Tisquantum, more known by the diminutive variant Squanto, was a member of the Patuxet tribe best known for being an early liaison between the native populations in Southern New England and the Mayflower Pilgrims who made their settlement at the site of Squanto's former summer village. The Patuxet tribe lived on the western coast of Cape Cod Bay, where in 1614 Squanto was kidnapped by English explorer Thomas Hunt. Hunt brought Squanto to Spain, he was among a number of captives bought by local monks who focused on their education and evangelization. Squanto travelled to England and from there returned to North America in 1619, he returned to his native village only to find that his tribe had been wiped out by an epidemic infection. When the Mayflower landed in 1620, Squanto worked to broker peaceable relations between the Pilgrims and the local Pokanokets, he played a key role in the early meetings in March 1621 because he spoke English. He lived with the Pilgrims for 20 months, acting as a translator and advisor.
He introduced the settlers to the fur trade, taught them how to sow and fertilize native crops, which proved vital since the seeds which the Pilgrims had brought from England failed. As food shortages increased, Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford relied on Squanto to pilot a ship of settlers on a trading expedition around Cape Cod and through dangerous shoals. During that voyage, Squanto contracted what Bradford called an "Indian fever". Bradford stayed with him for several days until he died, which Bradford described as a "great loss". Considerable mythology and legend has grown up around Squanto over time because of early praise by Bradford and owing to the central role that the Thanksgiving festival of 1621 plays in American folk history. Squanto was less the "noble savage" that myth portrayed him and more a practical advisor and diplomat. Documents from the 17th century variously render the spelling of Tisquantum's name as Tisquantum and Tusquantum, alternately call him Squanto, Squantum and Tantam.
The two Mayflower settlers who dealt with him most spelled his name differently: William Bradford nicknamed him "Squanto" while Edward Winslow invariably referred to him by what historians believe is his proper name, Tisquantum. One suggestion of the meaning is that it derives from the Algonquian expression for the rage of the Manitou, "the world-suffusing spiritual power at the heart of coastal Indians' religious beliefs". Manitou was not a being. Rather it was "the spiritual potency of an object … or a phenonmenon", the force which made "everything in Nature responsive to man". Other suggestions have been offered, but all involve some relationship to beings or powers that the English associated with the devil or evil, it is therefore unlikely that it was his birth name rather than one he acquired or assumed in life, but there is no historical evidence on this point. The name may suggest, for example, that he underwent special spiritual and military training, for this reason was selected for his role as liaison with the English settlers in 1620.
Or the name was selected at the time of his 1621 encounter with the English settlers either as a defense to their cultural or religious influence or because he was entering a cultural no-mans-land. Nothing is known of Squanto's life before his first contact with Europeans, when and how that first encounter took place is subject to contradictory assertions. "he time and circumstances of Squanto's birth are unknown." But given that first-hand descriptions of him written between 1618 and 1622 do not remark on his youth or old age, it has been suggested that a reasonable presumption is that he was in his twenties or thirties when he was forcibly embarked to Spain in 1614, therefore was born around 1585. While records do not exist which describe his childhood or years before his abduction, a description of the social world in which he lived during his formative years may provide some insight; the interrelated societies that lived in southern New England at the time of English settlement attempts at the beginning of the 17th century referred to themselves as Ninnimissinuok, a variation of the Narragansett word Ninnimissinnȗwock, meaning "people" and signifying "familiarity and shared identity".
Squanto's band or tribe, the Patuxet, occupied the coastal area west of Cape Cod Bay. Squanto himself told an English trader that the Patuxet once numbered 2,000, they spoke a dialect of Eastern Algonquian common to peoples as far west as Narragansett Bay. The various Algonquian dialects of Southern New England were sufficiently similar to allow effective communications; the term patuxet refers to the site of Plymouth, Massachusetts and, according to some writers, means "at the little falls". Politically it has been inferred that the Patuxet had been subjugated by the so-called Wampanoags and made part of the so-called Wampanoag confederacy. Since the Patuxet had been decimated by disease before European settlement, there are no written records of Patuxet life by first-hand observers. In such a case reasonable conclusions about a culture's organization and beliefs may be made by reference to other tribes in the same area "which may be expected to share cultural traits". In this case the Southern New England tribes were related linguistically, politically and ethnically.
Unlike the native inhabitants living
Anthony Grove "Tony" Hillerman was an American author of detective novels and non-fiction works best known for his Navajo Tribal Police mystery novels. Several of his works have been adapted as television movies. Tony Hillerman was born in Sacred Heart, Oklahoma to August Alfred Hillerman, a farmer and shopkeeper, his wife, Lucy Grove, he was the youngest of their three children, the second son. His paternal grandparents were born in Germany, his maternal grandparents were born in England, he grew up in Pottawatomie County, attending elementary and high school with Potawatomie children. He was a decorated combat veteran of World War II, serving from August 1943 to October 1945, he served as a mortar-man in the 103rd Infantry Division. He earned the Silver Star, the Bronze Star, a Purple Heart, he attended the University of Oklahoma after the war, meeting Marie Unzner, a student in microbiology. The couple have one biological child and five adopted children. From 1948–62, he worked as a journalist, moving to Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1952.
In 1966, he moved his family to Albuquerque, where he earned a master's degree from the University of New Mexico. It was during his time as a writer for the Borger News-Herald in Borger, Texas that he became acquainted with the sheriff of Hutchinson County, the man upon whom he would pattern the main character in his Joe Leaphorn novels, he taught journalism from 1966 to 1987 at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, began writing novels. He lived there with his wife Marie until his death in 2008. At the time of his death, they had ten grandchildren. A bestselling author, he was ranked as New Mexico's 22nd wealthiest man in 1996, he wrote 18 books in his Navajo series. He wrote more than 30 books total, among them a memoir and books about the Southwest, its beauty and its history, his literary honors were awarded for his Navajo books. Hillerman's books have been translated among them Danish and Japanese. Hillerman's writing is noted for the cultural details he provides about his subjects: Hopi, European-American, federal agents, Navajo Tribal Police.
His works in nonfiction and in fiction reflect his appreciation of the natural wonders of the American Southwest and his appreciation of its people the Navajo. His mystery novels are set in the Four Corners area of New Mexico and Arizona, sometimes reaching into Colorado and Utah, with occasional forays to the big cities of Washington, D. C. Los Angeles and New York City; the protagonists are Joe Jim Chee of the Navajo tribal police. Lt. Leaphorn was introduced in The Blessing Way. Sgt. Jim Chee was introduced in People of Darkness; the two first work together in the seventh novel, considered his breakout novel, with a distinct increase in sales with the two police officers working together. Hillerman acknowledged his debt to an earlier series of mystery novels written by the British-born Australian author Arthur W. Upfield and set among tribal aborigines in remote desert regions of tropical and subtropical Australia; the Upfield novels began to be published in 1928 and featured a half-European, half-aboriginal Australian hero, Detective-inspector Napoleon Bonaparte.
Bony worked with deep understanding of tribal traditions. The character was based on the achievements of an aborigine known as Tracker Leon, whom Upfield had met during his years in the Australian bush. Hillerman discussed his debt to Upfield in many interviews and in his introduction to the posthumous 1984 reprint of Upfield's A Royal Abduction. In the introduction, he described the appeal of the descriptions in Upfield's crime novels, it was descriptions both of the harsh outback areas and of "the people who somehow survived upon them" that lured him. "When my own Jim Chee of the Navajo Tribal Police unravels a mystery because he understands the ways of his people, when he reads the signs in the sandy bottom of a reservation arroyo, he is walking in the tracks Bony made 50 years ago."He mentioned Eric Ambler, Graham Greene and Raymond Chandler as authors who influenced him as he wrote the Leaphorn and Chee novels. Tony Hillerman died on October 26, 2008, of pulmonary failure in Albuquerque at the age of 83.
In an interview published in Le Monde, Hillerman said his Navajo name means "He, afraid of his horse." His novels were popular in France. Hillerman credits that popularity both to French curiosity about other cultures and to his translator, Pierre Bondil. Hillerman is considered one of New Mexico's foremost novelists. In Albuquerque, the Tony Hillerman Library was dedicated in 2008, the Tony Hillerman Middle School opened in 2009. Dance Hall of the Dead, published in 1973 earned Hillerman the Grand Prix de Littérature Policière in 1987, a French international literary honor. Hillerman was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Literature from the University of New Mexico in 1990, he was awarded the Owen Wister Award in 2008 for "Outstanding Contributions to the American West." Hillerman was a decorated combat veteran of World War II. He was nominated for numerous awards for his writing and his work with other writers, his first nomination came in 1972, with his novel The Fly on the Wall being nominated for an Edgar Award in the "Best Mystery Novel" category.
Two years his novel Dance Hall of the Dead, second book in the Leaphorn-Chee series, won the 1974 Edgar Award for Best Novel. He was again nominated for the "Best Mystery Novel" Edgar Award in 1979 for Listening Woman and lastly in
Smoke Signals (film)
Smoke Signals is a Canadian-American independent film released in 1998, directed and co-produced by Chris Eyre and with a screenplay by Sherman Alexie, based on the short story "This is What it Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona" from his book The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. The film won several awards and accolades, was well received at numerous film festivals. In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry for being "culturally or aesthetically significant." Victor Joseph and Thomas Builds-the-Fire live on the Coeur D'Alene Indian Reservation in Plummer, Idaho. Thomas is an eccentric storyteller and Victor is an angry young man who enjoys playing basketball. Victor and Thomas are brought together through Arnold. Arnold rescued Thomas as an infant from a house fire; because of this, Thomas considers him a hero. On the other hand, who endures Arnold's alcoholism, domestic violence, eventual child abandonment, regards his father with both deep love and bitter resentment.
Thomas and Victor grow up together as neighbors and acquaintances, fighting with each other and forming a close, albeit uneasy, alliance. When Arnold dies in Phoenix, where he has stayed after leaving Victor and his mother Arlene and Thomas go on an adventure to retrieve his ashes; the trip is the means for Thomas to explore their identities. Neither of them loses sight of his identity as an "Indian". Victor is more stoic and Thomas is more traditional, their dichotomy is portrayed all through the film. Once they reach Phoenix, Victor has to confront his conflicted feelings about his father, as well as his own identity, he has to grapple with a new account of Thomas's parents' death, as told by his father's friend, Suzy Song. She says that a drunken Arnold set off fireworks, accidentally starting the fire that cost Thomas his parents; the road trip by the young men leads to Thomas reconciling with the memory of his adoptive father Arnold, as he understands more of his path to alcoholism and related abuse and abandonment.
Victor gains a better understanding of Thomas and his reverence for Arnold. The film is unique as an all-Native American production: producers, screenwriter and technicians; the film was well received by mainstream critics. Rotten Tomatoes gives Smoke Signals an 83% approval rating, based on 29 reviews with an average rating of 7.3/10. On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 76 out of 100, based on 17 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Peter Stack of the San Francisco Chronicle gave the film a rave review, calling it, "unpretentious and soulful... Well-acted, well-written, with spare, beautiful imagery." Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times described Smoke Signals as "a warm film of friendship and reconciliation, whenever it refers to historic injustices or contemporary issues in Native American culture, it does so with wry, glancing humor. Smoke Signals is indeed poignant, but above all it's pretty funny." Marc Savlov of The Austin Chronicle called the film "poignant and slyly humorous" and "alight with oddball nuances and wry observations," saying further, "the cast is uniformly excellent in their roles, Eyre's persistent use of long, trailing shots reinforces the story's elegiac tone.
Simple and elegant, Smoke Signals is a delicious, heady debut that lingers long after the tale is told."Susan Tavernetti of the Palo Alto Weekly, gave the film a mixed review, saying that "although sometimes the attempt to break down stereotypes seems stilted and forced, more the result is humorous." She said, "Chris Eyre's direction establishes an uneven tone, allowing some actors to deliver performances bordering on broad caricature while others play their roles straight." She praised the opening and closing sequences which "beautifully combine poetic voice-overs with visual lyricism." Paul Bond of the World Socialist Web Site criticized Sherman Alexie's screenplay. Bond believed the producers of the film made compromises based upon commercial pressures. 1998 – American Indian Film Festival: Best film 1998 – Christopher Award 1998 – First Americans in the Arts: Outstanding Achievement in Writing, Outstanding Performance by an Actor in a Film, Outstanding Achievement in Directing 1998 – Gotham Awards: Nominations: Open Palm Award 1998 – National Board of Review: Special Recognition For Excellence In Filmmaking 1998 – San Diego World Film Festival: Best American Independent Feature.
Nominations: Grand Jury Prize 1998 – Taos Talking Picture Festival: Taos Land Grant Award 1998 – Tokyo International Film Festival: Best Artistic Contribution 1999 – Florida Film Critics Circle Awards: Best Newcomer 1999 – Independent Spirit Awards: Best Debut Performance. Nominations: Best Supporting Male nomination, Best First Screenplay nomination 1999 – Young Artist Awards: Nominations: Best Performance in a Feature Film-Supporting Young Actor AFI's 100 Years... 100 Laughs – Nominated 2018 – National Film Registry Alexie, Sherman. Smoke Signals: A Screenplay. New York: Miramax. ISBN 978-1
The Saulteaux are a First Nations band government in Ontario, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, Canada. They are a branch of the Ojibwe when they pushed west forming into a mixed culture of woodlands and plains Indians customs and traditions; the Saulteaux are a branch of the Ojibwe nations. They are sometimes called the Anihšināpē. Saulteaux is a French term meaning "people of the rapids," referring to their former location in the area of Sault Ste. Marie, they were hunters and fishers, had extensive trading relations with the French and Americans at that post. The Saulteaux were settled around Lake Superior and Lake Winnipeg, principally in the areas of present-day Sault Ste. Marie and northern Michigan. Pressure from European Canadians and Americans pushed the tribe westward to Manitoba and Alberta, with one community in British Columbia. Today most live in the Interlake District; because they were forced to move to land ill-suited for European crops, they were able to keep much of their new lands.
The Saulteaux are divided into three major divisions. Eastern Saulteaux, better known as the Ontario Saulteaux, are located about Rainy Lake, about Lake of the Woods in Northwestern Ontario and southeastern Manitoba. Many of the Ontario Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 3, their form of Anishinaabemowin is sometimes called Northwestern Ojibwa language or Ojibwemowin. Today English is the first language of many members; the Ontario Saulteaux culture is descended from the Eastern Woodlands culture. Central Saulteaux, better known as Manitoba Saulteaux, are found in eastern and southern Manitoba, extending west into southern Saskatchewan. During the late 18th century and early 19th century, as partners with the Cree in the fur trade, the Saulteaux migrated northwest into the Swan River and Cumberland districts of west-central Manitoba, into Saskatchewan along the Assiniboine River, as far its confluence with the Souris River. Once established in the area, the Saulteaux adapted some of the cultural traits of their allies, the Plains Cree and Assiniboine.
Together with the Western Saulteaux, the Manitoba Saulteaux are sometimes called Plains Ojibwe. Many of the Manitoba Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 1 and Treaty 2; the Manitoba Saulteaux culture is a transitional one from the Eastern Woodlands culture of their Ontario Saulteaux neighbours and Plains culture of the Western Saulteaux neighbours. The term Bungi or Bungee has been used to refer to either the Manitoba Saulteaux or their Métis population; the language of their Métis population is described as the Bungi language. Western Saulteaux are found in central Saskatchewan, but extend east into southwestern Manitoba and west into central Alberta and eastern British Columbia, they call themselves Nakawē —an autonym, a general term for the Saulteaux. The neighbouring Plains Cree call them a word of related etymology, their form of Anishinaabemowin, known as Nakawēmowin or Western Ojibwa language, is an Algonquian language. Like most First Nations, most members use English as the first language.
Many of the Western Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 4 and Treaty 6. The Western Saulteaux culture is that of the Plains culture. Population figures are as of May 2013. Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation Buffalo Point First Nation, Buffalo Point, MB Cote First Nation, Kamsack, SK Cowessess First Nation, Cowessess, SK Eagle Lake First Nation, Migisi Sahgaigan, ON Ebb and Flow First Nation and Flow, MB Foothills Ojibway Society, Hinton, AB Gordon First Nation, Punnichy, SK Iskatewizaagegan 39 Independent First Nation, Kejick, ON Keeseekoose First Nation, Kamsack, SK Key First Nation, Norquay, SK Lac des Bois Band of Saulteaux Big Grassy First Nation, Morson, ON Anishnaabeg of Naongashiing First Nation, Morson, ON Northwest Angle 33 First Nation Northwest Angle 37 First Nation Ochiichagwe'Babigo'Ining Ojibway Nation, Kenora, ON Ojibways of Onigaming First Nation Anishinabe of Wauzhushk Onigum First Nation, Kenora, ON Lac des Mille Lacs First Nation Muscowpetung First Nation, Fort Qu'Appelle SK Muskowekwan First Nation Lestock, SK Naotkamegwanning First Nation, Pawitik, ON Obashkaandagaang Bay First Nation O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation O'Chiese First Nation, Rocky Mountain House, AB Pasqua First Nation, Fort Qu'Appelle, SK Pauingassi First Nation, Pauingass, MB Pinaymootang First Nation, Fairford, MB Pine Creek First Nation, Pine Creek MB Poorman's Band of Cree —primarily Cree but historical
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. Within NATO, each member nation's corresponding military rank of corporal is combined under the NATO-standard rank scale code OR-3 or OR-4. However, there are differences in how each nation employs corporals; some militaries may instead have a Junior Sergeant. In some militaries, the rank of corporal nominally corresponds to commanding a section or squad of soldiers. However, in the United States Army, the rank of corporal is considered a "lateral promotion" from E-4 Specialist and only occurs when the soldier has been selected by a promotion board to become an E-5 Sergeant and is serving in an E-5 billet such as a fireteam leader in a rifle squad; the lateral promotion is used to make the soldier a non-commissioned officer without changing the soldier's pay. As the Table of Organization & Equipment rank of a fire team leader is sergeant and that of squad leader is staff sergeant.
In the United States Marine Corps, corporal is the Table of Organization rank for a rifle fire team leader, machine gun team leader, light mortar squad leader, assault weapon squad leader, as well as gunner on most larger crew served weapons, armored vehicles, the two assistant gunners on a howitzer. In most countries that derive their military structure from the British military system, corporal is a more senior rank than that of private. However, in several other countries, such as Canada and Norway, corporal is a junior rank, indicating a more experienced soldier than a private, on a higher pay scale, but having no particular command appointment corresponding to the rank, similar to specialist in the U. S. Army; the word is derived from the medieval Italian phrase capo corporale. It may be derived from an appointment as an officer's bodyguard being an adjective pertaining to the word "body". All three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic use two or three ranks of corporal, or cabo.
Corporals in the Argentine military are considered suboficiales subalternos, superior only to all ranks of Volunteers and Seamen. In the Argentine Army, there are two ranks of corporal and senior: Cabo and cabo primero. While the Argentine Navy has three corporal ranks, from junior to senior: Cabo segundo, Cabo primero and cabo principal, equal to the army rank of sargento; the Air Force has the same number of corporal ranks as the navy, keeps the same titles, with the exception of cabo instead of the navy's cabo segundo. The rank is used by the Argentine National Gendarmerie and the Argentine Federal Police, which use the rank in the same manner as the Army, as well as the Argentine Naval Prefecture. Corporal is the second lowest of the non-commissioned officer ranks in the Australian Army, falling between lance-corporal and sergeant. A corporal is appointed as a section commander, is in charge of 7-14 soldiers of private rank, they are assisted by a second-in-command a lance-corporal or senior private.
A Corporal within Artillery is known as a bombardier. Corporal is a rank of the Royal Australian Air Force, being equal to both the Australian Army and Royal Air Force rank of corporal; the branches of the Belgian Armed Forces use three ranks of corporal: corporal, master corporal and 1st master corporal. Corporal is equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-3, whereas master corporal and 1st master corporal are equivalent to OR-4; the rank below corporal is 1st private and the rank directly above 1st master corporal is sergeant. Units with a cavalry, artily or Logistic Corps tradition replace Corporal by “Brigadier”; the equivalent of these ranks in the Naval Component are quartermaster, chief quartermaster and 1st chief quartermaster. Corporal is the first NCO rank of the Army, Air Force and states military police forces. Soldiers who complete the corporal course may be promoted to the rank of corporal should they excel in the course. A corporal in the Brazilian Army will lead the smallest fractions of units as machine gun squads and infantry squads.
Corporal is an Air Force non-commissioned member rank of the Canadian Forces. Its Naval equivalent is leading seaman, it is senior to the rank of private and its naval equivalent able seaman, junior to master corporal and its equivalent master seaman. It is part of the cadre of junior non-commissioned officers, one of the junior ranks. In French, the rank is caporal; the rank insignia of a corporal is a two-bar chevron, point down, worn in gold thread on both upper sleeves of the service dress jacket. On army ceremonial uniforms, it is rendered in gold braid, on either both sleeves, or just the right, depending on unit custom. Corporal is the first non-commissioned officer r
Farley McGill Mowat, was a Canadian writer and environmentalist. His works were translated into 52 languages, he sold more than 17 million books, he achieved fame with the publication of his books on the Canadian north, such as People of the Deer and Never Cry Wolf. The latter, an account of his experiences with wolves in the Arctic, was made into a film of the same name released in 1983. For his body of work as a writer he won the annual Vicky Metcalf Award for Children's Literature in 1970. Mowat's advocacy for environmental causes earned him praise, but his admission, after some of his books' claims had been debunked, that he "never let the facts get in the way of the truth" earned harsh criticism: "few readers remain neutral". Descriptions of Mowat refer to his "commitment to ideals" and "poetic descriptions and vivid images" as well as his strong antipathies, which provoke "ridicule, lampoons and, at times, evangelical condemnation". Mowat was born May 12, 1921 in Belleville and grew up in Richmond Hill, Ontario.
His great-great-uncle was Ontario premier Sir Oliver Mowat, his father, Angus Mowat, was a librarian who fought in the Battle of Vimy Ridge. His mother was Helen Lilian Thomson, daughter of Henry Andrew Hoffman Thomson & Georgina Phillips Farley Thomson of Trenton, Ontario. Mowat started writing, in his words "mostly verse", when his family lived in Windsor from 1930 to 1933. In the 1930s, the Mowat family moved to Saskatoon, where as a teenager Mowat wrote about birds in a column for the Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. During this time he wrote his own nature newsletter, Nature Lore. In the 1930s Mowat never completed a degree, he took his first collecting expedition in the summer of 1939 to Saskatoon with fellow zoology student Frank Banfield collecting data regarding mammals and Mowat focusing on birds. They sold their collections to the Royal Ontario Museum to finance their trip. Before enlisting Banfield published his field notes in the Canadian Field-Naturalist. Mowat published his when he returned from World War II.
During World War II, Mowat joined the Canadian Army and was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Second Battalion, The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment, affectionately known as the Hasty Ps. He went overseas as a reinforcement officer for that regiment, joining the Canadian Army in the United Kingdom, he saw brief active service when the 3rd Infantry Brigade was shipped to Brest, France, in June, 1940, but was withdrawn. On July 10, 1943, he was a subaltern in command of a rifle platoon and participated in the initial landings of Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily. Mowat served throughout the campaign as a platoon commander and moved to Italy in September 1943, seeing further combat until December 1943. During the Moro River Campaign, part of the Italian Campaign, he suffered from battle stress, heightened after an incident on Christmas Day outside of Ortona, Italy when he was left weeping at the feet of an unconscious friend, Lieutenant Allan Park, who had an enemy bullet in his head.
He accepted a job as Intelligence Officer at battalion headquarters moving to Brigade Headquarters. He stayed in Italy with the 1st Canadian Infantry Division for most of the war, was promoted to the rank of captain. Mowat moved with the division to northwest Europe in early 1945. There, he worked as an intelligence agent in the Netherlands and went through enemy lines to start unofficial negotiations about food drops with General Blaskowitz; the food drops, under the codename Operation Manna, saved thousands of Dutch lives. Mowat formed the 1st Canadian Army Museum Collection Team, according to his book My Father's Son, arranged for the transport to Canada of several tons of German military equipment, including a V2 rocket and several armoured vehicles; some of these vehicles are on display today at Canadian Forces Base Borden's tank museum, as well as the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa. Mowat was discharged in 1945, at the conclusion of World War II, as a captain and was considered for promotion to major.
However, he declined the offer as it would have required his volunteering to stay in the military until "no longer needed", which Mowat assumed meant duty with the Canadian Army Occupation Force. He was entitled to the following medals as a result of his service: the 1939–1945 Star, the Italy Star, the France and Germany Star, the Defence Medal, the Canadian Volunteer Service Medal and the War Medal 1939–1945. In 1947 Mowat was hired as field technician for the legendary American naturalist, Francis Harper in his study of the barren-ground caribou in the Nueltin Lake area—now Nunavut's Kivalliq Region, resulting in the publication of Harper's book entitled Caribou of Keewatin. Two young Inuit were with them, including then-fifteen-year-old Inuk Luke Anoteelik and his sister Rita, who were the sole survivors of starvation in an Inuit village. Luke Anowtalik went on to become well known for his distinctive carvings of antler and bone that are now in the permanent collection of the National Gallery of Canada.
Due to a clash of personalities, Mowat undertook his own explorations. "Harper extracted a promise that neither would mention the other in their respective future writing, a promise extracted from Mowat by field companions for their lifetimes."In the late 1940s Mowat was hired by Frank Banfield – Chief Mammalogist of the newly formed Canadian Wildlife Service – as field assistant in Banfield's ambitious multi-year investigation of the barren-ground Caribou, which resulted in Banfield's influential 1951 publication entitled "The Barren-ground Caribou." Mowat, pa
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.