Guarani dialects

The Guaraní language belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní branch of the Tupí linguistic family. There are three distinct groups within the Guaraní subgroup, they are: the Kaiowá, the Mbyá and the Ñandeva. In Latin America, the indigenous language, most spoken amongst non-indigenous communities is Guaraní. South America is home to more than 280,000 Guaraní people; the Guaraní people inhabit regions in Brazil, Bolivia, as well as Argentina. There are more than four million speakers of Guaraní across these regions; the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization classified Guaraní's language vitality as “vulnerable”. UNESCO's definition of “vulnerable” is meant to highlight that although the majority of Guaraní children can speak Guaraní, the use of the language is restricted to particular contexts. Although the Guaraní language may only be classified as “vulnerable,” there are other languages within the Tupí-Guaraní branch that are classified as “extinct” and “critically endangered”; the Guaraní language has been an object of study since the arrival of the Jesuits in the seventeenth century.

The Guaraní language is a subgroup within the Tupí-Guaraní branch. There are three dialects within the Guaraní subgroup: Kaiowá and Ñandeva; the differences among the three dialects of the Guaraní language can be noted in their distinct phonologies and syntax, as these vary depending on the social context that the language is being used. Of note, the Mbyá prioritize oral transmission. Literacy within the Mbyá received an increased level of importance in the late 1990s as a product of new educational institutions in the villages. Lemle contends that in spite of their being forty dialects within the Tupí-Guaraní family, there exist numerous similarities between the words of these dialects. Western Bolivian Guarani, 7,000 speakers Eastern Bolivian Guarani language, 55,000 speakers dialects: Avá, Izoceño/Izocenio Paraguayan Guarani, 5 million mestizo speakers Chiripá Guarani, 12,000 speakers Mbyá Guarani, 25,000 speakersThese share some degree of mutual intelligibility and are close to being dialects.

There is a degree of intelligibility with Kaiwá–Pai Tavytera, not included in the Ethnologue. Ethnologue considers Tapieté to be a separate language, intermediate between Eastern Bolivian and Paraguayan, has shifted from the name Chiripá to Avá, though the latter is ambiguous. Paraguayan Guarani is by far the most spoken variety and is what is meant by the term "Guarani" outside South America; the Tupí-Guaraní branch within the Tupí family, the object of most linguistic studies within this family. As a result, the linguistic literature available on Tupí-Guaraní languages is extensive, ranging from grammars, histories of language development, typological studies, to dissertations on the phonology of the Guaraní language. According to Silvetti and Silvestri, Guaraní only came to be a written language following the arrival of the Jesuits. Silvetti and Silvestri propound that “it was the Jesuits who gave it a grammar and a syntax and made it into one of the ‘lenguas generales’ used for the evangelization of the natives”.

In light of this, we will highlight important literary works on Guaraní linguistics of three Jesuits, namely: Jesuit Joseph de Anchieta. The first Guaraní grammar written was that of Jesuit Joseph de Anchieta. Ringmacher contends, that Jesuit Antonio Ruiz de Montoya's Arte de la lengua Guaraní, a documentation of Guaraní grammar, served as a significant point of reference and departure for all proceeding grammatical works concerning the Guaraní language. Montoya's analysis of the Guaraní morphology and syntax stands accurate until this day. Montoya produced a Guaraní dictionary known as Tesoro de la Lengua Guaraní. In this work, he not only created the first dictionary of this kind, but provided examples of contexts in which to use the various words he documented. Lastly, Jesuit Alonson de Aragona produced a pedagogical grammar, completed in 1629, but only printed in 1979; the intention of Aragona's work was to help those seeking ways to learn Guaraní. The extensive research conducted as well as the expansive reach of the Guaraní language across Latin America has granted it an important position in the urban landscape.

In other words, Guaraní's official status in Paraguay combined with research studies that have followed has allowed for recent projects of standardization. As efforts move forward to standardize Guaraní, the expansion of its use across sectors in Latin America will only increase; this can be seen with the broad expanse of literature being developed on the structure of Guaraní language, as well as its cultural importance. One of the key proponents in this venture, other than the Guaraní themselves, is academic Robert A. Dooley. Dooley has made an extensive collection of works of the language through his career based around the discourse of the Guaraní-Mbyá language structure. Examples being on how different grammatical structures are understood by the speaker, can shift the narrative being shared, or the focus on the pragmatic structuring of Guaraní sentences, clause chaining, or spatial understandings of Guaraní; these research projects done by Dooley are crucial to understanding different cultural aspects, like disco

Off the Hook (TV series)

Off the Hook is a British sitcom about a group of freshers at university. The show's cast includes Jonathan Bailey, who plays the protagonist Danny, Danny Morgan as Shane and James Buckley as Fred, they are joined by Joanna Cassidy who plays Scarlet and Georgia King as Wendy "Weird Bloke". The series was commissioned as part of the BBC Switch strand, its original title was Fresh. It first appeared online in small five-minute episodes in September 2008 before being developed into a full series, it was filmed on location at the University of Westminster's Harrow campus, used as the backdrop for the fictional Bankside University. Since the first series there has been no further production, suggesting that it has been cancelled; the series centres on Danny Gordon. Unbeknown to him his "worst best friend" from school, Shane McKay, has been awarded a place at Bankside via the clearing system, proceeds to gatecrash Danny's university life; the pair share their student accommodation with Scarlet Hayes and Wendy "Weird Bloke".

The first episode introduces the characters and displays Danny's introduction into university life including life modelling, chatting up girls who have boyfriends at home and learning that there is a university degree called Moral Philosophy with Comparative Philology. Off the Hook at BBC Programmes Off the Hook on IMDb Off the Hook at British Comedy Guide