January 2004 for the 2005 model year, with a North America-only Outback sedan discontinued midway through this generation's lifespan; the fourth-generation Outback arrived with the 2009 debut of the fifth generation Legacy, marketed as 2010 model year vehicles in North America, called the Outback worldwide. The fifth-generation Outback appeared in 2014 for the 2015 year model with the sixth generation Legacy, still badged the Legacy Outback for Japan.
An unrelated Legacy wagon, the Legacy Touring, was introduced in 2014. Elsewhere, the Outback became a free-standing model line of its own, independent of the Legacy, thus bringing greater product differentiation between the two; the current generation of Subaru Outback is classified as a'crossover', with the body and wheelbase set larger than previous models. Other technical changes such as a larger, 256 horse power 3.6 liter engine have pushed it into this classification. Most the Outback received a Top Safety Pick award from the IIHS as well as five stars from NHTSA. In 1994 Subaru transitioned the legacy wagon to the first generation of the outback wagon; this change was brought about in response to changing consumer tastes for a more durable and utility based wagon. It was marketed as the worlds first sport-utility wagon and came equipped with a 2.5L, 165 horse power engine, as well as a 103.5 inch wheel base. This extended wheel base was a central part of the wagons shift to be more utility based.
After the first iteration of the outback in 1994, there was an increase in ride height, kept the same. Encapsulating the sport theme of the Outback wagon, Subaru hired Paul Hogan of Crocodile Dundee as a pitchman for the vehicle. Along with the Legacy-based model, Subaru released the first generation Impreza-based Outback Sport in 1994 to North America only for the 1995 model year. Derived from the Impreza hatchback, the Outback Sport featured an off-road appearance package, a raised suspension akin to the larger Legacy-based model. Subaru in North America launched subsequent generations in 2001 for the 2002 model year and 2007 for model year 2008, based on the second and third generation Impreza, respectively. Subaru discontinued the Outback Sport nameplate in 2011, replaced in 2012 for the 2013 year model with the Subaru XV as derived from the fourth generation model
The Subaru Legacy is a mid-size car built by Japanese automobile manufacturer Subaru since 1989. The maker's flagship car, it is unique in its class for offering all wheel drive as a standard feature, Subaru's traditional boxer engine; the Legacy bears the name Liberty in Australia out of deference to Legacy Australia, an organisation dedicated to caring for the families of military service veterans. In 1996, a variant of the Legacy with heightened suspension called the Legacy Outback was introduced to compete in the burgeoning sport-utility vehicle class and proved to be a sales success for Subaru; the Outback line was split into its own model in 2000, known as the Subaru Outback. As of 2008, 3.6 million Legacies have been built since its 1989 introduction. The Legacy was introduced in 1989 to provide Subaru a vehicle to compete in the lucrative North American mid-size market against the Honda Accord, Toyota Camry, Mazda 626, Nissan Stanza, it was an all-new model, positioned above the Leone, XT, kei cars Rex and Sambar in Subaru's model range at the time.
The Legacy introduced an new flat-4 engine series, called the EJ engine, quieter and more powerful than the previous EA engine. The Legacy began with a 5-door wagon or 4-door sedan body styles with FWD and an optional full-time AWD package, was introduced in North America, the UK, the Benelux region of Northern Europe and Australia. Options included 4-channel ABS, licensed from Bosch and air suspension height control, which lowered the vehicle at speeds above 50 mph, allowed the driver to increase the vehicle's ground clearance for off-road conditions, it was formally released January 23, 1989 in Japan, with an introductory price of ¥2,550,000 for the turbocharged RS. The first Legacy was available at Japanese dealerships on February 1, 1989, with worldwide distribution starting in 1990; the US-spec included the passive restraints through the 1994 model year with exception to the right hand drive Postal model, only available with conventional seat belts. Driver's side airbags were an option midway through the 1992 model year and became standard in 1993.
Passenger airbags weren't available until the 2nd generation arrived in 1995. The US models included the Legacy Sport Sedan, from 1991-1994 and Legacy Touring Wagon from 1992-1994. Both were turbocharged with the EJ22T closed-deck block engine. Unique to the US market, it was SOHC, with different pistons, oil squirters, oil cooler on the'91 model year, other enhancements. Although it had the same displacement as the non-turbo/naturally aspirated EJ22E engine used throughout all other Legacy models, it was not a turbocharged version of the EJ22E; the sedan was available with strengthened 4EAT Automatic transmission or a stronger 5-speed manual transmission. The wagon came equipped with only the 4EAT; these were the last turbocharged Subaru models sold in the US until the 2002 WRX debuted. These model codes are designated in the VIN of each vehicle, such as "JF1BF3BL0E-": Legacy Codes BC=89–94 Sedan BF=89–94 Wagon BJ=89–94 Wagon Second generation sales in Japan began October 7, 1993, an introductory price of ¥2,753,000 for the twin turbo GT, with an introduction for model year 1995 in North America with a full body and chassis revision.
The exterior was designed by Olivier Boulay, hired by Subaru on a short-term basis. The tail light appearance on both the sedan and wagon was influenced by the taillights on the SVX. In 1996, Subaru decided to make AWD standard equipment in all vehicles produced for the North American market, which would be the case until 2012. Subaru still offered a choice between FWD and AWD for its domestic market vehicles for this generation; the increased ground clearance Outback was introduced with this generation in 1995 with AWD only internationally, the air suspension with height control was no longer offered. US-spec GT models, first offered in 1990 as a turbocharged sedan or wagon in Japan, as a trim package for the US version in 1994, became a top level model upgrade in 1996, using the new EJ25D DOHC 2.5 L aspirated engine. "Limited" trim level editions were introduced, offering heated leather, or cloth and trim and a tinted, glass moonroof. The term "Limited" appeared on the "GT", known as the "GT Limited" in 1998.
The term "Limited" was used by itself on the Outback in 1998. Driver and front passenger airbags were added with the redesigned interior as standard equipment in accordance with US Federal Government regulations. 1999 marked the 30th anniversary of Subaru in America, the last of the second generation in North America. There was a special 30th Anniversary Edition offered in the US with upgraded interior and sunroof, alloy wheels on the "L" trim level cars; the US-spec "Brighton" trim level carried over from the facelifted first generation version, priced below the "L" trim option. In Japan, the GT/B-Spec was introduced in 1994 with lowered and stiffened suspension and a higher performance rear differential; the next generation of the GT-B was introduced June 1996, with the front and rear struts supplied by Bilstein, with the upgrade available on the RS. The "B" designation stood for Bilstein. Turbocharged versions continued to be available in markets that used right-hand-drive configurations. Specialty touring and racing versions were available in Japan, as well as the DOHC 2-liter twin sequential turbocharged EJ20H version on both the Legacy GT se
The Suzuki Cultus is a supermini car produced by the Japanese manufacturer Suzuki from 1983 to 2003, it is now a rebadged Suzuki Celerio in Pakistan since 2017. It was first presented at the 25th Tokyo Motor Show, formally introduced to Japan in 1983 and sold in seven countries across three generations and marketed worldwide as the Suzuki Swift. An alliance formed in 1981 between GM and Suzuki allowed GM to market the Cultus as a captive import internationally under more than a dozen nameplates including the Geo Metro, Chevrolet Sprint, Pontiac Firefly and Holden Barina, it was known as the M-car within GM. Offered across its lifespan in four body-style variations with engines from the Suzuki G engine family, the second generation Cultus still remained in production in Pakistan until late 2016; the Cultus family of vehicles has been marketed in Asia, North America, South America and Europe. While never formally marketed in New Zealand they were sold on the secondary market; the name "cultus" is Latin meaning "care" or "adoration".
The first generation was a project begun by General Motors as the M-car. When they realized that the project was not going to be profitable enough, the entire unfinished design was sold to Suzuki in return for a five per cent stake in the company. Suzuki completed the design and development work and put the car on sale from October 1983 in the Japanese market, as the Cultus; this is why the car's design was such a natural fit in the General Motors lineup, with a clear GM corporate look. The model was exported worldwide by Suzuki and assembled by a number of General Motors franchises undergoing badge engineering; the first-generation Swifts all share the SA model code prefix and was Suzuki's first earnest entry into a class of car with larger dimensions and engines than of the kei class Suzuki Fronte. Three- and four-cylinder versions of the G engine family were available, although some secondary markets installed Suzuki's one-liter four-cylinder F10A engine in a model which carries the SA410 chassis code.
Early export models were sold by the model code, SA310, the name shortly thereafter changed to a variety of names depending on the market. In Japan the car was always known as the Cultus; the SA310 featured leaf sprung rear suspension and was marketed with a 1.0-liter, three-cylinder engine. The SA310 had its European premier in southern Spain in late 1983; the original model was available as the base GA, the GL, the more expensive GLX models. Only three-door versions were available for the first few years. Early models were sold in Finland as the Suzuki Extra; the 1-liter turbo and a three-speed automatic transmission were introduced in Japan on the last day of May 1984. The turbo's power was raised to 80 PS, it received 165/70 HR12 tyres. In August the 10 cm longer five-door body was introduced, as was the 1.3-liter four-cylinder version. Two headlight variations existed within the earlier models depending on level; the lower equipped were fitted with a recessed sealed beam rectangular light while others came with a panel-flush forwards swept glass unit.
The drag coefficient value of an early model is Cd=0.38. Before it entered the Australian market as the Barina in 1985, the local Suzuki importer sold it as a two-seat van with the "Swift" moniker, as they did not have the necessary quota allocation to bring it in as a passenger car. While sold as the three-cylinder, three-door "Swift" in Indonesia, a five-door model of the pre-facelift SA310 was offered beginning in late 1985, it was replaced by another five-door model fitted with the locally built four-cylinder, 970 cc F10A engine and 55 PS SAE, entered production in Indonesia in early 1986 as the "Forsa". The imported three-door model was discontinued, while the more upscale Forsa benefitted from the new flush headlamps; the model was refreshed and upgraded in June 1986. The leaf springs of the rear end were replaced by coil springs, the front end was remodelled with a more forward swept grill and headlights, the dashboard was remodelled, the windscreen was now caulked in place; the 1.0- and 1.3-liter were detuned while the turbo model gained fuel injection and now produces 82 PS, while the more powerful twin cam GTi model arrived.
The facelift model entered Indonesian production by early 1987 as the Forsa GL, now featured some external trim pieces from the sporting GTi. A more luxurious GLX model was added later. In June 1986, Suzuki introduced the flagship GTi model with both styling and performance upgrades over other models, it was available as a manual three-door hatch only, although a five-door version called GXi was added. The GTi was one of the first Suzuki to feature electronic fuel injection on its G13B high performance twin cam engine; this new engine has 1298 cc thanks to a shorter stroke, fuel injection and 97 PS in the Japanese market. The front brake system was upgraded to a larger diameter disc. Interior updates included. A red theme across the dashboard displays and seat roping was standard as was a centre console. Electric adjustable mirrors were added. Exterior styling upgrades included a model specific molded spoiler, side skirts and a bumper bar incorporating fog-lights; the rear suspension was entirely different from lesser versions.
Beginning in 1985, Cooper Motor Corporation of Nairobi, Kenya assembled the SA310. Japanese market designations 1983～1988 AA41S 1986～1988 A43S
Subaru Alcyone SVX
The Subaru Alcyone SVX, marketed outside Japan as the Subaru SVX, is a two-door, front-engine, all- or front-wheel drive coupé manufactured and marketed by Subaru from 1991 to 1996 over a single generation. As Subaru's first entry into the luxury/performance market, the SVX was noted for its aircraft-inspired'window-within-a-window' side-glass configuration; the nameplate "Alcyone" refers to the brightest star in the Pleiades constellation, stylized in the Subaru company logo. The suffix "SVX" is an acronym for "Subaru Vehicle X"; the Subaru Alcyone SVX debuted as a concept at the 1989 Tokyo Auto Show with styling by noted Italian designer Giorgetto Giugiaro of ItalDesign. The SVX entered production, retaining its window-within-a-window configuration, adapted from the previous generation Subaru Alcyone with an additional extension of glass covering the A-pillar — which Subaru described as an "aircraft-inspired glass-to-glass canopy." In contrast to the angular XT, the SVX featured softer lines with its two-piece power side windows.
The windows are split about two-thirds of the way from the bottom, with the division being parallel to the upper curve of the door frame similar to the half-windows of the Lamborghini Countach, DMC DeLorean, the McLaren F1. The SVX featured a drag coefficient of Cd = 0.29. European market cars had a lower wind resistance of Cd=0.285, thanks to a larger undertray. From 1991 to 1992, Subaru displayed the Amadeus, a prototype shooting brake variation on the SVX, in both two- and four-door versions, considered for production; the Amadeus was not produced. The SVX debuted with and remained available with only one engine, the EG33 model 3.3-liter boxer horizontally opposed flat-six. This engine was the largest engine produced by Subaru for its passenger cars until the introduction of the 3.6-liter EZ36 engine in the 2008 Subaru Tribeca. The previous generation Subaru Alcyone had a turbocharged the four-cylinder engine, but the larger EG33 was more powerful and so a turbo was not installed. Internally, the engine is a six-cylinder variant of the EJ22 found in the first-generation Japanese market Legacy and Impreza.
The new 3.3-liter variant was equipped with dual overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder, had an increased compression ratio of 10.1:1, bringing horsepower up to 172 kilowatts at 5,400 rpm with 309 newton metres of torque at 4,400 rpm. Fuel delivery was accomplished with sequential multi-port fuel injection with dual-spray injectors. Engine ignition used platinum spark plugs and a computerized management system with "limp home feature", which included over-rev protection, as well as monitors for fuel injection and ignition. Japanese S-Four badged versions had the improved 250 hp versions of this engine; some Japanese models came with upgraded 17in BBS alloy wheels instead of the 16in wheels most cars have. The exhaust system consisted of head pipes from each bank of cylinders with their own pre-catalytic converters, which entered a dual-inlet / single outlet main catalytic converter. A single 2.5-inch exhaust pipe exited the main converter and went into a resonator, onto the main, single-inlet muffler with twin exhaust tips in the bumper.
The SVX was offered soley with an automatic transmissions, as Subaru did not offer a manual transmission capable of handling the horsepower and torque of the EG33 engine at the time. Subaru offered two all-wheel drive systesm for the automatic transmission, called ACT-4 or VTD; the first system, called ACT-4 was introduced on the 1988.5 Alcyone using an electronic control unit to vary the torque applied to the rear wheels dynamically based on driving conditions. As an active system, it varied the torque split infinitely based on several inputs; this AWD system was used throughout the entire production run in vehicles manufactured for sale in the US, Germany and Switzerland. A more advanced system called VTD, was introduced and used on SVX for sale in Japan, the UK, the Benelux region, Australia, Spain and Brazil; the VTD AWD system adds a planetary center differential. The system retains the use of the ACT clutch and active control, though its size and role are much smaller as it is used only to suppress differential action instead of the complete differential function.
When no speed difference exists between front and rear, the entire VTD gear rotates as a unit and torque split is at a mechanical 36/64 biased by the planetary gear ratio. The clutch is incorporated to prevent and suppress any differential action that may occur as the planetary gear will send all torque to the axle with the highest speed if not restrained. By using a similar logic to the previous ACT system, the clutch can theoretically direct any percentage of torque to either axle, but in practice the variation remains between 34-50% front and 64-50% rear; this system is not capable of operating in 2WD and therefore could not be used on 2WD dynos as required for emissions testing in some states. This prevented VTD as an option on Subaru vehicles offered for sale in US until passenger car regulations were changed, which occurred long after the end of svx production, it was introduced to the US with the Outback VDC. Problems with early SVX transmissions included a defective torque converter clutch which disintegrates and clogs early radiators, had systemic high clutch failures due to lower than spec pump pressure, fluid evacuation, clutch balance pressure.
Several major revisions were made. Shortly after the SVX ended production Subaru