Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Benton County, Arkansas
Benton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 221,339, making it the second-most populous county in Arkansas; the county seat is Bentonville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836 and was named after Thomas Hart Benton, a U. S. Senator from Missouri. In 2012, Benton County voters elected to make the county wet, or a non-alcohol prohibition location. Benton County is part of the Northwest Arkansas region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 884 square miles, of which 847 square miles is land and 37 square miles is water. Most of the water is in Beaver Lake. Barry County, Missouri Carroll County Madison County Washington County Adair County, Oklahoma Delaware County, Oklahoma McDonald County, Missouri Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge Ozark National Forest Pea Ridge National Military Park As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 153,406 people, 58,212 households, 43,484 families residing in the county.
The population density was 181 people per square mile. There were 64,281 housing units at an average density of 76 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.87% White, 0.41% Black or African American, 1.65% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 4.08% from other races, 1.82% from two or more races. 8.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of 2005 Benton County's population was 81.7% non-Hispanic white, while the percentage of Latinos grew by 60 percent in the time period. Latinos are attracted to the growth of light industrial jobs, home construction and service sector in the county. 1.1% of the population was African-American. 1.6% reported two or more races not black-white due to a minuscule African-American population. And 12.8% was Latino, but the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce believed the official estimate is underreported and Latinos could well be 20 percent of the population. There were 58,212 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.00% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families.
21.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,281, the median income for a family was $45,235. Males had a median income of $30,327 versus $22,469 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,377. About 7.30% of families and 10.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 221,339; the racial makeup of the county was 76.18% Non-Hispanic white, 1.27% Black or African American, 1.69% Native American, 2.85% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander.
15.49 % of the population was Latino. Politically, Benton County is arguably one of the most Republican-Leaning Counties in Arkansas. Benton County has not voted Democrat in a Presidential election since 1948 when a former senator from bordering Missouri, Harry S. Truman won Benton County along with winning Arkansas as a whole. Walmart corporate headquarters is located in Bentonville. Daisy Outdoor Products, known for its air rifles, is headquartered in Rogers. JB Hunt Transport Services corporate headquarters is located in Lowell. Tyson Foods, based in nearby Springdale, has a distribution center located in Rogers; the historic Trail of Tears is on US highways 62 and 71 and connects with U. S. Route 412 in nearby Washington County. Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport is located near Highfill. Rogers Municipal Airport serves surrounding communities; the Arkansas and Missouri Railroad parallels US Highways 71 in the county. Like all of the conservative Bible Belt of the Ozarks and Ouachitas, Benton County is Republican.
It voted Republican in 1928 and 1944, the last Democratic presidential nominee to carry the county was Harry S. Truman in 1948, along with nearby Sebastian County it was one of the few counties in Arkansas to resist the appeal of southern “favorite sons” George Wallace, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Avoca Garfield Gateway Highfill Springtown Cherokee City Hiwasse Lost Bridge Village Maysville Prairie Creek Note: Most Arkansas counties have names for their townships. Benton County, has numbers instead of names. Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town o
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
William Penn Adair
William Penn Adair was a leader of the Cherokee Nation, an attorney who served in political office both before and after the American Civil War, as a justice of their court. He entered the Confederate States Army on the promise that the Confederacy would support an Indian state if it won the war, achieved the rank of colonel, he served as delegate from the Nation to Washington, DC during the 1870s. Born in the traditional Cherokee territory in Georgia, he traveled as a child with his family on the Trail of Tears of Indian Removal from the Southeast to Indian Territory. William Penn Adair was born on April 1830, in the old Cherokee Nation in New Echota, Georgia, his parents were Martha Adair. The family was forced to remove to Indian Territory in 1838, a process which their people called the Trail of Tears, because of the loss of their lands and the high number of deaths along the way. Adair attended Cherokee schools in Indian Territory, studied law, he became a Freemason. 5, chartered in 1875. He was described as being "six foot and two inches in height, magnetic and frankly agreeable, the ablest and most brilliant of all Cherokees."Adair married Sarah Ann McNair.
After her death, he married again, to Susannah "Sue" McIntosh Drew. He lived on land along the Grand River in, Oklahoma, it was named for him. During the Civil War, Adair served in the Confederate States Army, first in the First Regiment of Cherokee Mounted Volunteers, under General Stand Watie; the Confederacy had promised the nations in Indian territory that it would support an Indian-controlled state if it won the war. Adair organized the Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers. Adair served the Cherokee Nation in many capacities, he was a senator, a justice of the Cherokee Supreme Court, delegate to Washington, DC, assistant principal chief. He served as the Senator from the Flint District from 1855-1860 and Senator from the Saline District from 1869-1874. In 1879, he was elected as Assistant Chief. Throughout the 1860s and 1870s, Adair served as a delegate from the Cherokee Nation to Washington, he was a vocal advocate for the rights of the Texas Cherokees. He served as Chairman of the Texas Cherokees and Affiliated Bands from 1871 until his death in 1880.
During this period in 1873, he and Clement Neely Vann co-authored the book, History of the Claim of the Texas Cherokees, which they wrote on behalf of "the Texas Cherokees and Affiliated Bands." The Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands was established by Adair and John Adair Bell in the early 1850's in the Mount Tabor Indian Community in Rusk County, Texas for the purposes of seeking redress over the violations of the 1836 Treaty of Bowles Village which led to the Cherokee-Texas war in 1839 as well as actions by Texas Cherokee leader Chicken Trotter until the Treaty of Birds Fort in 1843 that ended hostilities. The Texas Cherokee continued to seek compensation from the state of Texas for lands taken from them in 1839. Adair along with other Confederate Cherokees went to Washington in order to petition Congress to allow him to sue the state to return lands in Texas once belonging to Texas Cherokee people; this was to allow Southern Cherokees to relocate back on treaty lands due to the hostilities of Cherokee factions after the war.
Some of these issues went back to the Ross-Ridge party feuds stemming from the Trail of Tears, played out during the Civil War. The main point for the suit was that in 1839, while the Republic of Texas was independent, President Mirabeau Lamar had forcibly driven most of the Texas Cherokee into Indian Territory and seized their lands in East Texas; the Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands sought the return of 1,500,000 acres in East Texas. In the 1850's the state had offered lands in the Texas Panhandle in exchange, but Adair refused to accept that offer. No such offer was made to settle after that; however the Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands continued to pursue litigation as late as 1963 some eighty-three years after Adair's death. While in Washington, DC, Adair died on October 23, 1880, he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Washington, D. C. but his body was soon thereafter transferred to the Tahlequah City Cemetery in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. This move was paid for by the Cherokee Nation.
Several Cherokee boys were named after him in the late 19th century, including the celebrated Cherokee humorist William Penn Adair Rogers. Adair, Oklahoma was named for his brother, Dr. Walter Thompson Adair. Adair, William Penn and C. N. Vann. History of the Claim of the Texas Cherokees. New York: Morgan and Lawrence, 1873. Littlefield, Daniel F. Jr. and James W. Parins. A Biobibliography of Native American Writers, 1772-1924: A Supplement. 1985. ISBN 0-8108-1802-7. Rogers, Arthur Frank Wertheim, Barbara Bair; the Papers of Will Rogers: From Vaudeville to Broadway: September 1908–August 1915. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8061-3315-7. Starr, Emmett. History of the Cherokee Indians and Their Legends and Folklore, Oklahoma City: Warden Company, 1921. Wilson, J. G.. "Adair, William Penn". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Works by or about William Penn Adair at Internet Archive Cherrie Adair Moore, "William Penn Adair", Chronicles of Oklahoma, Spring 1951.
Handbook of Texas Online: Mount Tabor Indian Community
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Crawford County, Arkansas
Crawford County is a county located in the Ozarks region of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,948, making it the 12th-most populous of Arkansas's 75 counties; the county seat and largest city is Van Buren. Crawford County was formed on October 18, 1820 from the former Lovely County and Indian Territory, was named for William H. Crawford, the United States Secretary of War in 1815. Located within the Ozarks, the southern border of the county is the Arkansas River, placing the extreme southern edge of the county in the Arkansas River Valley; the frontier county became an early crossroads, beginning with a California Gold Rush and developing into the Butterfield Overland Mail, Civil War trails and railroads such as the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway, the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway. Today the county is home to the intersection of two major interstate highways, Interstate 40 and I-49. Crawford County is part of the Fort Smith metropolitan area.
As a dry county, alcohol sales are prohibited, though recent changes to county law provide for exemptions. Crawford County is located in the northwest region of Arkansas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 604 square miles, of which 593 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Crawford County is included in an area designated for a planned extension of I-49 into Arkansas; the final project will connect New Orleans, Louisiana, to Kansas City, Missouri, a large trucking corridor, not served by an Interstate highway. The proposed highway would utilize portions of I-49 which runs north from Van Buren toward the Missouri state line passing through Benton County, home of Walmart; the corridor was listed as the number-one high-priority corridor by transportation officials in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. Washington County Madison County Franklin County Sebastian County Le Flore County, Oklahoma Sequoyah County, Oklahoma Adair County, Oklahoma Ozark National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 53,247 people, 19,702 households, 15,150 families residing in the county.
The population density was 35/km². There were 21,315 housing units at an average density of 14/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 92.19% White, 0.87% Black or African American, 2.01% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.48% from other races, 2.24% from two or more races. 3.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,702 households out of which 37.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.10% were non-families. 20.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.70 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,871, the median income for a family was $36,741. Males had a median income of $29,581 versus $20,352 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,015. About 10.90% of families and 14.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.30% of those under age 18 and 13.70% of those age 65 or over. Thousands of self-claimed "Western Band of Cherokee" fought for state and federal recognition as a political entity of Native Americans. Crawford County was part of the Cherokee Nation, which lost its tribal sovereignty status as a result of the U. S. Civil war in the 1860s; the Cherokee Nation was subsequently relocated to the west in the present-day state of Oklahoma. Alma Cedarville Dyer Kibler Mountainburg Mulberry Van Buren Chester Rudy Dora Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times.
However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Crawford County are listed below. List of lakes in Crawford County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Arkansas Crawford County government's website Crawford County Sheriff's Office
Westville is a town in Adair County, United States. The population was 1,639 at the 2010 census, an increase of 2.7 percent from 1,596 at the 2000 census. Before statehood, Westville was a community in the Goingsnake District of the Cherokee Nation; the town was founded in 1895, when the Kansas City and Gulf Railroad was constructing a rail line from Kansas City to the Gulf Coast. The Westville post office was established on November 18, 1895; the town name honored Jim West, who lived one mile south of nearby Cincinnati and whose son, Jim West, Jr. was an attorney for the Kansas City Southern Railway. When Adair County was formed in 1907, Westville was identified as the county seat, due to its location at the intersection of two major railroads: the Kansas City Southern Railway and the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway; the county seat was moved to Stilwell in 1910. Westville is located at 35°59′29″N 94°34′16″W, it is 15 miles south of Siloam Springs, Arkansas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all of it land.
Westville is located at the intersection of U. S. Routes 59 and 62; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,596 people, 599 households, 401 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,324.1 people per square mile. There were 719 housing units at an average density of 596.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 62.41% White, 0.25% African American, 28.07% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 2.63% from other races, 6.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.02% of the population. There were 599 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.16. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,381, the median income for a family was $28,882. Males had a median income of $25,729 versus $20,438 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,055. About 16.1% of families and 22.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.0% of those under age 18 and 19.0% of those age 65 or over. Jim Ross, World Wrestling Entertainment commentator Markwayne Mullin, United States House Representative for Oklahoma's 2nd District