Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The President and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society", it is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation and public engagement; the society is governed by its Council, chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows; as of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
There are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015. Since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London, used by the Embassy of Germany, London; the Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle. The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century. Ben Jonson in England referenced the idea, related in meaning to Francis Bacon's House of Solomon, in a masque The Fortunate Isles and Their Union from 1624/5; the term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters. In letters in 1646 and 1647, Boyle refers to "our invisible college" or "our philosophical college".
The society's common theme was to acquire knowledge through experimental investigation. Three dated letters are the basic documentary evidence: Boyle sent them to Isaac Marcombes, Francis Tallents who at that point was a fellow of Magdalene College and London-based Samuel Hartlib; the Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from 1645 onwards. A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College, it is held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. Another view of the founding, held at the time, was that it was due to the influence of French scientists and the Montmor Academy in 1657, reports of which were sent back to England by English scientists attending.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting. Robert Hooke, disputed this, writing that: makes Mr Oldenburg to have been the instrument, who inspired the English with a desire to imitate the French, in having Philosophical Clubs, or Meetings. I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, hinder us. But'tis well known who were the principal men that began and promoted that design, both in this city and in Oxford, and not only these Philosophic Meetings were. On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments. At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
A second royal charter was signed on 23 April 1663, with the king noted as the founder and with the name of "the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". This initial royal favour has continued and, since every monarch has been the patron of the society; the society's early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their subject area, were both important in some cases and trivial in others; the society published an English translation of Essays of Natural Experiments Made in the Accademia del Cimento, under the Protection of the Most Serene Prince Leopold of Tuscany in 1684, an Italian book documenting experiments at the Accademia del Cimento. Although meeting at Gresham College, the Society temporarily moved to Arundel House in 1666 after the Great Fire of London, which did not harm Gresham but did lead to its appropriation by the Lord Mayor; the Society r
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white yellowish metallic element, chemically reactive; the metal forms a dark oxide layer. Strontium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of its two vertical neighbors in the periodic table and barium, it occurs mainly in the minerals celestine and strontianite, is mined from these. While natural strontium is stable, the synthetic 90Sr isotope is radioactive and is one of the most dangerous components of nuclear fallout, as strontium is absorbed by the body in a similar manner to calcium. Natural stable strontium, on the other hand, is not hazardous to health. Both strontium and strontianite are named after Strontian, a village in Scotland near which the mineral was discovered in 1790 by Adair Crawford and William Cruickshank. Strontium was first isolated as a metal in 1808 by Humphry Davy using the then-newly discovered process of electrolysis. During the 19th century, strontium was used in the production of sugar from sugar beet.
At the peak of production of television cathode ray tubes, as much as 75 percent of strontium consumption in the United States was used for the faceplate glass. With the replacement of cathode ray tubes with other display methods, consumption of strontium has declined. Strontium is a divalent silvery metal with a pale yellow tint whose properties are intermediate between and similar to those of its group neighbors calcium and barium, it is harder than barium. Its melting and boiling points are lower than those of calcium; the density of strontium is intermediate between those of calcium and barium. Three allotropes of metallic strontium exist, with transition points at 235 and 540 °C; the standard electrode potential for the Sr2+/Sr couple is −2.89 V midway between those of the Ca2+/Ca and Ba2+/Ba couples, close to those of the neighboring alkali metals. Strontium is intermediate between calcium and barium in its reactivity toward water, with which it reacts on contact to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.
Strontium metal burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride, but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380 °C, at room temperature, it forms only the oxide spontaneously. Besides the simple oxide SrO, the peroxide SrO2 can be made by direct oxidation of strontium metal under a high pressure of oxygen, there is some evidence for a yellow superoxide Sr2. Strontium hydroxide, Sr2, is a strong base, though it is not as strong as the hydroxides of barium or the alkali metals. All four dihalides of strontium are known. Due to the large size of the heavy s-block elements, including strontium, a vast range of coordination numbers is known, from 2, 3, or 4 all the way to 22 or 24 in SrCd11 and SrZn13; the Sr2 + ion is quite large. The large size of strontium and barium plays a significant part in stabilising strontium complexes with polydentate macrocyclic ligands such as crown ethers: for example, while 18-crown-6 forms weak complexes with calcium and the alkali metals, its strontium and barium complexes are much stronger.
Organostrontium compounds contain one or more strontium–carbon bonds. They have been reported as intermediates in Barbier-type reactions. Although strontium is in the same group as magnesium, organomagnesium compounds are commonly used throughout chemistry, organostrontium compounds are not widespread because they are more difficult to make and more reactive. Organostrontium compounds tend to be more similar to organoeuropium or organosamarium compounds due to the similar ionic radii of these elements. Most of these compounds can only be prepared at low temperatures. For example, strontium dicyclopentadienyl, Sr2, must be made by directly reacting strontium metal with mercurocene or cyclopentadiene itself; because of its extreme reactivity with oxygen and water, strontium occurs only in compounds with other elements, such as in the minerals strontianite and celestine. It is kept under a liquid hydrocarbon such as mineral kerosene to prevent oxidation. Finely powdered strontium metal is pyrophoric, meaning that it will ignite spontaneously in air at room temperature.
Volatile strontium salts impart a bright red color to flames, these salts are used in pyrotechnics and in the production of flares. Like calcium and barium, as well as the alkali metals and the divalent lanthanides europium and ytterbium, strontium metal dissolves directly in liquid ammonia to give a dark blue solution. Natural strontium is a mixture of four stable isotopes: 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, 88Sr, their abundance increases with increasing mass number and the heaviest, 88Sr, makes up about 82.6% of all natural strontium, though the abundance varies due to the production of radiogenic 87Sr as the daughter of long-lived beta-decaying 87Rb. Of the unstable isotopes, the primary decay mode of the isotopes lighter than 85Sr is electron capture or positron emission to isotopes of rubidium, that of the iso
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
The Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal. An attempt had been made by the Board of Ordnance in 1720 to set up an academy within its Arsenal to provide training and education for prospective officers of its new Regiment of Artillery and Corps of Engineers. A new building was being constructed in readiness for the Academy and funds had been secured through investment in the South Sea Company. After this false start, the Academy was opened by authority of a Royal Warrant in 1741: it was intended, in the words of its first charter, to produce "good officers of Artillery and perfect Engineers". Its'gentlemen cadets' ranged in age from 10 to 30. To begin with they were attached to the marching companies of the Royal Artillery, but in 1744 they were formed into their own company, forty in number overseen by a Captain-Lieutenant.
To begin with the cadets were accommodated in lodgings in the town of Woolwich, but this arrangement was deemed unsatisfactory so in 1751 a Cadets' Barracks was built just within the south boundary wall of the Warren and the cadets had to adjust to a more strict military discipline. Education in the Academy focused at first on mathematics and the scientific principles of gunnery and fortification. In addition to their theoretical studies, the cadets shared in what was called'the Practice' of gunnery, bridge building, magazine technique and artillery work. While an Artillery officer attended each class to keep order, teaching in the Academy was provided by civilians: a First Master, a Second Master and additional tutors in French, Arithmetic and Drawing. In 1764 the Royal Academy had the word'Military' added to its title, at the same time a senior officer was appointed to serve as Lieutenant-Governor. Moreover, the institution was split: younger cadets entered the Lower Academy, where they were taught reading, arithmetic, Latin and drawing.
If they performed well in examinations they were allowed to proceed to the Upper Academy, where they learned military skills and sciences. The possibility of moving the Royal Military Academy out of the Warren was mooted as early as 1783, as it was fast outgrowing the available accommodation. At first costs precluded this possibility, but James Wyatt, the Board of Ordnance Architect, was commissioned to design a new complex of buildings to stand, on a site facing the Royal Artillery Barracks, at the southern edge of Woolwich Common. Wyatt's Academy was built of yellow brick in the Tudor Gothic style, it consisted of a central block flanked by a pair of accommodation blocks, linked by arcaded walkways. The central block contained a library and offices. Behind the central block Wyatt placed a large dining hall flanked by spacious quadrangles having service buildings around the sides.128 cadets moved to the new Academy: these comprised the four senior years. Of the younger cadets, sixty were kept at the Warren and another sixty were sent to a new college for junior cadets at Great Marlow.
Practical teaching continued to be given in the working context of the Arsenal. In 1810, military cadets of the East India Company, educated at the Academy, were moved to a new college at Addiscombe. During the years that followed the status of the cadets changed: rather than being considered military personnel, as had been the case, they were removed from the muster roll and they began to be charged fees for attendance. In this way the Academy took on something of the ethos of an English public school. In 1844 the Academy was described by Edward Mogg as accommodating: "about one hundred and thirty young gentlemen, the sons of military men, the more respectable classes, who are here instructed in mathematics, land-surveying, with mapping, engineering, the use of the musket and sword exercise, field-pieces; this department is under the direction of a lieutenant-general, an instructor, a professor of mathematics, a professor of fortification. Following the demise of the Board of Ordnance in the wake of the Crimean War the Academy was inspected by a commission which recommended changes: the minimum age for cadets was raised to fifteen and more specialist training was added.
As part of these reforms the Academy complex was enlarged in the 1860s, with a view to accommod
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal; because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide, known in pre-modern times as baryta, does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate; the most common occurring minerals of barium are barite and witherite, both insoluble in water. The name barium originates from the alchemical derivative "baryta", from Greek βαρύς, meaning "heavy." Baric is the adjectival form of barium. Barium was identified as a new element in 1774, but not reduced to a metal until 1808 with the advent of electrolysis. Barium has few industrial applications, it was used as a getter for vacuum tubes and in oxide form as the emissive coating on indirectly heated cathodes. It is a component of YBCO and electroceramics, is added to steel and cast iron to reduce the size of carbon grains within the microstructure. Barium compounds are added to fireworks to impart a green color.
Barium sulfate is used as an insoluble additive to oil well drilling fluid, as well as in a purer form, as X-ray radiocontrast agents for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract. The soluble barium ion and soluble compounds are poisonous, have been used as rodenticides. Barium is a silvery-white metal, with a slight golden shade when ultrapure; the silvery-white color of barium metal vanishes upon oxidation in air yielding a dark gray oxide layer. Barium has good electrical conductivity. Ultrapure barium is difficult to prepare, therefore many properties of barium have not been measured yet. At room temperature and pressure, barium has a body-centered cubic structure, with a barium–barium distance of 503 picometers, expanding with heating at a rate of 1.8×10−5/°C. It is a soft metal with a Mohs hardness of 1.25. Its melting temperature of 1,000 K is intermediate between those of the lighter strontium and heavier radium; the density is again intermediate between those of radium. Barium is chemically similar to magnesium and strontium, but more reactive.
It always exhibits the oxidation state of +2, except in a few rare and unstable molecular species that are only characterised in the gas phase such as BaF. Reactions with chalcogens are exothermic. Reactions with other nonmetals, such as carbon, phosphorus and hydrogen, are exothermic and proceed upon heating. Reactions with water and alcohols are exothermic and release hydrogen gas: Ba + 2 ROH → Ba2 + H2↑ Barium reacts with ammonia to form complexes such as Ba6; the metal is attacked by most acids. Sulfuric acid is a notable exception because passivation stops the reaction by forming the insoluble barium sulfate on the surface. Barium combines with several metals, including aluminium, zinc and tin, forming intermetallic phases and alloys. Barium salts are white when solid and colorless when dissolved, barium ions provide no specific coloring, they are denser than the calcium analogs, except for the halides. Barium hydroxide was known to alchemists. Unlike calcium hydroxide, it absorbs little CO2 in aqueous solutions and is therefore insensitive to atmospheric fluctuations.
This property is used in calibrating pH equipment. Volatile barium compounds burn with a green to pale green flame, an efficient test to detect a barium compound; the color results from spectral lines at 455.4, 493.4, 553.6, 611.1 nm. Organobarium compounds are a growing field of knowledge: discovered are dialkylbariums and alkylhalobariums. Barium found in the Earth's crust is a mixture of seven primordial nuclides, barium-130, 132, 134 through 138. Barium-130 undergoes slow radioactive decay to xenon-130 by double beta plus decay, barium-132 theoretically decays to xenon-132, with half-lives a thousand times greater than the age of the Universe; the abundance is ≈ 0.1 %. The radioactivity of these isotopes is so weak. Of the stable isotopes, barium-138 composes 71.7% of all barium. In total, barium has about 40 known isotopes, ranging in mass between 114 and 153; the most stable artificial radioisotope is barium-133 with a half-life of 10.51 years. Five other isotopes have half-lives longer than a day.
Barium has 10 meta states, of which barium-133m1 is the most stable with a half-life of about 39 hours. Alchemists in the early Middle Ages knew about some barium minerals. Smooth pebble-like stones of mineral baryte were found in volcanic rock near Bologna, so were called "Bologna stones." Alchemists were attracted to them. The phosphorescent properties of baryte heated with organics were described by V. Casciorolus in 1602. Carl Scheele determined that baryte contained a new element in 1774, but could not isolate barium, only barium oxide. Johan Gottlieb Gahn isolated barium oxide two year
Lymington is a port town on the west bank of the Lymington River on the Solent, in the New Forest district of Hampshire, England. It faces Isle of Wight, to which there is a car ferry service operated by Wightlink, it is within the civil parish of Pennington. The town has a large tourist industry, based on proximity to its harbour, it is a major yachting centre with three marinas. According to the 2011 census, Lymington had a population of 9,385; the earliest settlement in the Lymington area was around the Iron Age hill fort known today as Buckland Rings. The hill and ditches of the fort survive, archaeological excavation of part of the walls was carried out in 1935; the fort has been dated to around the 6th century BC. There is another supposed Iron Age site at nearby Ampress Hole. However, evidence of settlement there is sparse before Domesday book. Lymington itself began as an Anglo-Saxon village; the Jutes arrived in the area from the Isle of Wight in the 6th century and founded a settlement called Limentun.
The Old English word tun means a farm or hamlet whilst limen is derived from the Ancient British word *lemanos meaning an elm tree. The town is recorded in Domesday as "Lentune". About 1200, the lord of the manor, William de Redvers created the borough of New Lymington around the present quay and High Street, while Old Lymington comprised the rest of the parish, he gave the town the right to hold a market. The town became a parliamentary borough in 1585, returning two MPs until 1832, when its electoral base was expanded, its representation was reduced to one member under the Second Reform Act of 1867, it was subsumed into the New Forest Division under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. Lymington was famous for salt-making from the Middle Ages up to the 19th century. There was an continuous belt of salt workings along the coast toward Hurst Spit. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, Lymington possessed a military depot that included a number of foreign troops – artillery but several militia regiments.
At the time of the Napoleonic Wars, the King's German Legion-Artillery was based near Portchester Castle and sent sick soldiers to Lymington or Eling Hospital. As well as Germans and Dutch, there were French regiments, they were raised to take part in the ill-fated Quiberon Invasion of France, from. From the early 19th century, Lymington had a thriving shipbuilding industry associated with Thomas Inman, builder of the schooner Alarm, which famously raced the American yacht America in 1851. Much of the town centre is Victorian and Georgian, with narrow cobbled streets in the area of the quay. Lymington promotes stories about its smuggling. There are unproven stories of smugglers' tunnels running from the old inns and under the High Street to the town quay. Lymington was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. In 1932 the borough was extended to include Milton, the parishes of Milford on Sea and Pennington, parts of Lymington Rural District, so extending it along the coast to the edge of Christchurch.
The borough of Lymington was abolished on 1 April 1974 under the terms of the Local Government Act 1972, becoming an unparished area in the district of New Forest, with Charter Trustees. The area was subsequently divided into the four parishes of New Milton and Pennington, Milford-on-Sea and Hordle. Due to changes in planning legislation, many older areas of the town have been redeveloped. Houses have been replaced with blocks of flats and retirement homes. In a Channel 5 programme, Lymington received the accolade of "best town on the coast" in the UK for living, for scenery, transport links and low crime levels. Lymington New Forest Hospital opened in 2007; this has a Minor Injuries Unit but no Emergency facility. The nearest are at Southampton General Hospital, 16 miles away, the Royal Bournemouth Hospital, 14.5 miles away. The main Anglican parish church is the St Thomas in the high street; the northern neighbourhoods of the town are Buckland and Lower Buckland, the latter adjoining the Lymington River.
However, due to confusion with Buckland, Portsmouth in Hampshire, many people refer to themselves and their businesses here as Lymington. The poet Caroline Anne Bowles was died at Buckland Cottage. Pennington is a village near to Lymington, but is separated from the town by several schools with playing fields. Upper Pennington is a northern residential offshoot of Pennington, more rural in character entirely surrounded by heath and farmland. Lymington yacht basin and mudflats make up the former docks area known as Waterford. Woodside consists of a small southern triangle of residential roads, gardens and a cricket ground, which includes a manor house, church community hall, All Saints, Lymington; the church was built in 1909 by W. H. Romaine-Walker, architect of Danesfield House, Moreton Hall and the Tate Gallery extension, a student of the High Victorian architect George Edmund Street. Normandy is a coastal hamlet by a small dock and estuary, it includes the buildings Little Normandy and Normandy Farm.
The last backs onto an early 19th-century listed building. The high street has seen rapid change over the last few years, with an increasing presence of chain stores and coffee-shop franchises. There is a local market, one of the New Forest producers' markets, held at the Masonic hall once a month