London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Sappho was an Archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos. Sappho is known for her lyric poetry, written to be sung. In ancient times, Sappho was regarded as one of the greatest lyric poets and was given names such as the "Tenth Muse" and "The Poetess". Most of Sappho's poetry is now lost, what is extant has survived only in fragmentary form, except for one complete poem: the "Ode to Aphrodite"; as well as lyric poetry, ancient commentators claimed that Sappho wrote iambic poetry. Three epigrams attributed to Sappho are extant, but these are Hellenistic imitations of Sappho's style. Little is known of Sappho's life, she was from a wealthy family from Lesbos. Ancient sources say, she was exiled to Sicily around 600 BC, may have continued to work until around 570. Legends surrounding Sappho's love for the ferryman Phaon and her death are unreliable. Sappho was a prolific poet composing around 10,000 lines, her poetry was well-known and admired through much of antiquity, she was among the canon of nine lyric poets most esteemed by scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria.
Sappho's poetry is still considered extraordinary and her works continue to influence other writers. Beyond her poetry, she is well known as a symbol of love and desire between women, with the English words sapphic and lesbian being derived from her own name and the name of her home island respectively. There are three sources of information about Sappho's life: her testimonia, the history of her times, what can be gleaned from her own poetry — although scholars are cautious when reading poetry as a biographical source. Testimonia is a term of art in ancient studies that refers to collections of classical biographical and literary references to classical authors; the testimonia regarding Sappho do not contain references contemporary to Sappho. The representations of Sappho's life that occur in the testimonia always need to be assessed for accuracy, because many of them are not correct; the testimonia are a source of knowledge regarding how Sappho's poetry was received in antiquity. Some details mentioned in the testimonia are derived from Sappho's own poetry, of great interest considering the testimonia originate from a time when more of Sappho's poetry was extant than is the case for modern readers.
Little is known about Sappho's life for certain. She was from Mytilene on the island of Lesbos and was born around 630 BC. Tradition names her mother as Cleïs, though ancient scholars may have guessed this name, assuming that Sappho's daughter Cleïs was named after her. Sappho's father's name is less certain. Ten names are known for Sappho's father from the ancient testimonia; the earliest and most attested name for Sappho's father is Scamandronymus. In Ovid's Heroides, Sappho's father died. Sappho's father is not mentioned in any of her surviving works, but Campbell suggests that this detail may have been based on a now-lost poem. Sappho's own name is found in numerous variant spellings in her own Aeolian dialect. No reliable portrait of Sappho's physical appearance has survived. In the Tithonus poem she describes her hair as now white but melaina, i.e. black. A literary papyrus of the second century A. D. describes her as pantelos mikra, quite tiny. Alcaeus describes Sappho as "violet-haired", a common Greek poetic way of describing dark hair.
Some scholars dismiss this tradition as unreliable. Sappho was said to have three brothers: Erigyius and Charaxus. According to Athenaeus, Sappho praised Larichus for pouring wine in the town hall of Mytilene, an office held by boys of the best families; this indication that Sappho was born into an aristocratic family is consistent with the sometimes rarefied environments that her verses record. One ancient tradition tells of a relation between the Egyptian courtesan Rhodopis. Herodotus, the oldest source of the story, reports that Charaxus ransomed Rhodopis for a large sum and that Sappho wrote a poem rebuking him for this. Sappho may have had a daughter named Cleïs, referred to in two fragments. Not all scholars accept. Fragment 132 describes Cleïs as "παῖς", which, as well as meaning "child", can refer to the "youthful beloved in a male homosexual liaison", it has been suggested that Cleïs was one of Sappho's younger lovers, rather than her daughter, though Judith Hallett argues that the language used in fragment 132 suggests that Sappho was referring to Cleïs as her daughter.
According to the Suda, Sappho was married to Kerkylas of Andros. However, the name appears to have been invented by a comic poet: the name "Kerkylas" comes from the word "κέρκος", a possible meaning of, "penis", is not otherwise attested as a name, while "Andros", as well as being the name of a Greek island, is a form of the Greek word "ἀνήρ", which means man. Thus, the name may be a joke name, as such could be rendered as "Dick Allcock from the Isle of Man". Sappho and her family were exiled from Lesbos to Syracuse, Sicily around 600 BC; the Parian Chronicle records Sappho going into exile some time between 604 and 591. This may have been as a result of her family's involvement with the conflicts between political elites on Lesbos in this period, the
Salt Lake City Cemetery
The Salt Lake City Cemetery is in The Avenues neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah. 120,000 persons are buried in the cemetery. Many religious leaders and politicians many leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints lie in the cemetery, it contains 9 1⁄2 miles of roads. It is the largest city-operated cemetery in the United States; the first burial occurred on September 1847, when George Wallace buried his child, Mary Wallace. The burial was two months. In 1849, George Wallace, Daniel H. Wells, Joseph Heywood surveyed 20 acres at the same site for the area's burial grounds. In 1851, Salt Lake City was incorporated and the 20 acres became the Salt Lake City Cemetery with George Wallace as its first sexton; the cemetery contains one British Commonwealth war grave, of a Canadian Army soldier of World War I. List of people buried in the Salt Lake City Cemetery Arave, Lynn, "S. L. Cemetery Is Alive with History The Famous and the Humble Rest in Peace Together", Deseret News Hilton, Linda K..
UT-2, "Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT", 12 photos, 10 data pages, 2 photo caption pages U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Salt Lake City Cemetery
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Chevy Chase, Maryland
Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated census-designated place that straddle the northwest border of Washington, D. C. and Montgomery County, Maryland. Several settlements in the same area of Montgomery County and one neighborhood of Washington, D. C. include "Chevy Chase" in their names. These villages, the town, the CDP share a common history and together form a larger community colloquially referred to as "Chevy Chase". A residential suburb, Chevy Chase adjoins Friendship Heights, a popular shopping district, it includes the National 4-H Youth Conference Center, which hosts the National Science Bowl annually in either late April or early May. The name "Chevy Chase" is derived from "Cheivy Chace", the name of the land patented to Colonel Joseph Belt from Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore on July 10, 1725, it has historic associations to a 1388 battle between Lord Percy of England and Earl Douglas of Scotland, the subject of the ballad entitled "The Ballad of Chevy Chase".
At issue in this "chevauchée" were hunting grounds or a "chace" in the Cheviot Hills of Northumberland and Otterburn. Before 1890, Chevy Chase was unincorporated farmland, during which time Senator Francis G. Newlands of Nevada and his partners began acquiring land in the area, for the purpose of developing a residential streetcar suburb for Washington, D. C. during the expansion of the Washington streetcars system. Newlands and his partners founded The Chevy Chase Land Company in 1890, its holdings of more than 1,700 acres extended along the present-day Connecticut Avenue from Florida Avenue north to Jones Bridge Road; the Chevy Chase Land Company built houses for $5,000 and up on Connecticut Avenue and $3,000 and up on side streets. The company banned commerce from the residential neighborhoods; the streetcar soon became vital to the community. Toward the northern end of its holdings, the Land Company formed a manmade lake, called Chevy Chase Lake, for boating and other activities. Leon E. Dessez was Chevy Chase's first resident.
He and Lindley Johnson of Philadelphia designed the first four houses in the area. Part of the original Cheivy Chace patent had been sold to one Abraham Bradley, who built an estate known as the Bradley Farm. In 1892, a group of men from the Metropolitan Club of Washington, D. C. including Newlands, founded a hunt club called Chevy Chase Hunt, which would become Chevy Chase Club. In 1894, the club located itself on the former Bradley Farm property under a lease from its owners. In 1895, the club introduced a six-hole golf course to its members, in 1897, purchased the 9.36-acre Bradley Farm tract. Lea M. Bouligny founded a school for young women at the Chevy Chase Inn, called Chevy Chase College and Seminary for Young Ladies. In 1927 the name was changed to Chevy Chase Junior College. In 1951, the National 4-H Club Foundation purchased the property. During the first half of the 20th century, Chevy Chase excluded individuals based on race and religion. Founder Francis G. Newlands was an "avowed racist" who in 1912 mounted his presidential campaign on a platform that called for a constitutional amendment to disenfranchise black men and limit immigration to whites only.
Three years earlier, the Chevy Chase Land Company had brought suit against a developer who had begun to sell lots to black people in a planned subdivision called "Belmont" on the grounds that the developer had committed fraud by proposing "to sell lots...to negroes."By the 1920s, restrictive covenants were added to Chevy Chase real estate deeds. Some prohibited both the sale or rental of homes to "a Negro or one of the African race." Others prohibited rentals to "any persons of the Semetic race", to the exclusion of Jews. By World War II, such restrictive language had disappeared from real estate transactions, all were voided by the 1948 Supreme Court decision in Shelley v. Kraemer. Census-designated place of Chevy Chase Incorporated town of Chevy Chase Chevy Chase Chevy Chase Village, Maryland Chevy Chase Section Three, Maryland Chevy Chase Section Five, Maryland Martin's Additions, Maryland North Chevy Chase, MarylandIn addition to the Maryland villages listed above, the United States Postal Service uses Chevy Chase for postal addresses that lie in Somerset and the Village of Friendship Heights which lie outside historical Chevy Chase.
USPS uses Chevy Chase addresses for the part of Silver Spring, Maryland east of Jones Mill Road and Beach Drive and, west of Grubb Road. Chevy Chase is served by the Montgomery County Public Schools. Private schools in Chevy Chase include Oneness-Family School. Ann Brashares - author Tony Kornheiser - television host ESPN employee presenter Brett Kavanaugh - U. S. Supreme Court Justice Marvin Kalb - journalist Ted Lerner - owner of Lerner Enterprises and the Washington Nationals Chris Matthews - commentator Jerome Powell - current Chairman of the Federal Reserve John Roberts - U. S. Supreme Court Justice Mark Shields - political columnist George Will - conservative commentator Tom Braden - journalist and author David Brinkley - journalist Bill Guckeyson - athlete and military aviator Genevieve Hughes - one of the 13 original Freedom Riders Hubert Humphrey - Vice President of the United States under Lyndon Johnson Gayle King - Co-anchor of CBS This Morning and an editor-at-large for O, The Oprah Magazine Sandra Day O'Connor - United States Supreme Court Justice.
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia