Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical is a rock musical with a book and lyrics by Gerome Ragni and James Rado and music by Galt MacDermot. A product of the hippie counterculture and sexual revolution of the late 1960s, several of its songs became anthems of the anti-Vietnam War peace movement; the musical's profanity, its depiction of the use of illegal drugs, its treatment of sexuality, its irreverence for the American flag, its nude scene caused much comment and controversy. The musical broke new ground in musical theatre by defining the genre of "rock musical", using a racially integrated cast, inviting the audience onstage for a "Be-In" finale. Hair tells the story of the "tribe", a group of politically active, long-haired hippies of the "Age of Aquarius" living a bohemian life in New York City and fighting against conscription into the Vietnam War. Claude, his good friend Berger, their roommate Sheila and their friends struggle to balance their young lives and the sexual revolution with their rebellion against the war and their conservative parents and society.
Claude must decide whether to resist the draft as his friends have done, or to succumb to the pressures of his parents to serve in Vietnam, compromising his pacifist principles and risking his life. After an off-Broadway debut on October 17, 1967, at Joseph Papp's Public Theater and a subsequent run at the Cheetah nightclub from December 1967 through January 1968, the show opened on Broadway in April 1968 and ran for 1,750 performances. Simultaneous productions in cities across the United States and Europe followed shortly thereafter, including a successful London production that ran for 1,997 performances. Since numerous productions have been staged around the world, spawning dozens of recordings of the musical, including the 3 million-selling original Broadway cast recording; some of the songs from its score became Top 10 hits, a feature film adaptation was released in 1979. A Broadway revival opened in 2009, earning strong reviews and winning the Tony Award and Drama Desk Award for Best Revival of a Musical.
In 2008, Time wrote, "Today Hair seems, if anything, more daring than ever." Hair was conceived by actors James Gerome Ragni. The two met in 1964 when they performed together in the Off-Broadway flop Hang Down Your Head and Die, they began writing Hair together in late 1964; the main characters were autobiographical, with Rado's Claude being a pensive romantic and Ragni's Berger an extrovert. Their close relationship, including its volatility, was reflected in the musical. Rado explained, "We were great friends, it was a passionate kind of relationship that we directed into creativity, into writing, into creating this piece. We put the drama between us on stage."Rado described the inspiration for Hair as "a combination of some characters we met in the streets, people we knew and our own imaginations. We knew this group of kids in the East Village who were dropping out and dodging the draft, there were lots of articles in the press about how kids were being kicked out of school for growing their hair long".
He recalled, "There was so much excitement in the streets and the parks and the hippie areas, we thought if we could transmit this excitement to the stage it would be wonderful.... We hung out with them and went to their Be-Ins let our hair grow." Many cast members were recruited right off the street. Rado said, "It was important and if we hadn't written it, there'd not be any examples. You could read about it and see film clips. We thought,'This is happening in the streets', we wanted to bring it to the stage."Rado and Ragni came from different artistic backgrounds. In college, Rado wrote musical revues and aspired to be a Broadway composer in the Rodgers and Hammerstein tradition, he went on to study acting with Lee Strasberg. Ragni, on the other hand, was an active member of The Open Theater, one of several groups Off-off Broadway, that were developing experimental theatre techniques, he introduced Rado to the modern theatre methods being developed at The Open Theater. In 1966, while the two were developing Hair, Ragni performed in The Open Theater's production of Megan Terry's play, Viet Rock, a story about young men being deployed to the Vietnam War.
In addition to the war theme, Viet Rock employed the improvisational exercises being used in the experimental theatre scene and used in the development of Hair. Rado and Ragni brought their drafts of the show to producer Eric Blau who, through common friend Nat Shapiro, connected the two with Canadian composer Galt MacDermot. MacDermot had won a Grammy Award in 1961 for his composition "African Waltz"; the composer's lifestyle was in marked contrast to his co-creators: "I had short hair, a wife, and, at that point, four children, I lived on Staten Island." "I never heard of a hippie when I met Rado and Ragni." But he shared their enthusiasm to do a roll show. "We work independently", explained MacDermot in May 1968. "I prefer it that way. They hand me the material. I set it to music." MacDermot wrote the first score in three weeks, starting with the songs "I Got Life", "Ain't Got No", "Where Do I Go" and the title song. He first wrote "Aquarius" as an unconventional art piece, but rewrote it into an uplifting anthem.
The creators received many rejections. Joe Papp, who ran the New York Shakespeare Festival, decided he wanted Hair to open the new Public Theater in New York City's East Village; the musical was the first work by living authors. The production did not go
Mount Temple Comprehensive School
Mount Temple Comprehensive School is a secondary school in Clontarf, Ireland. The school operates under the patronage of the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin, has, as a primary objective, the provision of state-funded second level education to the Protestant population of northern Dublin; the school was established in 1972 following the amalgamation of Mountjoy School, Hibernian Marine School and Bertrand & Rutland School. Hibernian Marine School was a charity school founded in 1766 to provide for the orphans and children of seamen; the school was located on the Seafield Road in Dublin. Mountjoy School was a boarding school in Mountjoy Square, it moved to the current location in Clontarf. Bertrand & Rutland School was in Eccles Street on the northside of Dublin, it was a Church of Ireland School, the Bertrand and Rutland Fund still funds scholarships to Protestant schools in Ireland. Hibernian Marine School amalgamated with Mountjoy School in 1968 and became Mountjoy & Marine School; the school amalgamated with Bertrand & Rutland and took the name of Mount Temple Comprehensive School in 1972.
Mount Temple was the school. In September 1976, 14-year-old drummer Larry Mullen, Jr. posted a notice on the school's noticeboard, looking for fellow musicians. All four members of U2 are former pupils of the school. Mount Temple Comprehensive School has about 900 students, although it was only built to cater for around 500. There have been plans for many years for a new school to be built on site to cater for these extra students but no work has started yet. Shaun Aisbitt, Ireland's tallest man Alan Averill, best known as the vocalist of the Irish extreme metal band Primordial Amanda Brunker, former Miss Ireland Adam Clayton, best known as the bassist of the Irish rock band U2 Damien Dempsey, musician David Howell "The Edge" Evans, best known as the guitarist, backing vocalist, keyboardist of the Irish rock band U2 Dik Evans, brother of David Howell "The Edge" Evans and founder member of The Hype and Feedback, previous incarnations of the band U2 Ali Hewson, Irish activist and wife of U2 frontman Bono Paul David "Bono" Hewson, Irish singer and U2 frontman Mick Kearney, player with Leinster Rugby Becky Lynch, Professional wrestler Andrew Maxwell, comedian Alan Maybury, Irish football international David McMurtry Co-founder of metrology company Renishaw PLC based in Wotton-under-Edge.
Renishaw plc Larry Mullen Jr. Irish musician and the drummer for the Irish rock band U2 Christopher Nolan, author Mark O'Neill, television presenter Robert Hilliard, Olympic boxer, Church of Ireland minister and communist who died fighting with the International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War Elspeth Henderson, president of Irish Girl Guides Patrick Hughes, former Irish cricket international Gerard Stembridge, writer and actor During the summer months the whole school facility is used by The Centre Of English Studies, catering for hundreds of international students who come to Dublin to learn English. Mount Temple Comprehensive School - official website
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya. The name comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nairobi, which translates to "cool water", a reference to the Nairobi River which flows through the city; the city proper had a population of 3,138,369 in the 2009 census, while the metropolitan area has a population of 6,547,547. The city is popularly referred to as the Green City in the Sun. Nairobi was founded in 1899 by the colonial authorities in British East Africa, as a rail depot on the Uganda Railway; the town grew to replace Machakos as the capital of Kenya in 1907. After independence in 1963, Nairobi became the capital of the Republic of Kenya. During Kenya's colonial period, the city became a centre for the colony's coffee and sisal industry; the city lies on the River Athi in the southern part of the country, has an elevation of 1,795 metres above sea level. With a population of 3.36 million in 2011, Nairobi is the second-largest city by population in the African Great Lakes region after Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
According to the 2009 census, in the administrative area of Nairobi, 3,138,295 inhabitants lived within 696 km2. Nairobi is the 10th-largest city including the population of its suburbs. Home to thousands of Kenyan businesses and over 100 major international companies and organisations, including the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Office at Nairobi, Nairobi is an established hub for business and culture; the Nairobi Securities Exchange is one of the largest in Africa and the second-oldest exchange on the continent. It is Africa's fourth-largest exchange in terms of trading volume, capable of making 10 million trades a day. Nairobi is found within the Greater Nairobi Metropolitan region, which consists of 5 out of 47 counties in Kenya, which generates about 60% of the entire nation's GDP; the counties are: Source: NairobiMetro/ Kenya Census The site of Nairobi was part of an uninhabited swamp. The name Nairobi itself comes from the Maasai expression meaning "cool waters", referring to the cold water stream which flowed through the area.
With the arrival of the Uganda Railway, the site was identified by Sir George Whitehouse for a store depot, shunting ground and camping ground for the Indian labourers working on the railway. Whitehouse, chief engineer of the railway, favoured the site as an ideal resting place due to its high elevation, temperate climate and being situated before the steep ascent of the Limuru escarpments, his choice was however criticised by officials within the Protectorate government who felt the site was too flat, poorly drained and infertile. In 1898, Arthur Church was commissioned to design the first town layout for the railway depot, it constituted two streets – Victoria Street and Station Street, ten avenues, staff quarters and an Indian commercial area. The railway arrived at Nairobi on 30 May 1899, soon Nairobi replaced Machakos as the headquarters of the provincial administration for Ukamba province. On the arrival of the railway, Whitehouse remarked that "Nairobi itself will in the course of the next two years become a large and flourishing place and there are many applications for sites for hotels and houses.
The town's early years were however beset with problems of malaria leading to at least one attempt to have the town moved. In the early 1900s, Bazaar Street was rebuilt after an outbreak of plague and the burning of the original town. Between 1902 and 1910, the town's population rose from 5,000 to 16,000 and grew around administration and tourism in the form of big game hunting. In 1907, Nairobi replaced Mombasa as the capital of the East Africa Protectorate. In 1908, a further outbreak of the plague led to Europeans concluding that the cause was unhygienic conditions in the Indian Bazaar; the government responded by restricting lower class Indians and African natives to specific quarters for residence and trade setting a precedent for racial segregation in the commercial sphere. By the outset of the First World War, Nairobi was well established as a European settler colony through immigration and land alienation. In 1919, Nairobi was declared to be a municipality. In 1921, Nairobi had 24,000 residents.
The next decade would see a growth in native African communities into Nairobi, where they would go on to constitute a majority for the first time. In February 1926, colonial officer Eric Dutton passed through Nairobi on his way to Mount Kenya, said of the city: Maybe one day Nairobi will be laid out with tarred roads, with avenues of flowering trees, flanked by noble buildings, and it is fair to say that the Government and the Municipality have bravely tackled the problem and that a town-plan ambitious enough to turn Nairobi into a thing of beauty has been worked out, much has been done. But until that plan has borne fruit, Nairobi must remain what she was a slatternly creature, unfit to queen it over so lovely a country; the continuous expansion of the city began to anger the Maasai, as the city was devouring their land to the south. It angered the Kikuyu people, who wanted the land returned to them. After the end of World War II, this friction developed into the Mau Mau rebellion. Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya's future president, was jailed for his involvement though there was no evidence linking him to the rebellion.
The pressure exerted from the locals onto the British resulted in Kenyan independence in 1963, with Nairobi as the capital of the new republic. After independence, Nairobi grew and this growth put pressure on the city's
Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities; this means a resident will list city on official paperwork. It is named after the British Queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who as the wife of George III was Virginia's last Queen. In 2016, an estimated 46,912 people lived within the city limits; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with Albemarle County for statistical purposes, bringing its population to 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Fluvanna and Nelson counties. Charlottesville was the home of Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. During their terms as Governor of Virginia, they lived in Charlottesville, traveled to and from Richmond, along the 71-mile historic Three Notch'd Road.
Orange, located 26 miles northeast of the city, was the hometown of President James Madison. The University of Virginia, founded by Jefferson and one of the original Public Ivies, straddles the city's southwestern border. Monticello, 3 miles southeast of the city, is, along with the University of Virginia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, attracting thousands of tourists every year. At the time of European encounter, part of the area that became Charlottesville was occupied by a Monacan village called Monasukapanough. An Act of the Assembly of Albemarle County established Charlottesville in 1762. Thomas Walker was named its first trustee, it was situated along a trade route called Three Notched Road, which led from Richmond to the Great Valley. The town took its name from Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who became queen consort of Great Britain when she married King George III in 1761. During the American Revolutionary War, Congress imprisoned the Convention Army in Charlottesville at the Albemarle Barracks between 1779 and 1781.
The Governor and legislators had to temporarily abandon the capitol and on June 4, 1781, Jack Jouett warned the Virginia Legislature meeting at Monticello of an intended raid by Colonel Banastre Tarleton, allowing a narrow escape. Unlike much of Virginia, Charlottesville was spared the brunt of the American Civil War; the only battle to take place in Charlottesville was the skirmish at Rio Hill, an encounter in which George Armstrong Custer engaged local Confederate Home Guards before retreating. The mayor surrendered the city to Custer's men to keep the town from being burned; the Charlottesville Factory, founded c. 1820–30, was accidentally burnt during General Sheridan's 1865 raid through the Shenandoah Valley. The factory had been taken over by the Confederacy and used to manufacture woolen clothing for the soldiers, it caught fire when some coals taken by Union troops to burn the nearby railroad bridge dropped on the floor. The factory was rebuilt and was known as the Woolen Mills until its liquidation in 1962.
After the Civil War, emancipated enslaved persons who stayed in Charlottesville established communities in neighborhoods such as Vinegar Hill. In 1943, there were at least three theaters in Charlottesville: Paramount, La Fayette. In July 1957, the first real estate firm owned and operated by African Americans, opened for business; the company, named Ideal Realty Company, was owned and operated by James N. Fleming, Roy C. Preston, Vassar Tarry, it was located in the Preston Building, 115 Fourth Street, N. W. James Fleming was a graduate of Jefferson High School. After Reconstruction ended, Charlottesville's black population suffered under Jim Crow laws that segregated public places and limited opportunity. Schools were segregated by race and blacks were not served in many local businesses. Public parks were planned separately for the white and black populations: four for the whites, one, built on the site of a former dump, for blacks; the Ku Klux Klan had chapters in the Charlottesville area beginning at least in the early twentieth century, events such as lynchings and cross burnings occurred in the Charlottesville area.
In 1898, Charlottesville resident John Henry James was lynched in the nearby town of Ivy. In August 1950, three white men were observed burning a cross on Cherry Avenue, a street in a African-American neighborhood in Charlottesville, it was speculated that the cross burning might be a reaction to "a white man had been known to socialize with one of the young Negro women in that vicinity." In 1956, crosses were burned outside a progressive church and the home of white integration activist Sarah Patton Boyle. In the fall of 1958, Charlottesville closed its segregated white schools as part of Virginia's strategy of massive resistance to federal court orders requiring integration as part of the implementation of the Supreme Court of the United States decision Brown v. Board of Education; the closures were required by a series of state laws collectively known as the Stanley plan. Negro schools remained open, however; the first African American member of the Charlotteville School Board was Raymond Bell in 1963.
In 1963 than many southern cities, civil rights activists in Charlottesville began protesting segregated restaurants with sit-ins, such as one that occurred at Buddy's Restaurant near the University of Virginia. In the summer of 1940 the first Field Day event was held in Washington Park. In 1947 Charlottesville organized a local NAACP branch. In 2001, the Charlottesville and Albemarle Branches of the NAACP merged to form the Albemarle-Charlottesvi
David Howell Evans, better known by his stage name the Edge, is an Irish musician and songwriter best known as the lead guitarist and backing vocalist of the rock band U2. A member of the group since its inception, he has recorded 14 studio albums with the band as well as one solo record; as a guitarist, the Edge has crafted a textural style of playing. His use of a rhythmic delay effect yields a distinctive sound that has become a signature of U2's music; the Edge was born in England to a Welsh family, was raised in Ireland after the Evans family moved there. In 1976, at Mount Temple Comprehensive School he formed a band with his fellow students and elder brother Dik that would evolve into U2. Inspired by the ethos of punk rock and its basic arrangements, the group began to write its own material, they became one of the most successful acts in popular music, with albums such as 1987's The Joshua Tree and 1991's Achtung Baby. Over the years, the Edge has experimented with various guitar effects and introduced influences from several genres of music into his own style, including American roots music, industrial music, alternative rock.
With U2, the Edge has played keyboards, co-produced their 1993 record Zooropa, served as co-lyricist. The Edge met his second wife Morleigh Steinberg through her collaborations with the band; as a member of U2 and as an individual, the Edge has campaigned for human rights and philanthropic causes. He co-founded Music Rising, a charity to support musicians affected by Hurricane Katrina, he has collaborated with U2 bandmate Bono on several projects, including songs for Roy Orbison and Tina Turner, the soundtracks to the musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark and the Royal Shakespeare Company's London stage adaptation of A Clockwork Orange. As a member of U2, the Edge has won 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Several music publications have ranked the Edge among the greatest guitarists of all time. David Howell Evans was born at the Barking Maternity Hospital, in the county of Essex in England, on 8 August 1961, he is the second child of Welsh parents Garvin and Gwenda Evans, both of whom originated from Llanelli, a coastal town in South Wales.
Garvin was an engineer who worked for the local electricity board, subsequently worked for the electronics company Plessey. The Edge has an elder brother a younger sister called Gillian; the Evanses lived in Chadwell Heath, Essex. Around 1962, Garvin was offered a promotion and a transfer, the family made the decision to move to County Dublin, Ireland to take it. During his childhood in Dublin he possessed two differing accents to converse in, Welsh and Irish English, the former being used when he was in the family home and the latter when he was outside; as a child, he received piano and guitar lessons, practised music with his brother Richard. Whilst the Evans brothers were at Mount Temple Comprehensive School in Dublin in 1976, they went along to a meeting in response to an advert posted by another pupil, Larry Mullen Jr. on the school's noticeboard seeking musicians to form a new band with him. Among the several other pupils who responded to the note were Paul Hewson and Adam Clayton; the band went through a number of reformations before becoming known as U2 in March 1978.
Early in the band's career, Evans was given the nickname "The Edge" by members of the Lypton Village surrealist street gang to which Bono belonged. The nickname was derived from the angular shape of Evans' head. However, the origin of the name is disputed and other theories include a description of his guitar playing and his preference for not becoming involved and therefore remaining on the edge of things. U2 began its public performance life in small venues in Dublin in 1977 playing at other venues elsewhere in Ireland. In December 1979 they performed their first concerts outside Ireland, in London, in 1980 began extensive touring across the British Isles, developing a following, their debut album Boy was released in 1980. In 1981, leading up to the October Tour, Evans came close to leaving U2 for religious reasons, but he decided to stay. During this period he became involved with a group called Shalom Tigers, in which bandmates Bono and Larry Mullen Jr. were involved. Shortly after deciding to remain with the band, he wrote a piece of music that became "Sunday Bloody Sunday".
Evans married his secondary school girlfriend Aislinn O'Sullivan on 12 July 1983. They have three daughters: Hollie, Arran and'Blue Angel'; the couple separated in 1990, but were unable to get divorced because of Irish laws regarding marriage annulment at the time. Evans is a Protestant Christian. In 1993, he began dating Morleigh Steinberg, an American professional dancer and choreographer whom he had met whilst she was employed as a dancer during the band's Zoo TV Tour, they have a daughter, a son, Levi. The couple were married in 2002. Evans has been criticised for his efforts to build five luxury mansions on a 156-acre plot of land in Malibu, California; the California Coastal Commission voted 8–4 against the plans. The Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy agreed to remain neutral on the issue following a US$1 million donation from Eva
Daniel Roland Lanois is a Canadian record producer, guitarist and songwriter. Lanois has released several albums of his own work. However, he is best known for producing albums for a wide variety of artists, including Spoons, Bob Dylan, Neil Young, Peter Gabriel, Emmylou Harris, Willie Nelson, Brandon Flowers. Lanois collaborated with Brian Eno: most famously on producing several albums for U2, including the multi-platinum The Joshua Tree and Achtung Baby. Three albums produced or co-produced by Lanois have won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Four other albums received Grammy nominations. Lanois performed the music for Billy Bob Thornton's film Sling Blade. Lanois started his production career when he was 17, recording local artists including Simply Saucer with his brother Bob Lanois in a studio in the basement of their mother's home in Ancaster, Ontario. Lanois started Grant Avenue Studios in an old house he purchased in Hamilton, Ontario, he worked with a number of local bands, including Martha and the Muffins, Ray Materick and the Canadian children's singer Raffi.
Lanois attended Ancaster High School. In 1981 Lanois played on and produced the album This Is The Ice Age by the Muffins. In 1985 he earned a CASBY award for his work on the Muffins album. Lanois worked collaboratively with Brian Eno on some of Eno's own projects, one of, the theme song for David Lynch's film adaptation of Frank Herbert's Dune. Eno invited him to co-produce U2's album The Unforgettable Fire. Along with Eno, he went on to produce U2's The Joshua Tree, the 1987 Grammy Award for Album of the Year winner, some of the band's other works including Achtung Baby and All That You Can't Leave Behind, both of which were nominated for the same award but did not win. Lanois once again collaborated with U2 and Brian Eno on the band's 2009 album, No Line on the Horizon, he was involved in the songwriting process as well as production. Lanois' early work with U2 led to him being hired to produce albums for other top-selling artists, he collaborated with Peter Gabriel on his album Birdy, the soundtrack to Alan Parker's film of the same name, subsequently spent most of 1985 co-producing Gabriel's album So, released in 1986 and became his best-selling release, earning multi-platinum sales and a Grammy nomination for Album of the Year.
Lanois co-produced Gabriel's follow-up, Us, released in 1992 and went platinum. Bono recommended Lanois to Bob Dylan in the late 1980s. Eight years Dylan and Lanois worked together on Time Out of Mind, which won another Grammy Award for Album of the Year in 1997. In his autobiographical Chronicles, Vol. 1, Dylan describes in depth the contentious but rewarding working relationship he developed with Lanois. Wrecking Ball, his 1995 collaboration with Emmylou Harris, won a 1996 Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album. In 1998, he appeared on Willie Nelson's album Teatro. Lanois was working on Neil Young's record Le Noise in June 2010 when he was hospitalized after suffering multiple injuries in a motorcycle crash in the Silver Lake area of Los Angeles, he has since recovered. Lanois' production is recognizable and notable for its'big' and'live' drum sound, atmospheric guitars and ambient reverb. Rolling Stone called Lanois the "most important record producer to emerge in the Eighties." As well as being a producer, Lanois is a songwriter and recording artist.
He has released several solo albums and film scores. A number of Lanois' songs have been covered by other artists, including Dave Matthews, Jerry Garcia Band, Willie Nelson, Tea Party, Anna Beljin, Isabelle Boulay and Emmylou Harris, his albums have had some success in Canada. Lanois plays pedal steel and drums. Belladonna, an instrumental album released in 2005, was nominated for a Grammy. Lanois provided an instrumental score for LOUDquietLOUD, a documentary about the Pixies. Lanois premiered a documentary entitled Here Is What Is at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2007; the film chronicles the recording of his album of the same name and includes footage of the actual recording. The album Here Is What Is was released, first by download in compact disc, in late 2007 and early 2008. Soon after, Lanois released. In October 2009, Lanois started a project called Black Dub which features Lanois on guitar, Brian Blade on drums, Daryl Johnson on bass, along with multi-instrumentalist/singer Trixie Whitley.
They released a self-titled album in 2010. In 2014, Lanois played with Emmylou Harris as a sideman and opening act on a tour focused on the Wrecking Ball material he produced. On October 28. 2014 Lanois released an album titled Flesh and Machine on ANTI- Records, based on Brian Eno's ambient albums. The instrumental album consists of original atmospheric and process-based sounds, blending pedal steel guitar and a variety of digital and analog sound processing devices, he was assisted by the drummer Brian Blade. In 2016, he released the album Goodbye to Language with Rocco DeLuca. Lanois released Goodbye to Language on ANTI- Records in September 2016; the album is a collaboration between musician Rocco DeLuca. The collaborative album Venetian Snares x Daniel Lanois was released on Venetian Snares' label Timesig in May 2018. Lanois contributed to the soundtrack of the 2018 video game Red Dead Redemption 2, released by Rockstar Games with the song "That’s The Way It Is." Lanois won a Juno Award in 1990 as most promising artist.
Lanois has received 11 Grammy Awards for his work with variou