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Actors' Equity Association

The Actors' Equity Association referred to as Actors' Equity or Equity, is an American labor union representing the world of live theatrical performance, as opposed to film and television performance. However, performers appearing on live stage productions without a book or through-storyline may be represented by the American Guild of Variety Artists; as of 2010, Equity represented over 49,000 theatre artists and stage managers. Actor's Equity Association is under the direction of President Kate Shindle. AEA stage managers nationwide; the AEA works to negotiate and provide performers and stage managers quality living conditions, livable wages, benefits. There are three ways to become a member of Equity: through an AEA contract, EMC points or via a sister union. If you are offered a position under an AEA contract you may join during the term of your contract. Alternatively, you can become a member by generating a number of Equity Membership Candidacy Points, they do this by securing a position at an EMC-participating theatre and registering as a candidate for Equity.

For every week they work at a participating theatre, they accrue a point. Performers are required to earn a minimum of 25 weeks of EMC work along with a $400 initial payment in order to become an official Equity member. You can become a member by virtue of prior membership in a performing arts sister union: SAG-AFTRA, AGMA, AGVA or GIAA. To qualify through this means, you must be a member of the sister union for at least a year, be a member in good standing at that union, have worked as a performer under the union's jurisdiction on a principal or "under-five" contract or at least three days of extra work. A theater or production, not produced and performed by personnel who are members of the AEA may be known as "Non-Equity". Leading up to the Actors and Producers strike of 1929, California in general, had a series of workers equality battles that directly influenced the film industry. Hollywood was producing what was considered the 3 most important IWA/WIR films in the post-Kruse era; the films The Passaic Textile Strike, The Miners’ Strike and The Gastonia Textile Strike, gave audience and producers insight into the effect and accomplishments of labor unions and striking.

These films were set apart by being current documentaries and not melodramas produced for glamour. In 1896 the first Actors Union Charter was recognized by the American Federation of Labor as an attempt to create a minimum wage for actors being exploited, it wasn't until January 1913, that the Union Charter failed. It re-emerged as the Actors Equity Association with more than 111 actors with Francis Wilson as its founding board president. At a meeting held at the Pabst Grand Circle Hotel in New York City, on May 26, 1913, Actors' Equity was founded by 112 professional theater actors, who established the association's constitution and elected Francis Wilson as president. Leading up to the establishment of the association, a handful of influential actors—known as The Players—held secret organizational meetings at Edwin Booth's The Players at its mansion in Gramercy Park. A bronze plaque commemorates the room. Members included Frank Gillmore, who from 1918 to 1929 was the Executive Secretary of Actors' Equity and its eventual President, a position he held from 1929 to 1937.

Actors' Equity joined the American Federation of Labor in 1919, called a strike seeking recognition of the association as a labor union. The strike ended the dominance of the Producing Managers' Association, including theater owners and producers like Abe Erlanger and his partner, Mark Klaw; the strike increased membership from under 3,000 to 14,000. The Chorus Equity Association, which merged with Actors' Equity in 1955, was founded during the strike. Equity represented directors and choreographers until 1959, when they broke away and formed their own union; the Actors Equality Strike was a series of walkouts that started in 1927, which started out in smaller local theaters in Los Angeles but grew to the Motion Picture stage. During the series of nationwide walkouts, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences started issuing contracts for freelance film actors, which led Hollywood's actors and actresses to fear the loss of their jobs; the theater strikes combined with freelance contracts fueled the need for actors and stagehands to strike for better working conditions and pay.

Frank Gillmore, the head and treasurer of the Actor's Equity Association, understood that he would need multiple unions across the country in order to make a change in not only proper representation and pay, but in the ability for actors to be able to negotiate any contract that any studio would put out worldwide. On July 20, 1929, the Actors Equity would gain its first victory, which would give producers and actors a leg to stand on in their battle for equality. Over the course of thirty days Mr. Gillmore fought to give the Actors Equity the ability to be the main representation of all actors, radio personality, vaudeville performers, agents in the country; this would give all power and representation to one organization in order to create a more organized equality strike. Starting June 5, 1929, Frank Gillmore flew and attended several meetings in New York with the Heads of Broadway. After the meeting Mr. Gillmore notified the Actors Equality that appearances in sound and talking motion pictures has been suspended until the outcome of the meetings between Frank Gillmore, Equity's president, a

Energy in the State of Palestine

Energy in Palestine describes energy and electricity production and import in West Bank and Gaza. In 2012, electricity available in these territories was 5,370 GW/hour, while the annual per capita consumption of electricity was 950 kilowatt/hour. National sources only produce 445 GW/hour of electricity. No oil or natural gas is produced in Palestine and it is predominantly dependent on the Israel Electric Corporation for electricity; the only domestic source of energy is the Gaza Marine gas field. Palestinian energy demand increased increasing by 6.4% annually between 1999 and 2005. Future consumption of electricity is expected to reach 8,400 GW/hour by 2020 on the expectation that consumption will increase by 6% annually. Structurally, Palestine does not have sufficient distribution companies or systems - a problem which leads to constraints on electricity efficiency; the West Bank and the Gaza Strip consume energy in different ways. The supply of petroleum is centrally located at two different terminals in the West Bank.

These terminals have no storage capacity for petroleum. The West Bank relies entirely on the IEC to satisfy its electricity needs, with around 5% of the territory's electricity provided by Jordan to the Jericho governorate; as of 10 July 2017, there was a power substation operated by the Palestinian Electric Company located outside Jenin capable of providing up to 135 MW purchased by the IEC to supply the northern West Bank area. After the 1967 occupation of the West Bank, agreements to distribute electricity to the West Bank from Jordan were terminated by the Israeli Military Governorate. Order 389 of 1970 vested the governance of the natural resources sector in an authority appointed by the military commander; the Israeli Civil Administration had the authority to supply electricity to the Israeli settlements, such as Kiryat Arba. The IEC was authorized to sell electricity to the Hebron municipality. By 1980, a concession for all of the power supply in the West Bank was granted to the IEC; the Palestinian electricity distribution system relies on 5 electricity companies in the West Bank and one in the Gaza Strip.

Of those in the West Bank, the Jerusalem District Electricity Company is the largest and the most veteran, existing from the period of the Jordanian occupation of the West Bank. The Israel Electric Corporation is providing electricity to Palestinians in area C, where as in areas A and B most of the electricity distribution is performed by Palestinian district companies. On 23 February 2015 the IEC cut off power to several West Bank cities for about 45 minutes due to uncollected debts. Two days they again cut off power, stating it was a warning to the Palestinian Authority to begin paying down the debt, which at that time was NIS 1.9 billion. The majority of the debt is held by the PA and Jerusalem District Electricity Company, a Palestinian electricity firm which buys its power from IEC and serves east Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Jericho areas; the IEC stated that they are losing NIS 85 million per month on power being supplied to Nablus and Jenin that they are not being paid for, causing the majority of their quarterly loss.

The Palestinians accused IEC of collective punishment, however the IEC stated that they must operate independently and are treating this as they would any customer who does not pay their debts. On 31 March 2016 the IEC once again cut power to parts of the West Bank, in the Jericho area, over debts which at the time stood at NIS 1.7 billion. On 4 April the IEC cut power in the Bethlehem area, the following day the IEC cut power in the Hebron area. On 6 April, the IEC restored full power to the West Bank after they received a NIS 20 million payment, an agreement to receive a full debt repayment schedule within seven days. On 4 June 2019 the PA stopped payments to the IEC. At the time the accumulated debt was NIS 2 billion; as at 8 September 2019, the debt was NIS 1.7 billion. In August, with PA agreement, NIS 300 million had been deducted from taxes, withheld by Israel for the PA and applied against the debt. All of Gaza's liquid fuel and about half of its electricity are supplied by Israel; the supply of petroleum is centrally located at one terminal on the border of the Gaza Strip.

This terminal has no storage capacity for petroleum. The Gaza Strip receives its electricity from the IEC, a diesel power plant located in the Gaza Strip and from Egypt. Following the Hamas takeover of Gaza in 2007, development of the energy sector in Gaza ceased, while Gaza faced increasing demand from a growing population. During past military offensives, Israel targets included vital energy infrastructure in the Gaza Strip. In late October 2007, in response to persistent rocket fire on southern Israel, Israel cut diesel exports to Gaza by 15% and gasoline exports by 10%, created targeted electrical outages for 15 minutes after a rocket attack; as of 2017, Gaza's normal energy needs are estimated to be 400-600 megawatts for full 24-hour supply to all residents. Gaza’s electricity is supplied by its sole diesel power plant, which has a nominal rating of 60-140 MW and, reliant on crude diesel fuel, imported from Israel. An additional 125 MW is imported from Israel via 10 power lines, 27 MW of power imported from Egypt.

In normal conditions, the current rated supply of Gaza is inadequate to meet growing needs. The Gaza electricity crisis is a result of the tensions between Hamas, which rules the Gaza Strip, and

Lillie Bridge Depot

Lillie Bridge Depot is a historic English traction maintenance depot on the London Underground Piccadilly and District lines, situated in between West Brompton and West Kensington stations in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. It is accessed from the District line tracks between Earl's Court and West Kensington or between Earl's Court and Kensington; the Depot was constructed in 1871, when the Metropolitan District Railway gave notice to the Metropolitan Railway, who were running their trains for them, that they would henceforth run their own trains. Lillie Bridge Depot was built on derelict land to the west of Earl's Court, to provide stabling and maintenance facilities for the District Railway's rolling stock. In 1905, the District was extended, a new depot at Ealing Common replaced Lillie Bridge. A year the Great Northern and Brompton Railway the Piccadilly line, was opened, the depot was reconfigured to provide stabling and maintenance for their trains. Parts of it were used as a permanent way depot, until 1932, when extensions to the Piccadilly line created a new depot at Northfields, the site was purely used by engineering departments.

It was reconfigured at this time, again in 1962 and 1987. It housed a flash butt welding plant for producing long welded rails between 1937 and the completion of the Victoria line, when this facility was transferred to Ruislip depot. Subsequently, it was used for maintenance of London Underground's fleet of battery locomotives. Although the District Railway ceased to use steam locomotives for passenger workings in 1905, two were kept at Lillie Bridge for shunting duties. From the 1940s, all of London Underground's steam locomotives were maintained at the depot, after facilities at Neasden Depot were closed, this continued until the last steam locomotives were withdrawn in 1971. A pioneering electro-diesel locomotive spent long periods at the depot from 1940, undergoing repairs, after the demise of steam, the works shunter was an 0-6-0 diesel hydraulic machine obtained from Thomas Hill of Rotherham, its use was due to its short wheelbase and axle loading. The Depot is scheduled to be decommissioned by 2024 by Transport for London, as part of an Earl's Court regeneration scheme.

Engineering facilities will be moved to Acton Works, it will be replaced by stabling for twelve S7 Stock trains at a lower level, with redevelopment taking place above it. The scheme has not been universally popular, attracting criticism from the Mayor of London, the current Hammersmith and Fulham Council, local housing associations and residents; the Metropolitan District Railway opened its first section of route from South Kensington to Westminster on 24 December 1868. It did not at the time need depot facilities, because the service was worked by the Metropolitan Railway, using their own stock, who received 55 per cent of the receipts; this level of remuneration was tied to a particular service level, if the Company wanted to run more trains, it had to pay more to the Metropolitan Railway. The District was extended on 12 April 1869, when the section from Gloucester Road via Earl's Court to West Brompton was opened; the Company disliked the arrangement with the Metropolitan Railway, gave them notice that they wanted to run their own trains, which they did from 3 July 1871.

To the west of Earl's Court station there was some former agricultural land, by derelict, but was sometimes used as a site for a fairground. This land was used as the site for Lillie Bridge Depot, where the trains could be stabled and serviced. John Fowler, the engineer, pioneered the use of concrete in construction, the sheds were the largest buildings with concrete walls to have been built at the time. Lighting of the carriages was by compressed oil-gas, stored in wrought iron cylinders mounted on the underframes. A gas producing plant was constructed at Lillie Bridge, the gas was transported during the night to various points around the system. Access was by a junction on the Earl's Court to Olympia tracks, required trains to reverse up a slope to reach the depot; the District extension from Turnham Green to Ealing Broadway was opened on 1 July 1879. It included a station named Mill Hill Park, renamed Acton Town in 1910. A new depot at Mill Hill Park was completed in 1905, as part of the electrification works for the District Railway, the engineering functions were moved from Lillie Bridge to Mill Hill Park, which became known as Ealing Common Depot.

In 1906, the Great Northern and Brompton Railway opened, running from Finsbury Park to Hammersmith, with its engineering offices headquartered from 1907 in the neo Georgian building, 16-18 Empress Place. Empress Place was called Richmond Place, development took place in 1864-65 to the designs of the architect John Young, while the Piccadilly line engineering headquarters were purpose-built in 1907, it reached the surface just to the west of West Kensington station. The concrete building was demolished, new car sheds were constructed at the depot, long enough to hold three of the six-car Piccadilly trains, which reached the depot by using the District tracks. At the rear end of the sheds there was a lifting shop; when the number of tracks to Acton Town was increased from two to four in 1932, as part of the Piccadilly line extensions, a new depot for Piccadilly line trains was built at Northfields, Lillie Bridge ceased to be used for stabling trains. After the departure of District trains, parts of the depot were redeveloped as a permanent way facility.

The organisation of the site was haphazard, the facilities were primitive, but the location was well-placed, enabling works trains to reach most parts of the system eas

1947 English Greyhound Derby

The 1947 Greyhound Derby took place during June with the final being held on 28 June 1947 at White City Stadium. The winner Trev's Perfection received a first prize of £1,400. At White City: 2, 1½, 1, 2, 2½ The distances between the greyhounds are in finishing order and shown in lengths. From 1927-1950 one length was equal to 0.06 of one second but race times are shown as 0.08 as per modern day calculations. 36 greyhounds lined up with three semi-finals planned after the first round. The reason for this was a decision by the Greyhound Racing Association to allow the Racing Manager Major Percy Brown to select all of the runners for the event. Mondays News were joined by Priceless Border, a recent arrival from Ireland who had clocked a record time of 29.54 at Celtic Park. The ante post favourites are Dante II. Trev's Perfection and Trev's Jackie were the main entries for Fred Trevillion, his initial Derby dog, a £900 purchase from Ireland called Trev's Councillor had returned to Ireland after being disqualified for fighting.

During the first round Trev's Perfection won heat two in 29.30 followed by Dante II in a time just six spots slower. Dante II had encountered trouble in his race but showed great determination to win in 29.99. Priceless Border was an easy eight length victor in 29.18 and Mondays News progressed winning in 29.36. All of the four favourites had sealed a semi-final place. Before the semi-finals, Priceless Border had to be withdrawn from the competition because he was off colour. Trev's Perfection claimed the first heat with Slaney Record finishing in second place, Dante II was eliminated after finding trouble again. Lacken Invader came from behind to win the second heat, catching defending champion Mondays News and Clapton greyhound Patsys Record won the third and final heat, with Trev's Jackie claiming the last qualifying place. At 10.15pm, on Saturday 28 June, before a crowd of 55,000 Mondays News was hoping to emulate Mick the Miller by winning a second Derby. Mondays News moved wide at the first bend allowing Trev's Perfection inside him.

The brindle dog resisted the efforts of the favourite and ran out a two length winner, in a new Derby final best time. It was the first time 29 seconds had been broken in the Derby final and it was the first time the Derby had been won from trap two. In a bizarre twist, when Trev's Perfection was called Motts Regret he had been trained by Fred Farey, the current handler of Mondays News. Trev's Perfection went on to complete the Triple Crown of Scottish and Welsh Derby wins. 1947 UK & Ireland Greyhound Racing Year

Sky King

Sky King was an American radio and television series. Its lead character was aircraft pilot Schuyler "Sky" King; the series may have been based on a true-life personality of the 1930s, Jack Cones, known as the "Flying Constable" of Twentynine Palms in San Bernardino County, although this notion is unverified. The series had strong Western elements. King captured criminals and spies and found lost hikers, though he did so with the use of his airplane, the Songbird. Two twin-engine Cessna airplanes were used by King during the course of the TV series; the first was a Cessna T-50 and in episodes a Cessna 310B was used till the series' end. The 310's make and model type number was prominently displayed during the closing titles. King and his niece Penny lived on the Flying Crown Ranch, near the fictitious town of Grover, Arizona. Penny and Clipper were pilots, although they were inexperienced and looked to their uncle for guidance. Penny was an accomplished air racer, rated as a multiengine pilot, whom Sky trusted to fly the Songbird.

The radio show began in 1946 and was based on a story by Roy Winsor, the brainchild of Robert Morris Burtt and Wilfred Gibbs Moore, who created Captain Midnight. Several actors played the part of Sky, including John Reed King. "Radio premiums" were offered to listeners. For example, the Sky King Secret Signalscope was used on November 2, 1947, in the "Mountain Detour" episode. Listeners were advised to get their own for only 15 cents and the inner seal from a jar of Peter Pan Peanut Butter, produced by the sponsor, Derby Foods; the Signalscope included a glow-in-the-dark signaling device, magnifying glass, Sky King's private code. With the Signalscope, one could see around corners and trees; the premiums were innovative, such as the Sky King Spy-Detecto Writer, which had a "decoder", magnifying glass, measuring scale, printing mechanism in a single package over two inches long. Other notable premiums were the Magni-Glo Writing Ring, which had a luminous element, a secret compartment, a magnifier, a ballpoint pen, all in the crown piece of a "fits any finger" ring.

The radio show continued until 1954, broadcasting with the first portion of the television version. The television version starred Kirby Grant as Gloria Winters as Penny. Other regular characters included Sky's nephew Clipper, played by Ron Hagerthy, Mitch the sheriff, portrayed by Ewing Mitchell. Mitch, a competent and intelligent law enforcement officer, depended on his friend Sky's flying skills to solve the harder cases. Other recurring characters included Jim Bell, the ranch foreman, played in four episodes by Chubby Johnson, as well as Sheriff Hollister portrayed by Monte Blue in five episodes, Bob Carey, portrayed in ten episodes by Norman Ollestad. Many of the storylines would parallel those used in such dramatic pot-boilers as Adventures of Superman with the supporting cast finding themselves in near-death situations and the hero rescuing them with seconds to spare. Penny would often fall into the hands of spies, bank robbers, other ne'er-do-wells. Sky never killed the villains, as with most television cowboy heroes of the time, though one episode had him shooting a machine gun into his own stolen plane.

Sky King was a show for children, although it sometimes broadcast in prime time. The show became an icon in the aviation community. Many pilots, including American astronauts, named him as an influence. Plot lines were simplistic, but Grant was able to bring a casual, natural treatment of technical details, leading to a level of believability not found in other TV series involving aviation or life in the American West. Villains and other characters were depicted as intelligent and believable, rather than as two-dimensional; the writing was above the standard for contemporary half-hour programs, although sometimes critics suggested that the acting was not. Episodes of the television show were notable for the dramatic opening with an air-to-air shot of the sleek, second Songbird banking away from the camera and its engines roaring, while the announcer proclaimed, "Out of the clear blue of the Western sky comes Sky King!" The short credit roll which followed was dramatic, with the Songbird swooping at the camera across El Mirage Lake, California pulling up into a steep climb as it departed.

The end title featured a musical theme, with the credits superimposed over an air-to-air shot of the Songbird, cruising at altitude for several moments banking away to the left. The show featured low-level flying with the Songbird, highlighting the desert flashing by in the background. Kirby Grant as Schuyler "Sky" King Gloria Winters as Penny King Ewing Mitchell as Sheriff Mitch Hargrove Ron Hagerthy as Clipper King The television show was first broadcast on Sunday afternoons on NBC-TV between September 16, 1951, October 26, 1952; these episodes were rebroadcast on ABC's Saturday morning lineup the following year from November 8, 1952 through September 21, 1953 when it made its prime-time debut on ABC's Monday night lineup. It was telecast twice-a-week in September 1954, before ABC cancelled it. New episodes were produced when the show went into syndication in 1955; the last new episode, "Mickey's Birthday", was telecast March 8, 1959. "Mickey" was a kinsman of Sky King portrayed in three 1959 episodes by child actor Gary Hunley.

Thereafter, Sky King surfaced on the CBS Saturday schedule in reruns until September, 1966. CBS began airing reruns of the show on ea

Eddie Paynter

Edward Paynter was an English cricketer: an attacking batsman and excellent fielder. His Test batting average of 59.23 is the seventh highest of all time, second only to Herbert Sutcliffe amongst Englishmen. Born in Oswaldtwistle, Paynter did not make his first-class debut for Lancashire County Cricket Club until the advanced age of 24 in July 1926, he made a slow start to his career, not establishing himself as a first-team player until 1930 and only scoring his first century in July of the following year, making 100 against Warwickshire in his 48th first-class match. He scored 102 against the touring New Zealanders in the next game, in August made his Test debut against the same opposition. However, the match was ruined by rain, with no play possible on the first two of the game's scheduled three days, Paynter made just three in his only innings; the most famous of his Test appearances came against Australia, on the "Bodyline tour" of 1932/33. At Brisbane Paynter was taken to hospital suffering from tonsillitis, yet with England in difficulty at 216/6 in reply to Australia's 340, came out to bat.

After spending the night in hospital, he made his way to 83 and helped his team to an unlikely first-innings lead, though he only fielded for a couple of hours, returned for the second innings and had the honour of hitting the winning runs – with a six off McCabe. Paynter averaged a fine 61.33 over his five innings on this tour. Paynter was out of the England side for a time, but in 1937 his county form – 2,904 runs and a five-hour triple century against Sussex brought him a recall against New Zealand, as well as Wisden Cricketer of the Year recognition in the next year's Almanack. In 1938 Paynter had another outstanding series against Australia, averaging 101.75 and hitting 216 not out at Nottingham, at the time an England record for Ashes Tests in England. He filled in competently as wicket-keeper when Les Ames was injured at Lord's. Paynter was again successful the following winter against South Africa, scoring three centuries and two fifties in eight innings, including 243 at Durban, to average 81.62.

The Second World War brought an effective end to Paynter's career, though he did play a few special and festival games after the war. His final first-class innings was 75 not out for a Commonwealth XI against the Bombay Governor's XI in 1950/51, he spent the rest of his working life stacking wool in a Yorkshire mill. He died at the age of 77 in Yorkshire. Eddie Paynter at ESPNcricinfo Eddie Paynter at CricketArchive