Royal Ontario Museum
The Royal Ontario Museum is a museum of art, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Canada. It is one of the largest in Canada, it attracts more than one million visitors every year. The museum is north of Queen's Park, in the University of Toronto district, with its main entrance on Bloor Street West; the Museum subway station of the Toronto Transit Commission is named after the ROM and, since a 2008 renovation, is decorated to resemble the institution's collection. Established on 16 April 1912 and opened on 19 March 1914, the museum has maintained close relations with the University of Toronto throughout its history sharing expertise and resources; the museum was under the direct control and management of the University of Toronto until 1968, when it became an independent Crown agency of the government of Ontario. Today, the museum is Canada's largest field-research institution, with research and conservation activities that span the globe. With more than 6,000,000 items and 40 galleries, the museum's diverse collections of world culture and natural history contribute to its international reputation.
The museum contains notable collections of dinosaurs and meteorites, Near Eastern and African art, art of East Asia, European history and Canadian history. It houses the world's largest collection of fossils from the Burgess Shale with more than 150,000 specimens; the museum contains an extensive collection of design and fine arts, including clothing and product design Art Deco. The Royal Ontario Museum was formally established on 16 April 1912 and was jointly governed by the Government of Ontario and the University of Toronto, its first assets were transferred from the University and the provincial Department of Education, coming from its predecessor the Museum of Natural History and Fine Arts at the Toronto Normal School. On 19 March 1914, at 3:00pm, the Duke of Connaught the Governor General of Canada opened the Royal Ontario Museum to the public; the museum's location at the edge of Toronto's built-up area, far from the city's central business district, was selected for its proximity to the University of Toronto.
The original building was constructed on the western edge of the property along the university's Philosopher's Walk, with its main entrance facing out onto Bloor Street housing five separate museums of the following fields: Archaeology, Mineralogy and Geology. This was the first phase of a two-part construction plan that intended to expand the museum towards Queen's Park Crescent creating an H-shaped structure; the first expansion to the Royal Ontario Museum publicly opened on 12 October 1933. The renovation saw the construction of the south wing fronting onto Queen's Park and required the demolition of Argyle House, a Victorian mansion at 100 Queen's Park; as this occurred during the Great Depression, an effort was made to use local building materials and to make use of workers capable of manually excavating the building's foundations. Teams of workers alternated weeks of service due to the physically draining nature of the job. In 1947, the ROM was dissolved as a body corporate, with all assets transferred to the University of Toronto.
This continued until 1968, when the Museum and the McLaughlin Planetarium were separated from the University to form a new corporation. On 26 October 1968, the ROM opened the McLaughlin Planetarium on the south end of the property after receiving a $2 million donation from Colonel R. Samuel McLaughlin. By the 1980s, the planetarium's audiences were dwindling and due to budget cuts, the facility was forced to shut down in November 1995; the space temporarily reopened from 1998 after being leased to Children's Own Museum. In 2009, the ROM sold the building to the University of Toronto for $22 million and ensured that it would continue to be used for institutional and academic purposes; the second major addition to the museum was the Queen Elizabeth II Terrace Galleries on the north side of the building and a curatorial centre built on the south, which started in 1978 and was completed in 1984. The new construction meant that a former outdoor "Chinese Garden" to the north of the building facing Bloor, along with an adjoining indoor restaurant, had to be dismantled.
Opened in 1984 by Queen Elizabeth II, a $55 million expansion took the form of layered volumes, each rising layer stepping back from Bloor Street—hence creating a layered terrace effect. The design of this expansion won a Governor General's Award in Architecture. In 1989, activists complained about its Into the Heart of Africa exhibit, which featured stereotypes of Africans, forcing curator Jeanne Cannizzo to resign. Beginning in 2002, the museum underwent a major renovation and expansion project dubbed as Renaissance ROM; the Provincial and Federal governments, both supporters of this venture, contributed $60 million towards the project. The campaign aimed not only to raise annual visitor attendance from 750,000 to between 1.3 and 1.6 million, but to generate additional funding opportunities to support the museum's research, conservation and educational public programs. The centrepiece of the project, the Michael Lee-Chin Crystal, was a major addition to the building's original framework; the structure was created by architect Daniel Libeskind, whose design was selected from among 50 finalists in an international competition.
The design saw the Terrace Galleries torn down and replaced with a Deconstructivist crystalline-form structure, named after Michael Lee-Chin who pledged $30 million towards its construction. Existing galleries and buildings were upg
2004 Canadian federal election
The 2004 Canadian federal election, was held on June 28, 2004, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 38th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal government of Prime Minister Paul Martin lost its majority, but was able to form a minority government after the elections; the main opposition party, the newly amalgamated Conservative Party of Canada, improved its position but with a showing below its expectations. On May 23, 2004, Governor General Adrienne Clarkson, on the advice of Martin, ordered the dissolution of the House of Commons. Following a 36-day campaign, voters elected 308 Members of the House of Commons. All three major national parties had changed their leaders since the 2000 election. Earlier the election was expected to be a easy romp for Martin to a fourth consecutive Liberal majority government, but early in 2004 Liberal popularity fell due to the sponsorship scandal. Polls started to indicate the possibility of a minority government for the Liberals, or a minority Conservative government, fuelling speculation of coalitions with the other parties.
In the end, the Liberals fared better than the final opinion polls had led them to fear, but well short of a majority. On election day, polling times were arranged to allow results from most provinces to be announced more or less with the exception of Atlantic Canada, whose results were known before the close of polling in other provinces due to the British Columbia Supreme Court's decision in R v Bryan. In 2004, a federal party required 155 of the 308 seats to hold a majority in Canada; the Liberals came short of this number, winning 135. Until close ridings were decided on the west coast, it appeared as though the Liberals' seat total, if combined with that of the left-wing New Democratic Party, would be sufficient to hold a majority in the House of Commons. In the end, the Conservatives won Vancouver Island North, West Vancouver-Sunshine Coast, New Westminster-Coquitlam, after trailing in all three ridings, as sub-totals were announced through the evening; as a result, the combined seat count of the Liberals and the NDP was 154, while the other 154 seats belonged to the Conservatives and one independent Chuck Cadman.
Rather than forming a coalition with the NDP, the Liberal party led a minority government, obtaining majorities for its legislation on an ad hoc basis. As the showdown on Bill C-48, a matter of confidence, loomed in the spring of 2005, the Liberals and NDP, who wanted to continue the Parliament, found themselves matched against the Conservatives and the Bloc, who were registering no confidence; the bill passed with the Speaker casting the decisive tie-breaking vote. Voter turnout nationwide was 60.9%, the lowest in Canadian history at that time, with 13,683,570 out of 22,466,621 registered voters casting their ballots. The voter turnout fell by more than 3pp from the 2000 federal election. Notes: "% change" refers to change from previous election * Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election. In the case of the CHP, which did have 46 candidates in the previous election, the party did not have official status and is not compared. 1 Conservative Party results are compared to the combined totals of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party in the 2000 election.
Source: Elections Canada Western Arctic, NT: Ethel Blondin-Andrew def. Dennis Bevington by 53 votes QC: Liza Frulla def. Thierry St-Cyr by 72 votes Simcoe—Grey, ON: Helena Guergis def. Paul Bonwick by 100 votes New Westminster—Coquitlam, BC: Paul Forseth def. Steve McClurg by 113 votes Regina—Lumsden—Lake Centre, SK: Tom Lukiwski def. Gary Anderson by 122 votes SK: Dave Batters def. Dick Proctor by 124 votes Edmonton—Beaumont, AB: David Kilgour def. Tim Uppal by 134 votes ON: Gary Goodyear def. Janko Peric by 224 votes Kildonan—St. Paul, MB: Joy Smith def. Terry Duguid by 278 votes Northumberland—Quinte West, ON: Paul Macklin def. Doug Galt by 313 votes Number of parties: 12 First appearance: Conservative Party of Canada, Progressive Canadian Party Reappearance after hiatus: Christian Heritage Party of Canada, Libertarian Party of Canada Until the sponsorship scandal, most pundits were predicting that new Prime Minister Paul Martin would lead the Liberal Party of Canada to a fourth majority government setting a record for number of seats won.
However, polls released after the scandal broke showed Liberal support down as much as 10% nationwide, with greater declines in its heartland of Quebec and Ontario. Although there was some recovery in Ontario and Atlantic Canada, Liberal hopes of making unprecedented gains in the west faded; the unpopularity of some provincial Liberal parties may have had an effect on federal Liberal fortunes. In Ontario, for instance, the provincial Liberal government introduced an unpopular budget the week of the expected election call, their federal counterparts fell into a statistical dead heat with the Conservatives in polls there; the Liberals were harmed by high-profile party infighting, plaguing the party since Martin's earlier ejection from Cabinet by now-former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. The campaign was criticized by Liberal candidates, one incumbent Liberal comparing it to the Keystone Kops. In the final months of 2003, the Progressive Conservatives and the Canadian Alliance were running a distant third and fourth in public opinion polls.
Many pundits predicted that the combination of the popular and fiscally conservative Martin, along with co
Greater Toronto Area
The Greater Toronto Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. It consists of 25 incorporated municipalities within the central city of Toronto and the four regional municipalities which surround it: Durham, Halton and York. According to the 2016 census, the Greater Toronto Area has a population of 6,417,516; the regional span of the Greater Toronto Area is sometimes combined with the city of Hamilton, located west of Halton Region, to form the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. The Greater Toronto Area anchors a much larger urban agglomeration known as the Golden Horseshoe; the term "Greater Toronto" was first used in writing as early as the 1900s, although at the time, the term only referred to the old City of Toronto and its immediate townships and villages, which became Metropolitan Toronto in 1954 and became the current city of Toronto in 1998. The use of the term involving the four regional municipalities came into formal use in the mid-1980s, after it was used in a discussed report on municipal governance restructuring in the region and was made official as a provincial planning area.
However, it did not come into everyday usage until the mid- to late 1990s. In 2006, the term began to be supplanted in the field of spatial planning as provincial policy began to refer to either the "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" or the still-broader "Greater Golden Horseshoe"; the latter includes communities like Barrie, Kitchener-Waterloo and the Niagara Region. The GTA continues, however, to be in official use elsewhere in the Government of Ontario, such as the Ministry of Finance; some municipalities considered part of the GTA are not within the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, whose land area and population is thus smaller than the land area and population of the GTA planning area. For example, Oshawa is the centre of its own CMA, yet deemed part of the Greater Toronto Area, while other municipalities, such as New Tecumseth in southern Simcoe County and Mono Township in Dufferin County are included in the Toronto CMA but not in the GTA; these different border configurations result in the GTA's population being higher than the Toronto CMA by nearly one-half million people leading to confusion amongst people when trying to sort out Toronto's urban population.
Other nearby urban areas, such as Hamilton, Barrie, or St. Catharines-Niagara and Kitchener-Waterloo, are not part of the GTA or the Toronto CMA, but form their own CMAs near the GTA. All the aforementioned places are part of the Greater Golden Horseshoe metropolitan region, an urban agglomeration, the fourth most populous in North America; when the Hamilton and Toronto CMAs are agglomerated with Brock and Scugog, they have a population of 6,170,072. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, containing an estimated 59 million people in 2011; the term "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" refers to the GTA, the City of Hamilton. The term has been adopted by several organizations for the purposes of regional planning; the GTHA and the Regional Municipality of Niagara form the inner ring of the larger Greater Golden Horseshoe region. The Greater Toronto Area was home to a number of First Nations groups who lived on the shore of Lake Ontario long before the first Europeans arrived in the region. At various times the Neutral, Seneca and Huron nations were living in the vicinity.
The Mississaugas arrived in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, driving out the occupying Iroquois. While it is unclear as to, the first European to reach the Toronto area, there is no question it occurred in the 17th century; the area would become crucial for its series of trails and water routes that led from northern and western Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the "Toronto Passage", it followed the Humber River, as an important overland shortcut between Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe and the upper Great Lakes. For this reason area became a hot spot for French fur traders; the French would establish two trading forts, Magasin Royal in the 1720s, although abandoned within the decade and Fort Rouillé in the 1750s, which would be burnt down and abandoned in 1759 by the French garrison, who were retreating from invading British forces. The first large influx of European settlers to settle the region were the United Empire Loyalists arriving after the American Revolution, when various individuals petitioned the Crown for land in and around the Toronto area.
In 1787, the British negotiated the purchase of more than a quarter million acres of land in the area of Toronto with the Mississaugas of New Credit. York County, would be created by Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, which would at its largest size, comprise all of what is now Halton Region, Peel Region, York Region and parts of Durham Region; the Town of York would be attacked by American forces in the War of 1812 in what is now known as the Battle of York, in 1813. In 1816, Wentworth County and Halton County were created from York County. York County would serve as the setting for the beginnings of the Upper Canada Rebellion with William Lyon Mackenzie's armed march from Holland Landing towards York Township on Yonge Street leading up to the battle at Montgomery's Tavern. In 1851, Ontario County and Peel County were separated from York; the idea towards a streamlined local government to control local infrastructure was made as early as 1907 by member of federal Parliament, founder of the Toronto Globe, William Findlay Maclean, who called for the expansion of the government of the former City of Toronto in order to c
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. Based on 2015 statistics, it is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper on overall weekly circulation; the Toronto Star is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Torstar Corporation and part of Torstar's Daily News Brands division. The Star was created in 1892 by striking Toronto News printers and writers, led by future Mayor of Toronto and social reformer Horatio Clarence Hocken, who became the newspaper's founder, along with another future mayor, Jimmy Simpson; the Star was first printed on Toronto World presses, at its formation, The World owned a 51% interest in it as a silent partner. That arrangement only lasted for two months, during which time it was rumoured that William Findlay "Billy" Maclean, the World's proprietor, was considering selling the Star to the Riordon family. After an extensive fundraising campaign among the Star staff, Maclean agreed to sell his interest to Hocken; the paper did poorly in its first few years.
Hocken sold out within the year, several owners followed in succession until railway entrepreneur Sir William Mackenzie bought it in 1896. Its new editors, Edmund E. Sheppard and Frederic Thomas Nicholls, moved the entire Star operation into the same building used by the magazine Saturday Night; this would continue until Joseph E. "Holy Joe" Atkinson, backed by funds raised by supporters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, bought the paper. The supporters included William Mulock, Peter Charles Larkin and Timothy Eaton. Atkinson was the Star's editor from 1899 until his death in 1948; the newspaper's early opposition and criticism of the Nazi regime saw it become one of the first North American papers to be banned in Germany. Atkinson had a social conscience, he championed many causes that would come to be associated with the modern welfare state: old age pensions, unemployment insurance, health care. The Government of Canada Digital Collections website describes Atkinson asa "radical" in the best sense of that term....
The Star was unique among North American newspapers in its consistent, ongoing advocacy of the interests of ordinary people. The friendship of Atkinson, the publisher, with Mackenzie King, the prime minister, was a major influence on the development of Canadian social policy. Atkinson became the controlling shareholder of the Star; the Star was criticized for practising the yellow journalism of its era. For decades, the paper included heavy doses of crime and sensationalism, along with advocating social change. From 1910 to 1973, the Star published the Star Weekly. Shortly before his death in 1948, Joseph E. Atkinson transferred ownership of the paper to a charitable organization given the mandate of continuing the paper's liberal tradition. In 1949, the Province of Ontario passed the Charitable Gifts Act, barring charitable organizations from owning large parts of profit-making businesses, that required the Star to be sold. Atkinson's will had directed that profits from the paper's operations were "for the promotion and maintenance of social and economic reforms which are charitable in nature, for the benefit of the people of the province of Ontario" and it stipulated that the paper could be sold only to people who shared his social views.
The five trustees of the charitable organization circumvented the Act by buying the paper themselves and swearing before the Supreme Court of Ontario to continue what became known as the "Atkinson Principles": A strong and independent Canada Social justice Individual and civil liberties Community and civic engagement The rights of working people The necessary role of governmentDescendants of the original owners, known as "the five families", still control the voting shares of Torstar, the Atkinson Principles continue to guide the paper to this day. In February 2006, Star media columnist Antonia Zerbisias wrote on her blog: Besides, we are the Star which means we all have the Atkinson Principles—and its multi-culti values—tattooed on our butts. Fine with me. At least we are upfront about our values, they always work in favour of building a better Canada. From 1922 to 1933, the Star was a radio broadcaster on its station CFCA, broadcasting on a wavelength of 400 metres, whose coverage was complementary to the paper's reporting.
The station was closed following the establishment of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission and the introduction of a government policy that, in essence, restricted private stations to an effective radiated power of 100 watts. The Star would continue to supply sponsored content to the CRBC's CRCT station, an arrangement that lasted until 1946. In 1971, the newspaper was renamed The Toronto Star and moved to a modern office tower at One Yonge Street by Queens Quay; the original Star Building at 80 King Street West was demolished to make room for First Canadian Place. The new building housed the paper's presses. In 1992, the printing plant was moved to the Toronto Star Press Centre at the Highway 407 & 400 interchange in Vaughan. In September 2002, the logo was changed, "The" was dropped from the papers. During the 2003 Northeast blackout, the Star printed the paper at a press in Ontario; until the mid-2000s, the front page of the Toronto Star had no advertising aside from lottery jackpot estimates from the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation.
On May 28, 2007, the Star unveiled a redesigned paper that features larger type, narrower pages and shorter articles, renamed
Joe Pantalone is a Canadian politician, former city councillor for Ward 19, one of two wards in Trinity—Spadina. He served as deputy mayor under David Miller from 2003 to 2010, he lost to Rob Ford. Born in the town of Racalmuto, Italy to a sharecropping father, Joe Pantalone is the second oldest of 7 children. Pantalone, often referred to as "Joey Pants", immigrated to Canada with his family at age thirteen, his father was a "pick and shovel" man who earned his living building the Toronto subway system, his mother was a seamstress. He attended Harbord Collegiate Institute, he obtained a degree in geography from the University of Toronto. Before entering politics, Pantalone was active as a community legal worker for the unemployed and a vocational counsellor. Entering politics, Pantalone lost four bids for a municipal seat before winning in the 1980 municipal election. In the 1987 provincial election, he ran as an Ontario New Democratic Party candidate in the riding of Fort York, he lost a close race to Liberal candidate Bob Wong by only 137 votes.
In 1985, Pantalone was successful in his bid to be elected to the Metropolitan Toronto council. He ran for the chair of Metro Council in 1991 and 1994. On council, his most prominent role was as chairman of Exhibition Place and he is credited with bringing the facility, in deficit in 1999 to the point of fiscal stability, as it is today; the 1997 amalgamation election, so-called because of the forced amalgamation of all the municipalities that made up Metropolitan Toronto, saw Pantalone returned to Toronto City Council as the Councillor for Ward 20—Trinity Niagara, under the same boundaries as his previous Metro seat, during Mel Lastman's term as Mayor of Toronto. During his career, Pantalone served on numerous committees for Toronto City Council, he served as the Chair of the Planning and Transportation Committee under Mel Lastman, was a commissioner for the Toronto Transit Commission. At that time Mel Lastman appointed him as "Tree Advocate", a title he gave up in 2006, he has chaired various committees including Urban Environment and Development, Metro Drug Abuse Prevention Task Force, National Trade Centre Building Committee.
He was the founder of the Toronto Parks and Trees Foundation. With the election of David Miller as mayor in the 2003 election, Pantalone was appointed as one of three deputy mayors, he retained this position alone after the 2006 election, while Mike Feldman was dropped and Sandra Bussin became speaker of city council. As of 2010, Pantalone held positions such as the Chair of Exhibition Place, while Mayor Miller appointed Pantalone to be Director of Toronto Hydro and the Vice-Chair of the Executive Committee, he is a member of 11 community based Business Improvement Associations in the City of Toronto. In 2006, Pantalone spent $248,817 in salary and benefits for his support staff, the second highest on council after Howard Moscoe, he argued that he had executive assistants and both were senior and so were paid more. In an interview, he stated "Historically, people have wanted to stay with me... and I think the city got good value out of them. I like to be No. 1 in giving to the city, so sometimes it No. 1 in expenses, too".
Pantalone was a candidate for Mayor of Toronto in the 2010 municipal election. In his campaign, Pantalone highlighted his 29 years of experience in municipal politics compared to other candidates, saying, "People are looking around at the outsiders and think their experience does not match mine". "I consider myself the heir of Mel Lastman and Alan Tonks. In our society you build on the past," he said. " I am quite different than David Miller."Pantalone announced his bid in 2009 after incumbent David Miller decided not to run. After Adam Giambrone exited the race when a sex scandal undermined his campaign, this left Pantalone as the only major contender to represent the left against Rob Ford and George Smitherman. Pantalone was endorsed by many left-wing politicians such as Jack Layton, the leader of Federal New Democratic Party, Stephen Lewis and Ed Broadbent. On October 6, 2010 outgoing Toronto mayor David Miller announced that he would be supporting Pantalone Pantalone's campaign emphasized continuance of the existing plans of the current administration, with particular focus on large scale transit expansion in the form of the Transit City initiative negotiated with the provincial Ontario government by the Miller administration.
As well, Pantalone promised a number of small adjustments to the City of Toronto tax structures, such as reducing property tax for condominium owners which he justified because he said they use less city services and "It’s only fair that their taxes be commensurate", freezing property taxes for retirees earning less than $50,000 a year and eliminating an unpopular vehicle registration tax that he supported as a councillor and Deputy Mayor for David Miller. On his promise to freeze property taxes for seniors, Pantalone expressed the opinion that the loss of this revenue could be made up elsewhere, saying: "If you distribute that across the whole tax base, people won’t know that it has happened", he promised to build a world standard professional cricket pitch modeled on the BMO Field which he helped bring to the CNE fair grounds. Pantalone claimed that he was "no clone of David Miller", nonetheless his platform continued the status quo with Miller's policies. Pantalone said that Toronto is a "garden", that Ford and Smitherman would endanger it.
Pantalone stated "I
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m