Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent country on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the north by Mexico, on the south and west by Guatemala and its mainland is about 290 km long and 110 km wide. Belize has an area of 22,800 square kilometres and a population of 368,310 and it has the lowest population density in Central America. The countrys population growth rate of 1. 87% per year is the second highest in the region, Belizes abundance of terrestrial and marine species and its diversity of ecosystems gives it a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. Belize has a society, composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the language of Belize, with Belizean Kriol being the unofficial language. Over half the population is multilingual, with Spanish being the second most common spoken language, Belize is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the Latin American and Caribbean regions.
Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch, Belize is known for its September Celebrations, its extensive coral reefs, and punta music. The origin of the name Belize remains unclear, the earliest known record of the name appears in the journal of the Dominican priest Fray José Delgado, dating to 1677. Delgado recorded the names of three rivers that he crossed while travelling north along the Caribbean coast, Rio Soyte, Rio Xibum. The names of these waterways, which correspond to the Sittee River, Sibun River and it is likely that Delgados Balis was actually the Mayan word belix, meaning muddy-watered. Others have suggested that the name derives from a Spanish pronunciation of the name of the Scottish buccaneer Peter Wallace, there is no proof that Wallace settled in this area and some scholars have characterized this claim as a myth. Writers and historians have suggested other possible etymologies, including postulated French. Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly 500 years of European domination, prior to about 2500 BC, some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages, they domesticated crops such as corn, beans and chili peppers.
A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Maya core culture, between about 2500 BC and 250 AD, the basic institutions of Maya civilisation emerged. The peak of this occurred during the classic period, which began about 250 AD. The Maya civilisation spread across what is now Belize around 1500 BC, the recorded history of the middle and southern regions is dominated by Caracol, an urban political centre that may have supported over 140,000 people. North of the Maya Mountains, the most important political centre was Lamanai, in the late Classic Era of Maya civilisation, as many as 1 million people may have lived in the area that is now Belize
Barton Creek Cave
Barton Creek Cave is a natural cave in Belize, known as both an archaeological site and as a tourist destination. It is located in the Barton Creek area near San Ignacio in the Cayo District, Barton Creek Cave is a primarily single-passage resurging stream cave. By 2005 the Xibalba Mapping and Exploration Team had extended the survey to 8 km, extensive looting of artifacts occurred soon after the cave was first reported, but it remains an important site for archaeologists. Evidence of cave use by the Maya exists on ten ledges within the first kilometer of cave passage, pottery shards indicate use between the Early Classic to the Late Classic periods. The remains of at least 28 humans have found within the cave. Multiyear Project to Map Caves for the Belize Department of Archaeology,2002 NSS Convention Larson et al
Cayo District is a district located in the west part of Belize. It is the first-most extensive, second-most populous and third-most densely populated of the six districts of Belize, the districts capital is the town of San Ignacio. The nations capital, Belmopan, is located within the district, Cayo District is primarily an agricultural district, with the chief crops being citrus fruit, as well as bananas. Recently, oil was found in Spanish Lookout and it is now in production, in addition to the ruins listed above there are several other important nature reserves including two National Parks, Blue Hole and Guanacaste National Park. Ecotourism is a part of the regions economy. According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, Cayo Districts total population is of 73,202 residents, the total number of households is 15,497 and the average household size is 4.7. The southern half of Cayo District is very low densely populated, a large majority of the districts population lives north of the 17th parallel.
In 2010, the population of Cayos urban areas was of 36,455,17,939 males and 18,516 females. 7,468 total households and a 4.9 average household size, the total population of Cayos rural areas was of 36,747,18,864 males and 17,883 females. 8,029 total households and a 4.6 average household size, the Lodge at Chaa Creek Kaana Boutique Resort & Spa Map Cayo South GoToCayoBelize. com Best of Cayo
A sock is an item of clothing worn on the feet and often covering the ankle or some part of the calf. Some type of shoe or boot is typically worn over socks, in ancient times, socks were made from leather or matted animal hair. In the late 16th century, machine-knit socks were first produced, until 1800 both hand knitting and machine knitting were used to produce socks, but after 1800, machine knitting became the predominant method. One of the roles of socks is absorbing perspiration, in cold environments, socks made from wool insulate the foot and decrease the risk of frostbite. Socks are worn with shoes and dress shoes. In addition to the numerous practical roles played by socks, they are a fashion item, the modern English word sock is derived from the Old English word socc, meaning light slipper. This comes from the Latin soccus, a term to describe a light, low-heeled shoe worn by Roman comic actors, Socks have evolved over the centuries from the earliest models, which were made from animal skins gathered up and tied around the ankles.
In the 8th century BC, the Ancient Greeks wore socks from matted animal hair for warmth, the Romans wrapped their feet with leather or woven fabrics. By the 5th century AD, socks called puttees were worn by people in Europe to symbolize purity. By 1000 AD, socks became a symbol of wealth among the nobility, from the 16th century onwards, an ornamental design on the ankle or side of a sock has been called a clock. The invention of a machine in 1589 meant that socks could be knitted six times faster than by hand. Nonetheless, knitting machines and hand knitters worked side by side until 1800, the next revolution in sock production was the introduction of nylon in 1938. Until socks were made from silk and wool. Nylon was the start of blending two or more yarns in the production of socks, a process still continues. Socks can be created from a variety of materials such as, wool, acrylic, olefins. To get an increased level of other materials that might be used during the process can be silk, linen, cashmere.
The color variety of choices can be any color that the designers intend to make the sock upon its creation. Sock coloring can come in a range of colors
Aguateca is a Maya site located in northern Guatemalas Petexbatun Basin, in the department of Petén. The first settlements at Aguateca date to the Late Preclassic period, the center was occupied from about 200 B. C. until about 800 A. D. when the city was attacked and ransacked. Because the city was abandoned by its population, Pompeii-style assemblages were left scattered on the floors of elite residences. Horizontal excavation of these residences has revealed ancient elite activity and household level craft production areas, Aguateca sits on top of a 90 metres tall limestone bluff, creating a highly defensible position. This steep escarpment overlooks Petexbatun Lagoon in the Southwestern Guatemalan lowlands and is accessible by boat, there is an extensive system of defensive walls that surrounds the city, reaching over 3 miles in length. Its center consisted on the Palace Group, which was probably a residential compound. These monumental complexes were connected by a causeway, along which was a densely occupied elite residential area, during the reign of Tan Te Kinich the city was invaded and burned.
The city was abandoned around 830 AD. The ruins of Aguateca are considered to be among the best preserved in Guatemala and the nearby city of Dos Pilas were the twin capitals of a powerful dynasty claiming descent from the rulers of Tikal. Around 700 AD, it appears that Dos Pilas Rulers 3 and 4 were responsible for shifting the focus of the dynasty from Dos Pilas to Aguateca, as can be determined from stelas and monuments. In 761 AD, the rulers of Dos Pilas appear to have abandoned their city, Aguateca became a large, densely populated city, with a higher density of structures than most other lowland Maya sites. It is possible that the population of Aguateca migrated from the Pasion region, the influx of people was probably a result of the political influence of the dynasty. The development of a new center requires a substantial force to construct temples, palaces. For the royal family and elites securing a controllable population was essential, the structural complexes of this ancient Mayan site have provided archaeologists with invaluable information about the societal composition at Aguateca.
This includes the significance and role of different social classes, their placement in society, in addition to this, households, as the most basic socioeconomic units, interacted dynamically with larger social and political institutions. The examination of these aspects at Aguateca is critical for understanding aspects of human societies. In most traditional societies, like Aguateca, what we call private and public merge inseparably, in contrast to modern societies, houses in the elite residential area of Aguateca commonly consist of three main rooms and smaller additions. These included numerous domestic objects including serving vessels, grinding stones, obsidian blades, probably used for bloodletting, were found, as well as stone mortars for pigment reparation
Cerros is an Eastern Lowland Maya archaeological site in northern Belize that functioned from the Late Preclassic to the Postclassic period. The site reached its apogee during the Mesoamerican Late Preclassic and at its peak, the site is strategically located on a peninsula at the mouth of the New River where it empties into Chetumal Bay on the Caribbean coast. As such, the site had access to and served as a link between the coastal trade route that circumnavigated the Yucatán Peninsula and inland communities. The inhabitants of Cerros constructed a canal system and utilized raised-field agriculture. The core of the site immediately abuts the bay and consists of relatively large structures and stepped pyramids, an acropolis complex. Bounding the southern side of the site is a canal network that encloses the central portion of the site. Residential structures continue outside of the canal, generally radiating southwest and southeast, from the time of its inception in the Late Preclassic Era, around 400BC, the site of Cerros was a small village of farmers and traders.
They made use of its soils and easy access to the sea. The first of the new constructions was the Structure 5C-2nd, which has become the most famous piece of architecture at the site, as kings died, others came along and new temples were constructed in their honor. The last of the constructions at the site occurred around AD100. During the Protoclassic, Cerros ceased to function as a locus of elitist activity, from on, any new construction was probably limited to the outer residential area, as the population began to decline severely. Apart from an occupation at the end of the Late Classic period as a village community. This once glorious site was left for ruin and remained unnoticed until Thomas Gann made reference to lookout mounds along the coast in 1900. Archaeological work began at Cerros around 1973 when the site was purchased by the Metroplex Corporation of Dallas, these plans failed and the site was given to the government of Belize. In 1974, archaeologist David Freidel and his team uncovered evidence that suggested that the site was of the Late Preclassic period, in 1975, when a dedicatory offering cache was uncovered at Structure 6, further evidence was provided that Cerros was indeed a Late Preclassic site.
Throughout the 1970s, research was allowed to continue when the National Science Foundation funded further excavations, the original team completed their excavations in 1981. In the 1990s, Debra Walker and a team of archaeologists began a series of new excavations to investigate the sites demise at the end of the Late Preclassic Era. In addition to the research done at the site, Walkers team had radiocarbon dates run on newly found artifacts and they recalibrated several dates from the original research in order to establish a tighter chronological sequence
For the church in Zaragoza Spain see Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar El Pilar is an ancient Maya city center located on the Belize-Guatemala border. The site is located 12 kilometres north of San Ignacio and can be accessed through the San Ignacio, the name El Pilar is Spanish for watering basin, reflecting the abundance of streams around the site and below its escarpment, which is rare in the Maya area. El Pilar is the largest Maya site in the Belize River area with over 25 plazas and hundreds of major buildings. Archaeologist Anabel Ford first mapped El Pilar in 1983 in the course of her Belize River Archaeological Settlement Survey or BRASS project, Settlement patterns in the region suggest a hierarchy of community size and composition that was directly related to farmland. Since 1993, an archaeological field survey excavation project marked the initial examination of El Pilar. Under the direction of Anabel Ford, the map was executed with engineering survey instruments and excavations focused on access ways, stairs.
When the monuments were mapped, the team verified the causeway system that linked from the east to the west uniting one ancient Maya center in two nations and Guatemala. Later excavations tunneled into major temple revealing a 2000 years construction history and her team are currently working with Lidar in order to map the area more extensively. The city grew from Middle Preclassic period, with the first small temples, the civic area was expanded, reaching its greatest extent before 1000 AD. At its height in the Late Classic, the population of El Pilar is estimated to have exceeded 180,000. Ford and her team have excavated many of the plazas and palaces of the monumental civic area, surrounding the monuments is the residence that made up the ancient Maya community. Tzunu’un, a residential unit discovered and tested in 1984, became the focus of an investigation that excavated, exposed. This is the only house that the public has access to today. Working with Master Maya forest gardeners, the team has developed a forest garden around the house site, the forest gardens of El Pilar are now maintained by the Maya farmers as part of the El Pilar Forest Garden Network.
The El Pilar Archeological Reserve for Maya Flora and Fauna is open to the public and has a series of trails providing access throughout the site, tourists can take a taxi from Bullet Tree Falls directly into the Maya site. Intrepid visitors can experience both ancient and contemporary aspects of Maya life promoting Maya culture in the area, there is an active initiative to make El Pilar of Belize and Guatemala the first archaeological peace park in the world. Ford’s conservation strategy, called Archaeology Under the Canopy, promotes the conservation of ancient Maya monuments in the context of their natural environmental context, sheltered under the forest canopy after 1000 years of neglect, El Pilar and all the Maya monuments are best maintained in the shade. This preserves Maya cultural heritage along with the forest gardens the Maya created, the El Pilar Forest Garden Network
With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populated state in Central America. Guatemala is a democracy, its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción. The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, from the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced chronic instability and civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company, in 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms. A U. S. -backed military coup in 1954 ended the revolution, from 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military.
As of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index, Guatemalas abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamericas designation as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is known for its rich and distinct culture. The name Guatemala comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or place of many trees and this was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory. The first evidence of habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in parts of the country. There is archaeological proof that early Guatemalan settlers were hunters and gatherers, pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had been developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, and the Postclassic period.
Until recently, the Preclassic was regarded as a period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts. This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states and this lasted until approximately 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed. The Maya abandoned many of the cities of the lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the Drought Theory is gaining currency, supported by such as lakebeds, ancient pollen. A series of prolonged droughts, among other such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya
San Ignacio, Belize
San Ignacio and Santa Elena are towns in western Belize. San Ignacio serves as the hub of Cayo District. It got its start from Mahogany and chicle production during British colonialism, over time it attracted people from the surrounding areas, which led to the diverse population of the town today. San Ignacio is the largest settlement in Cayo District and the second largest in the country, the town was originally named El Cayo by the Spanish. On October 19,1904, El Cayo was officially declared a town by the government of British Honduras, in the past a creek ran between the Macal and the Mopan rivers one mile outside of San Ignacio going toward Benque Viejo. This creek fulfilled the definition of an area of land surrounded by water and thus the name Cayo. The demise of the creek, took away the distinction for the classification of a cayo from the western town of El Cayo. San Ignacio is situated on the banks of the Macal River, about 63 miles west of Belize City and 22 miles west of the countrys capital, the town has an area of approximately 2.5 square miles.
The population is largely Mestizo and Kriol, with some Lebanese, San Ignacio boasts a fairly large Chinese population, most of whom emigrated from Guangzhou in waves in the mid-20th century. The Mennonite community of Spanish Lookout is situated a few miles outside San Ignacio, the 2010 census counted 17,878 inhabitants in San Ignacio and Santa Elena, of whom 8,751 are males and 9,127 are females. The total number of households is 4,351 and the household size is 4.1. In recent years San Ignacio has absorbed the formerly separate village of Santa Elena, San Ignacio and its sister-town Santa Elena make up Belizes second largest urban area. The two towns are connected by Belizes only suspension bridge, the one-lane Hawkesworth Bridge across the Macal river, the two are collectively referred to as the Twin Towns although San Ignacio has a larger population. As of 2010, Santa Elena has a population of 7,389 compared with San Ignacios population of 10,489, San Ignacio is currently governed by a town council affiliated with the United Democratic Party.
The mayor is Earl Trapp, of the UDP, town council elections are held every three years to elect the mayor and council. Both UDP and Peoples United Party candidates participate in town elections, the next municipal elections are scheduled for March 2018. At the national level, the San Ignacio/Santa Elena area is represented by three constituencies in the Belize House of Representatives, Cayo Central, Cayo North and Cayo North East, San Ignacio has three main colleges. Sacred Heart College of Catholic denomination is the largest institution, with both a school and a junior college division, and is one of the largest high schools in Belize
Nim Li Punit
Nim Li Punit is a Maya Classic Period site in the Toledo District of the nation of Belize, located 40 kilometres north of the town of Punta Gorda, at 16°19 N, 88°47 60W. Nim Li Punit is a site from the Maya Classic Period. It consists of structures around three plazas, including several step-pyramids, the tallest being 12.2 meters high, the site has a number of carved stelae illustrating the ancient citys rulers. Several stelae are in a state, suggesting a sudden halt to work. The site is near Belizes Southern Highway and is open to visitors subject to an admission charge, Nim Li Punit is situated in the foothills of the Maya Mountains with proximity to clear mountain streams. The Maya Mountains form a nearly impenetrable backdrop forest to the north and east, low-lying swampland between the Sarstoon and Temash Rivers is situated to the south. The site is two kilometres of Belizes Southern Highway, accessed by an unpaved road. Area soils are fertile for tropical standards, and explain the regions ability to support sizeable prehistoric settlements such as Nim Li Punit.
Local sandstones are found in stream and river beds. The sky world is exhibited characteristically in the north by shrines, the location of the ballcourt is intermediary, illustrating the position of this activity to represent perpetual conflict between the forces of life and death. The ballcourt is so well preserved, it appears ready to host a game and it is thought that within the Plaza of the Stela in the South Group that there is an E Group geometry that would have been used for astronomical observations. For example, several monuments present before a terrace known as Structure One. The peak population of Nim Li Punit is estimated to have been in the range of 5000 to 7000 people during the peak occupation Late Classic period, early occupiers of this site probably migrated from Guatemala, similar to the history of nearby Lubaantun. The peoples of Nim Li Punit are thought to have spoken a dialect of the Cholan language, evidence from carved stelae document the site was active in the period 721 to 790 AD, based upon actual Mayan calendar dates inscribed on at least six different stones.
The Nim Li Punit population is thought to have aligned with Mayan settlements such as Tikal in the Petén Basin region of Guatemala. The visitors center indicates that this site had political and social connections with Copan in Honduras, Nim Li Punit is situated in a locale rich in forest, soil and other natural resources. These assets, coupled with proximity to ample flowing mountain streams, mammals found in the area include two primates, Yucatán black howler monkey, Alouatta pigra and Central American spider monkey, Ateles geoffroya. Numerous rodents are found including the common paca, Agouti paca
Lamanai is a Mesoamerican archaeological site, and was once a major city of the Maya civilization, located in the north of Belize, in Orange Walk District. The sites name is pre-Columbian, recorded by early Spanish missionaries, unlike most Classic-period sites in the southern Maya lowlands, Lamanai was not abandoned at the end of the 10th century AD. Lamanai was occupied as early as the 16th century BC, the site became a prominent centre in the Pre-Classic Period, from the 4th century BC through the 1st century CE. In 625 CE, Stele 9 was erected there in the Yucatec language of the Maya, Lamanai continued to be occupied up to the 17th century AD. During the Spanish conquest of Yucatán Spanish friars established two Roman Catholic churches here, but a Maya revolt drove the Spanish out, the site was subsequently incorporated by the British in British Honduras, passing with that colonys independence to Belize. Also the British has settled in Lamanai and made a sugar mill, the vast majority of the site remained unexcavated until the mid-1970s.
Archaeological work has concentrated on the investigation and restoration of the structures, most notably the Mask Temple, Jaguar Temple. The summit of this latter structure affords a view across the jungle to a nearby lagoon. A significant portion of the Temple of the Jaguar Masks remains under grassy earth or is covered in jungle growth. Fully excavated, it would be taller than the High Temple. In the jaguar temple there is a legend that you can find an ancient spear called the heart of the jaguar, the Maya ruins of Lamanai once belonged to a sizable Mayan city in the Orange Walk District of Belize. Lamanai comes from the Maya term for submerged crocodile, a nod to the toothy reptiles who live along the banks of the New River, Lamanai Belize jungle brims with exotic birds and hydrophilic iguanas. It lies between Lamanai and Altun Ha, another further to the east. It is positioned on Western Lagoon near its outlet into Spanish Creek, Chau Hiix is 15 km east of Lamanai, and is accessible by waterways travel.
Altun Ha lies another 25 km further to the east, the material culture of Chau Hiix shows close ties with both Lamanai and Altun Ha, as well as evidence of interaction with centers in Petén Basin. There are considerable ancient irrigation works at Chau Hiix, so it was probably an agricultural community supplying food for Lamanai, the archaeological contexts of copper objects recovered at Lamanai beginning, with the appearance of metal at the site by around A. D.1150. D. Objects are classified and examined in the contexts, styles and sources of copper objects dating from the Buk ceramic phase, there were copper objects recovered at Lamanai beginning, with the appearance of metal at the site by around A. D.1150. Masson notes that metal was probably the most highvalued luxury good in this region of the Postclassic Maya world, trade was an essential component of Mesoamerican life in the Postclassic period and the Maya were active participants in a vast macro regional trade network