The Profumo affair was a British political scandal that originated with a brief sexual relationship in 1961 between John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's Conservative government, Christine Keeler, a 19-year-old would-be model. In March 1963, Profumo's denial of any impropriety, in a personal statement to the House of Commons, was refuted a few weeks with his admission of the truth, he resigned from Parliament. The repercussions of the affair damaged Macmillan's self-confidence, he resigned as Prime Minister on health grounds in October 1963; the reputation of the Conservative Party was damaged by the scandal, which may have contributed to its defeat by the Labour Party in the 1964 general election. When the Profumo–Keeler affair was first revealed, public interest was heightened by reports that Keeler may have been involved with Captain Yevgeny Ivanov, a Soviet naval attaché, thereby creating a possible security risk. Keeler knew both Profumo and Ivanov through her friendship with Stephen Ward, an osteopath and socialite who had taken her under his wing.
The exposure of the affair generated rumours of other scandals, drew official attention to the activities of Ward, charged with a series of immorality offences. Perceiving himself as a scapegoat for the misdeeds of others, Ward took a fatal overdose during the final stages of his trial, which found him guilty of living off the immoral earnings of Keeler and her friend Mandy Rice-Davies. An inquiry into the affair by a senior judge, Lord Denning, indicated that there had been no breaches of security arising from the Ivanov connection, although Denning's report was condemned as superficial and unsatisfactory. Profumo subsequently sought private atonement as a volunteer worker at Toynbee Hall, an East London charitable trust. Keeler found it difficult to escape the negative image attached to her by press and parliament throughout the Profumo affair. In various, sometimes contradictory accounts, she challenged Denning's conclusions relating to security issues. Ward's conviction has been described by analysts as an act of Establishment revenge, rather than serving justice.
In January 2014 his case was under review by the Criminal Cases Review Commission, with the possibility of a reference to the Court of Appeal. Dramatisations of the Profumo affair have been shown on screen. Profumo died in 2006, while Keeler died in 2017. In the early 1960s British news media were dominated by several high-profile spying stories: the breaking of the Portland spy ring in 1961, the capture and sentencing of George Blake in the same year and, in 1962, the case of the Admiralty clerk, John Vassall, blackmailed into spying by the Soviets who threatened to expose his homosexuality. In October 1962 Vassall was jailed for 18 years. After suggestions in the press that Vassall had been shielded by his political masters, the responsible minister, Thomas Galbraith, resigned from the government pending inquiries. Galbraith was exonerated by the Radcliffe inquiry, which sent two newspaper journalists to prison for refusing to reveal their sources for sensational and uncorroborated stories about Vassall's private life.
The imprisonment damaged relations between the press and the Macmillan government. Brigadier John, 5th Baron Profumo, was born in 1915, of Italian descent, his family, on his father's side, were minor Italian aristocracy, were awarded a low-ranking Italian peerage by the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1843.'Jack' Profumo inherited this peerage, the title of Baron Profumo, upon his father's death on 27 March 1940. He first entered Parliament in 1940 as the Conservative member for Kettering, while serving with the Northamptonshire Yeomanry, combined his political and military duties through the Second World War, he was elected in 1950 for Stratford-on-Avon. From 1951 he held junior ministerial office in successive Conservative administrations. In 1960, Macmillan promoted him to Secretary of State for a senior post outside the cabinet. After his marriage in 1954 to Valerie Hobson, one of Britain's leading film actresses, he may have conducted casual affairs, using late-night parliamentary sittings as his cover.
Baron Profumo's tenure as war minister coincided with a period of transition in the armed forces, involving the end of conscription and the development of a wholly professional army. His performance was watched with a critical eye by his opposition counterpart George Wigg, a former regular soldier. Christine Keeler, born in 1942, left school at 15 with no qualifications and took a series of short-lived jobs in shops and cafés, she aspired to be a model, at 16 had a photograph published in Tit-Bits magazine. In August 1959, she found work as a topless showgirl at Murray's Cabaret Club in Soho; this long-established club attracted a distinguished clientele who, Keeler wrote, "could look but could not touch". Shortly after starting at Murray's, Keeler was introduced to a client, the society osteopath Stephen Ward. Captivated by his charm, she agreed to move into his flat, in a relationship she has described as "like brother and sister"—affectionate but not sexual, she left Ward after a few months to become the mistress of the property dealer Peter Rachman, shared lodgings with Mandy Rice-Davies, a fellow Murray's Club dancer three years her junior.
The two girls left Murray's, attempted without success to pursue careers as freelance models. Keeler lived for short periods with various boyfriends, but
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft involving moral panic or mass hysteria. The classical period of witch-hunts in Early Modern Europe and Colonial North America took place in the Early Modern period or about 1450 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 35,000 to 100,000 executions; the last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18th century. In other regions, like Africa and Asia, contemporary witch-hunts have been reported from Sub-Saharan Africa and Papua New Guinea and official legislation against witchcraft is still found in Saudi Arabia and Cameroon today. In current language, "witch-hunt" metaphorically means an investigation conducted with much publicity to uncover subversive activity, disloyalty and so on, but to weaken political opposition; the wide distribution of the practice of witch-hunts in geographically and culturally separated societies since the 1960s has triggered interest in the anthropological background of this behaviour.
The belief in magic and divination, attempts to use magic to influence personal well-being are human cultural universals. Belief in witchcraft has been shown to have similarities in societies throughout the world, it presents a framework to explain the occurrence of otherwise random misfortunes such as sickness or death, the witch sorcerer provides an image of evil. Reports on indigenous practices in the Americas and Africa collected during the early modern age of exploration have been taken to suggest that not just the belief in witchcraft but the periodic outbreak of witch-hunts are a human cultural universal. One study finds that witchcraft beliefs are associated with antisocial attitudes: lower levels of trust, charitable giving and group participation. Another study finds that income shocks lead to a large increase in the murder of "witches" in Tanzania. Punishment for malevolent sorcery is addressed in the earliest law codes; the Code of Hammurabi prescribes that If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not yet justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river.
If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death, he that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him. No laws concerning magic survive from Classical Athens. However, cases concerning the harmful effects of pharmaka – an ambiguous term that might mean "poison", "medicine", or "magical drug" – do survive those where the drug caused injury or death. Antiphon's speech "Against the Stepmother for Poisoning" tells of the case of a woman accused of plotting to murder her husband with a pharmakon; the most detailed account of a trial for witchcraft in Classical Greece is the story of Theoris of Lemnos, executed along with her children some time before 338 BC for casting incantations and using harmful drugs. In 451 BC, the Twelve Tables of Roman law had provisions against evil incantations and spells intended to damage cereal crops.
In 331 BC, 170 women were executed as witches in the context of an epidemic illness. Livy emphasizes. In 186 BC, the Roman senate issued a decree restricting the Bacchanalia, ecstatic rites celebrated in honor of Dionysus. Livy records that this persecution was because "there was nothing wicked, nothing flagitious, that had not been practiced among them". Consequent to the ban, in 184 BC, about 2,000 people were executed for witchcraft, in 182–180 BC another 3,000 executions took place, again triggered by the outbreak of an epidemic. There is no way to verify the figures reported by Roman historians, but if they are taken at face value, the scale of the witch-hunts in the Roman Republic in relation to the population of Italy at the time far exceeded anything that took place during the "classical" witch-craze in Early Modern Europe. Persecution of witches continued in the Roman Empire until the late 4th century AD and abated only after the introduction of Christianity as the Roman state religion in the 390s.
The Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficiis promulgated by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 81 BC became an important source of late medieval and early modern European law on witchcraft. This law banned the trading and possession of harmful drugs and poisons, possession of magical books and other occult paraphernalia. Strabo, Gaius Maecenas and Cassius Dio all reiterate the traditional Roman opposition against sorcery and divination, Tacitus used the term religio-superstitio to class these outlawed observances. Emperor Augustus strengthened legislation aimed at curbing these practices, for instance in 31 BC, by burning over 2,000 magical books in Rome, except for certain portions of the hallowed Sibylline Books. In AD 354, while Tiberius Claudius was emperor, 45 men and 85 women, who were all suspected of sorcery, were executed; the Hebrew Bible condemns sorcery. Deuteronomy 18:10–12 states: "No one shall be found among you who makes a son or daughter pass through fire, who practices divination, or is a soothsayer, or an augur, or a sorcerer, or one that casts spells, or who consults gh
A conspiracy theory is the fear of a nonexistent or alleged conspiracy or the unnecessary assumption of conspiracy when other explanations are more probable. Evidence showing it to be false, or the absence of proof of the conspiracy, is interpreted by believers as evidence of its truth, thus insulating it from refutation. According to the political scientist Michael Barkun, conspiracy theories rely on the view that the universe is governed by design, embody three principles: nothing happens by accident, nothing is as it seems, everything is connected. Another common feature is that conspiracy theories evolve to incorporate whatever evidence exists against them, so that they become, as Barkun writes, a closed system, unfalsifiable, therefore "a matter of faith rather than proof". On a psychological level, studies show Machiavellianism and paranoia are correlated with conspiratorial thinking; the Oxford English Dictionary defines conspiracy theory as "the theory that an event or phenomenon occurs as a result of a conspiracy between interested parties.
A belief that some covert but influential agency is responsible for an unexplained event". It cites a 1909 article in The American Historical Review as the earliest usage example, although it appears in journals as early as April 1870; the word "conspiracy" derives from the Latin con- and spirare. Robert Blaskiewicz notes examples of the term were used as early as the nineteenth century and states that its usage has always been derogatory. Lance deHaven-Smith suggested that the term entered everyday language in the United States after 1964, the year in which the Warren Commission shared its findings, with The New York Times running five stories that year using the term. A conspiracy theory is not a conspiracy. Barkun writes that conspiracies are "actual covert plots planned and/or carried out by two or more persons". A conspiracy theory, on the other hand, is "an intellectual construct", a "template imposed upon the world to give the appearance of order to events". Positing that "some small and hidden group" has manipulated events, a conspiracy theory can be local or international, focused on single events or covering multiple incidents and entire countries and periods of history.
Conspiracy theorists see themselves as having privileged access to special knowledge or a special mode of thought that separates them from the masses who believe the official account. A conspiracy theory may take any matter as its subject, but certain subjects attract greater interest than others. Favored subjects include famous deaths, government activities, new technologies and questions of alien life. Among the longest-standing and most recognized conspiracy theories are notions concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 1969 Apollo moon landings and the 9/11 terrorist attacks, as well as numerous theories pertaining to alleged plots for world domination by various groups both real and imaginary; some scholars argue that conspiracy theories once limited to fringe audiences have become commonplace in mass media, contributing to conspiracism emerging as a cultural phenomenon in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. According to anthropologists Todd Sanders and Harry G. West, evidence suggests that a broad cross-section of Americans today gives credence to at least some conspiracy theories.
For instance, a study conducted in 2016 found that 10% of Americans think the chemtrail conspiracy theory is "completely true" and 20-30% think it is "somewhat true". This puts "the equivalent of 120 million Americans in the “chemtrails are real” camp". Belief in conspiracy theories has therefore become a topic of interest for sociologists and experts in folklore. Conspiracy theories are present on the Web in the form of blogs and YouTube videos, as well as on social media. Whether the Web has increased the prevalence of conspiracy theories or not is an open research question; the presence and representation of conspiracy theories in search engine results has been monitored and studied, showing significant variation across different topics, a general absence of reputable, high-quality links in the results. Jesse Walker has identified five kinds of conspiracy theories: The "Enemy Outside" refers to theories based on figures alleged to be scheming against a community from without; the "Enemy Within" finds the conspirators lurking inside the nation, indistinguishable from ordinary citizens.
The "Enemy Above" involves powerful people manipulating events for their own gain. The "Enemy Below" features the lower classes working to overturn the social order; the "Benevolent Conspiracies" are angelic forces that work behind the scenes to improve the world and help people. Barkun has identified three classifications of conspiracy theory: Event conspiracy theories; this refers to well-defined events. Examples may include such conspiracies theories as those concerning the Kennedy assassination, 9/11, the spread of AIDS. Systemic conspiracy theories; the conspiracy is believed to have broad goals conceived as securing control of a country, a region, or the entire world. The goals are sweeping, whilst the conspiratorial machinery is simple: a single, evil organization implements a plan to infiltrate and subvert existing institutions; this is a common scenario in conspiracy theories that focus on the alleged machinations of Jews, Communism, or the Catholic Church. Superconspiracy theories. For Barkun, such theories link multiple alleged conspiracies together hierarchically.
At the summit is a distant but all-powerful evil force. His cited examples are the ideas of Milton William Cooper. Murray
Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books and is known for its dictionaries. In 1828, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G & C Merriam Co. in Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1843, after Noah Webster died, the company bought the rights to An American Dictionary of the English Language from Webster's estate. All Merriam-Webster dictionaries trace their lineage to this source. In 1964, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. acquired Inc. as a subsidiary. The company adopted its current name in 1982. In 1806, Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. In 1807 Webster started two decades of intensive work to expand his publication into a comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language. To help him trace the etymology of words, Webster learned 26 languages. Webster hoped to standardize American speech, since Americans in different parts of the country used somewhat different vocabularies and spelled and used words differently.
Webster completed his dictionary during his year abroad in 1825 in Paris, at the University of Cambridge. His 1820s book contained 70,000 words, of which about 12,000 had never appeared in a dictionary before; as a spelling reformer, Webster believed that English spelling rules were unnecessarily complex, so his dictionary introduced American English spellings, replacing colour with color, waggon with wagon, centre with center. He added American words, including skunk and squash, that did not appear in British dictionaries. At the age of 70 in 1828, Webster published his dictionary. However, in 1840, he published the second edition in two volumes with much greater success. In 1843, after Webster's death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary, they published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the main text but added new sections, a second update with illustrations in 1859. In 1864, Merriam published a expanded edition, the first version to change Webster's text overhauling his work yet retaining many of his definitions and the title "An American Dictionary".
This began a series of revisions. In 1884 it contained 118,000 words, "3000 more than any other English dictionary". With the edition of 1890, the dictionary was retitled Webster's International; the vocabulary was vastly expanded in Webster's New International editions of 1909 and 1934, totaling over half a million words, with the 1934 edition retrospectively called Webster's Second International or "The Second Edition" of the New International. The Collegiate Dictionary was introduced in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of Webster's International in 1890, two Collegiate editions were issued as abridgments of each of their Unabridged editions. With the ninth edition, the Collegiate adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than an abridgment of the Third New International; some proper names were returned including names of Knights of the Round Table. The most notable change was the inclusion of the date of the first known citation of each word, to document its entry into the English language.
The eleventh edition includes more than 225,000 definitions, more than 165,000 entries. A CD-ROM of the text is sometimes included; this dictionary is preferred as a source "for general matters of spelling" by the influential The Chicago Manual of Style, followed by many book publishers and magazines in the United States. The Chicago Manual states. Merriam overhauled the dictionary again with the 1961 Webster's Third New International under the direction of Philip B. Gove, making changes that sparked public controversy. Many of these changes were in formatting, omitting needless punctuation, or avoiding complete sentences when a phrase was sufficient. Others, more controversial, signaled a shift from linguistic prescriptivism and towards describing American English as it was used at that time. Since the 1940s, the company has added many specialized dictionaries, language aides, other references to its repertoire; the G. & C. Merriam Company lost its right to exclusive use of the name "Webster" after a series of lawsuits placed that name in public domain.
Its name was changed to "Merriam-Webster, Incorporated", with the publication of Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary in 1983. Previous publications had used "A Merriam-Webster Dictionary" as a subtitle for many years and will be found on older editions; the company has been a subsidiary of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. since 1964. In 1996, Merriam-Webster launched its first website, which provided free access to an online dictionary and thesaurus. Merriam-Webster has published dictionaries of synonyms, English usage, biography, proper names, medical terms, sports terms, Spanish/English, numerous others. Non-dictionary publications include Collegiate Thesaurus, Secretarial Handbook, Manual for Writers and Editors, Collegiate Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia of Literature, Encyclopedia of World Religions. On February 16, 2007, Merriam-Webster announced the launch of a mobile dictionary and thesaurus service developed with mobile search-and-information provider AskMeNow. Consumers use the service to access definitions and synonyms via text message.
Services include Merr
The Art of Being Right
The Art of Being Right: 38 Ways to Win an Argument is an acidulous and sarcastic treatise written by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer in sardonic deadpan. In it, Schopenhauer examines a total of thirty-eight methods of showing up one's opponent in a debate, he introduces his essay with the idea that philosophers have concentrated in ample measure on the rules of logic, but have not engaged with the darker art of the dialectic, of controversy. Whereas the purpose of logic is classically said to be a method of arriving at the truth, says Schopenhauer, "...on the other hand, would treat of the intercourse between two rational beings who, because they are rational, ought to think in common, but who, as soon as they cease to agree like two clocks keeping the same time, create a disputation, or intellectual contest." In Volume 2, § 26, of his Parerga and Paralipomena, Schopenhauer wrote: The tricks and chicanery, to which they resort in order to be right in the end, are so numerous and manifold and yet recur so that some years ago I made them the subject of my own reflection and directed my attention to their purely formal element after I had perceived that, however varied the subjects of discussion and the persons taking part therein, the same identical tricks and dodges always come back and were easy to recognize.
This led me at the time to the idea of separating the formal part of these tricks and dodges from the material and of displaying it, so to speak, as a neat anatomical specimen. He "collected all the dishonest tricks so occurring in argument and presented each of them in its characteristic setting, illustrated by examples and given a name of its own." As an additional service, Schopenhauer "added a means to be used against them, as a kind of guard against these thrusts…." However, when he revised his book, he found "that such a detailed and minute consideration of the crooked ways and tricks that are used by common human nature to cover up its shortcomings is no longer suited to my temperament and so I lay it aside." He recorded a few stratagems as specimens for anyone in the future who might care to write a similar essay. He included, in Parerga and Paralipomena, Volume 2, § 26, an outline of what is essential to every disputation; the Manuscript Remains left after Schopenhauer's death include a forty–six page section on "Eristic Dialectics".
It contains thirty -- many footnotes. There is a preliminary discussion about the distinction between logic and dialectics. E. F. J. Payne has translated these notes into English. A. C. Grayling edited T. Bailey Saunders' English translation in 2004; the following lists the 38 stratagems described by Schopenhauer, in the order of their appearance in the book: The Extension The Homonymy Generalize Your Opponent's Specific Statements Conceal Your Game False Propositions Postulate What Has to Be Proved Yield Admissions Through Questions Make Your Opponent Angry Questions in Detouring Order Take Advantage of the Nay-Sayer Generalize Admissions of Specific Cases Choose Metaphors Favourable to Your Proposition Agree to Reject the Counter-Proposition Claim Victory Despite Defeat Use Seemingly Absurd Propositions Arguments Ad Hominem Defense Through Subtle Distinction Interrupt, Divert the Dispute Generalize the Matter, Then Argue Against it Draw Conclusions Yourself Meet Him With a Counter-Argument as Bad as His Petitio principii Make Him Exaggerate His Statement State a False Syllogism Find One Instance to the Contrary Turn the Tables Anger Indicates a Weak Point Persuade the Audience, Not the Opponent Diversion Appeal to Authority Rather Than Reason This Is Beyond Me Put His Thesis into Some Odious Category It Applies in Theory, but Not in Practice Don't Let Him Off the Hook Will Is More Effective Than Insight Bewilder Your opponent by Mere Bombast A Faulty Proof Refutes His Whole Position Become Personal, Rude Big Lie Informal logic Logical fallacies Philosophical logic Reasoning Grayling, A. C.
The Art of Always Being Right: Thirty Eight Ways to Win When You Are Defeated ISBN 1-903933-61-7 Parerga und Paralipomena, 1851. ISBN 0-85496-540-8 Online version from Coolhaus.de, translated by T. Bailey Saunders in 1896, it shows the English translation parallel to the German text. The Art of Being Right public domain audiobook at LibriVox
William John Bennett is an American conservative pundit and political theorist, who served as Secretary of Education from 1985 to 1988 under President Ronald Reagan. He held the post of Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy under George H. W. Bush. Bennett was born July 31, 1943 in Brooklyn, the son of Nancy, a medical secretary, F. Robert Bennett, a banker, he moved to Washington, D. C. where he attended Gonzaga College High School. He graduated from Williams College, where he was a member of the Kappa Alpha Society, went on to earn a Ph. D. from the University of Texas at Austin in Political Philosophy. He has a J. D. from Harvard Law School. From 1979 to 1981, he was the executive director of the National Humanities Center, a private research facility in North Carolina. In 1981 President Reagan appointed him to chair the National Endowment for the Humanities, where he served until Reagan appointed him Secretary of Education in 1985. Reagan nominated Mel Bradford to the position, but due to Bradford's pro-Confederate views Bennett was appointed in his place.
This event was marked as the watershed in the divergence between paleoconservatives, who backed Bradford, neoconservatives, led by Irving Kristol, who supported Bennett. In May 1986, Bennett switched from the Democratic to the Republican Party. Bennett resigned from this post in 1988, was appointed to the post of Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy by President George H. W. Bush, he was confirmed by the Senate in a 97-2 vote. Bennett is a member of the National Security Advisory Council of the Center for Security Policy, he was co-director of Empower America and was a Distinguished Fellow in Cultural Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. Long active in United States Republican Party politics, he is now an author, and, from April 5, 2004 through April 1, 2016, the host of the weekday radio program Morning in America on the Dallas, Texas-based Salem Communications. In addition to his radio show, he was the Washington Fellow of the Claremont Institute. Further work at the Claremont Institute included his role as Chairman of Americans for Victory Over Terrorism.
He was a political analyst for CNN until his termination in 2013. He is a Senior Advisor to Project Lead The Way, one of the nation's leading providers of training and curriculum to improve STEM education in American schools. Viridis Learning, Inc. and the board of directors of Vocefy, Inc. and Webtab, Inc. He is the Chief Education Advisor to Beanstalk Innovation, an international education company. Bennett and his wife, Mary Elayne "Elayne" Glover, have two sons and Joseph. Elayne is the president and founder of Best Friends Foundation, a national program promoting sexual abstinence among adolescents, he is the younger brother of Washington attorney Robert S. Bennett. Bennett tends to take a conservative position on affirmative action, school vouchers, curriculum reform, religion in education; as Education Secretary, he asked colleges to better enforce drug laws and supported a classical education. He criticized schools for low standards. In 1988 he called the Chicago public school system "the worst in the nation."
He coined the term "the blob" to describe the state education bureaucracy, a term, taken up in Britain by Michael Gove. Bennett is a staunch supporter of the War on Drugs and has been criticized for his views on the issue. On Larry King Live, he said that a viewer's suggestion of beheading drug dealers would be "morally plausible." He "lamented that we still grant them habeas corpus rights."Bennett is a member of the Project for the New American Century and was one of the signers of the January 26, 1998 PNAC Letter sent to President Bill Clinton urging Clinton to remove Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein from power. Bennett's best-known written work may be The Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories, which he edited. Other books Tried by Fire: The Story of Christianity's First Thousand Years Going to Pot: Why the Rush to Legalize Marijuana Is Harming America with Robert A. White Is College Worth It? with David Wilezol The Fight of our Lives co-authored with Seth Leibsohn The Book of Man: Readings on the Path to Manhood A Century Turns: New Hopes, New Fears The True Saint Nicholas The American Patriot's Almanac: Daily Readings on America America: The Last Best Hope: From a World at War to the Triumph of Freedom America: The Last Best Hope: From the Age of Discovery to a World at War Why We Fight: Moral Clarity and the War on Terrorism The Broken Hearth: Reversing the Moral Collapse of the American Family The Educated Child: A Parent's Guide from Preschool through Eighth Grade The Index of Leading Cultural Indicators Our Sacred Honor Body Count: Moral Poverty...and How to Win America's War Against Crime and Drugs Moral Compass: Stories for a Life's Journey The De-Valuing of America: The Fight for Our Culture and Our Children James Madison Elementary School: A Curriculum For American Students James Madison High School: A Curriculum For American Students First Lessons.
A Report on Elementary Education in America (co-authored in September 1986
Fake news or junk news or pseudo-news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. The false information is caused by reporters paying sources for stories, an unethical practice called checkbook journalism. Digital news increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism; the news is often reverberated as misinformation in social media but finds its way to the mainstream media as well. Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity; the relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue.
Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, the popularity of social media the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have been implicated in generating and propagating fake news during elections. Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories. An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U. S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets. Anonymously-hosted fake news websites lacking known publishers have been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel; the term is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint, a tactic known as the lying press.
During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself. In part as a result of Trump's use of the term, the term has come under increasing criticism, in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes." Fake news is a neologism used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate. Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are false, have enormous traction in the culture, are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.
He did not include news, "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, by any definition, that's a lie."The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can be fake news; some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but the "character of online circulation and reception". Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news: satire or parody false connection misleading content false context impostor content manipulated content fabricated content In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.
In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons conducted a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news". Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news, negative of his presidency. In November 2017, Claire Wardle announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues, she now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems:'mis-information','dis-information', and'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm. Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody